Presidential directive

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National Security Decision Directive 114, signed by Ronald Reagan

Presidential Directives, better known as Presidential Decision Directives (or PDDs) are a form of an executive order issued by the President of the United States with the advice and consent of the National Security Council. The directives articulate the executive's national security policy and carry the "full force and effect of law".[1][2][3]

Since many of the Presidential Directives pertain to the national security of the United States, many remain classified.

Names for Presidential Directives by Administration[2][edit]

Presidents have issued such directives under various names.

Acronym Full Title Time Frame Presidential Administration(s)
NSCID National Security Council Intelligence Directives 1947–1977 TrumanFord
NSAM National Security Action Memorandums 1961–1969 Kennedy and Johnson
NSSM National Security Study Memorandums 1969–1977 Nixon and Ford
NSDM National Security Decision Memorandums 1969–1977 Nixon and Ford
PRM Presidential Review Memorandums 1977–1981 Carter
PD Presidential Directives 1977–1981 Carter
NSSD National Security Study Directives 1981–1989 Reagan
NSDD National Security Decision Directives 1981–1989 Reagan
NSR National Security Reviews 1989–1993 G. H. W. Bush
NSD National Security Directives 1989–1993 G. H. W. Bush
PRD Presidential Review Directive 1993–2001 Clinton
PDD Presidential Decision Directives 1993–2001 Clinton
NSPD National Security Presidential Directives 2001–2009 G. W. Bush
HSPD Homeland Security Presidential Directives 2001– G. W. Bush and Obama
PSD Presidential Study Directives 2009– Obama
PPD Presidential Policy Directives 2009– Obama

List of National Security Decision Directives (Reagan Era)[4][edit]

Number Document Title Date
NSDD 1 National Security Council Directives 25-Feb-81
NSDD 2 National Security Council Structure 12-Jan-82
NSDD 3 Crisis Management 14-Dec-81
NSDD 4 Disposition of Presidential Directives 12-Jan-82
NSDD 5 Conventional Arms Transfer Policy 8-Jul-81
NSDD 6 United States Non-proliferation And Peaceful Nuclear Cooperation Policy 16-Jul-81
NSDD 7* [redacted] Weapons 6-Aug-81
NSDD 8 Space Transportation System 13-Nov-81
NSDD 9* Nuclear Weapons Deployment Authorization for FY 1982 and FY 1983 28-Sep-81
NSDD 10 The Future Political Status of Micronesia 21-Sep-81
NSDD 11 Munitions / Technology Transfer to The People's Republic of China 22-Sep-81
NSDD 12 Strategic Forces Modernization Program 1-Oct-81
NSDD 13* Nuclear Weapons Employment Policy 19-Oct-81
NSDD 14 Security Considerations in Egypt and Sudan 8-Oct-81
NSDD 15 Theater Nuclear Forces (Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces) 81 Nov 16
NSDD 16 Economic and Security Decisions for Libya 10-Dec-81
NSDD 17* Cuba and Central America 4-Jan-82
NSDD 18 United States Chemical and Biological Weapons Arms Control Policy 4-Jan-82
NSDD 19 Protection of Classified National Security Council and Intelligence Information 12-Jan-82
NSDD 20 United States Law of the Sea Policy 29-Jan-82
NSDD 21* Responding to Floggers in Cuba 29-Jan-82
NSDD 22 Designation of Intelligence Officials Authorized to Request FBI Collection of Foreign Intelligence 29-Jan-82
NSDD 23 US Civil Defense Policy 3-Feb-82
NSDD 24 Mission to Certain European Countries Concerning Oil and Gas Equipment Exports to USSR and Restricting Credits to Soviet Bloc Countries 9-Feb-82
NSDD 25 Preparations for the Economic and NATO Summits in June 1982 12-Feb-82
NSDD 26 US Civil Defense Policy 25-Feb-82
NSDD 27* Economic Decisions for Libya 9-Mar-82
NSDD 28 FY 1983-1987 Nuclear Weapons Stockpile 17-Mar-82
NSDD 29 The Future Political Status of Micronesia: Nuclear Claims 31-Mar-82
NSDD 30 Managing Terrorism Incidents 10-Apr-82
NSDD 31 US Policy on Mutual and Balanced Force Reductions 16-Apr-82
NSDD 32 US National Security Strategy 20-May-82
NSDD 33 US Approach to START Negotiations 14-May-82
NSDD 34 US Actions in South Atlantic Crisis 14-May-82
NSDD 35 The M-X Program 17-May-82
NSDD 36 US Approach to START Negotiations II 25-May-82
NSDD 37 Cuba and Central America 28-May-82
NSDD 37a* Cuba and Central America 28-May-82
NSDD 38 Staffing at Diplomatic Missions and Their Constituent Posts 4-Jun-82
NSDD 39 US Policy on Foreign Reprocessing and Use of Plutonium Subject to US Control 4-Jun-82
NSDD 40 The Future Political Status of Micronesia: Nuclear Claims 28-May-82
NSDD 41 December 30, 1981 Sanctions on Oil and Gas Equipment Exports to USSR 22-Jun-82
NSDD 42* National Space Policy 4-Jul-82
NSDD 43 United States Law of the Sea Policy 9-Jul-82
NSDD 44 US Approach to START Negotiations - III 10-Jul-82
NSDD 45 United States International Broadcasting 15-Jul-82
NSDD 46** Cooperation with France 27-Jul-82
NSDD 47 Emergency Mobilization Preparedness 22-Jul-82
NSDD 48 International Economic Policy 23-Jul-82
NSDD 49 Standing Consultative Commission 23-Jul-82
NSDD 50 Space Assistance and Cooperation Policy 6-Aug-82
NSDD 51 US Nuclear Testing Limitations Policy 10-Aug-82
NSDD 52 Future Political Status of Micronesia Palau 20-Aug-82
NSDD 53 US Approach to START Negotiations- IV 1-Sep-82
NSDD 54 US Policy Towards Eastern Europe 2-Sep-82
NSDD 55** Enduring National Leadership 14-Sep-82
NSDD 56 Private INF Exchange 15-Sep-82
NSDD 57 US Policy Towards Horn of Africa 17-Sep-82
NSDD 58 United States Oceans Policy and Law of the Sea 30-Sep-82
NSDD 59* Cuba and Central America 5-Oct-82
NSDD 60 Preparations for 1983 Summit 9-Oct-82
NSDD 61** Contingency Planning...Remainder of Title Classified 15-Oct-82
NSDD 62 United States-Japan Relations 25-Oct-82
NSDD 63 Basis for Negotiation of Nuclear Test Verification Measures 28-Oct-82
NSDD 64 Steps on Lebanon 28-Oct-82
NSDD 65 Establishment of National Security Council Arms Control Verification Committee 10-Nov-82
NSDD 66 East-West Relations and Poland Related Sanctions 29-Nov-82
NSDD 67* Nuclear Weapons Deployment Authorization for FY 1983 and FY 1984 18-Nov-82
NSDD 68* FY 1983-1988 Nuclear Weapons Stockpile 18-Nov-82
NSDD 69 The MX Program 22-Nov-82
NSDD 70 Nuclear Capable Missile Technology Transfer Policy 30-Nov-82
NSDD 71 US Policy Toward Latin America in Wake of Falklands Crisis 30-Nov-82
NSDD 72 US Program for the Exercise of Navigation and Overflight Rights at Sea 13-Dec-82
NSDD 73 The Peacekeeper Program Assessment 3-Jan-83
NSDD 74 Visit to the US of Prime Minister Nakasone 17-Jan-83
NSDD 75 US Relations with the USSR 17-Jan-83
NSDD 76 Peaceful Nuclear Cooperation with China 18-Jan-83
NSDD 77 Management of Public Diplomacy Relative to National Security 14-Jan-83
NSDD 78 US Approach to START Negotiations- V 1-Feb-83
NSDD 79 US Chemical Weapons Arms Control Policy 1-Feb-83
NSDD 80 Shuttle Orbiter Production Capability 3-Feb-83
NSDD 81 Negotiation of Improved Nuclear Test Verification Measures 7-Feb-83
NSDD 82* US Policy Initiatives to Improve Prospects for Victory in El Salvador 24-Feb-83
NSDD 83 US Oceans Policy, Law of the Sea and Exclusive Economic Zone 10-Mar-83
NSDD 84 Safeguarding National Security Information 11-Mar-83
NSDD 85 Eliminating the Threat from Ballistic Missiles 25-Mar-83
NSDD 86 US Approach to INF Negotiations 28-Mar-83
NSDD 87 Comprehensive US Energy Security Policy 30-Mar-83
NSDD 88 Base Negotiations Policy 30-Mar-83
NSDD 89 Export Administration Act 11-Apr-83
NSDD 90 US Arctic Policy 14-Apr-83
NSDD 91 Strategic Forces Modernization Program Changes 19-Apr-83
NSDD 91a** Special Access Annex to NSDD 91 13-Dec-83
NSDD 92 Accelerating the Withdrawal of Foreign Forces from Lebanon 27-Apr-83
NSDD 93 Refugee Policy and Processing Refugees from Indochina 13-May-83
NSDD 94 Commercialization of Expendable Launch Vehicles 16-May-83
NSDD 95 Crisis Information and Management System 18-May-83
NSDD 96 US Approach to International Debt Problem 9-Jun-83
NSDD 97 National Security Telecommunications Policy 13-Jun-83
NSDD 98 US Approach to START Negotiations- VI 14-Jun-83
NSDD 99 US Security Strategy for near East and South Asia 12-Jul-83
NSDD 100 Enhanced US Military Activity and Assistance in Central America Region 28-Jul-83
NSDD 101 US Strategy Towards Liberia 2-Sep-83
NSDD 102 US Response to Soviet Destruction of KAL Airliner 5-Sep-83
NSDD 103 Strategy for Lebanon 10-Sep-83
NSDD 104 US Approach to INF Negotiations-II 21-Sep-83
NSDD 105* Eastern Caribbean Regional Security Policy 4-Oct-83
NSDD 106 US Approach to START Negotiations- VII 4-Oct-83
NSDD 107 Foreign Aircraft Overflight Security Program 5-Oct-83
NSDD 108* Soviet Camouflage, Concealment and Deception 12-Oct-83
NSDD 109* Responding to the Lebanon Crisis 23-Oct-83
NSDD 110* Grenada—contingency Planning 21-Oct-83
NSDD 110a* Response to Caribbean Govts Request to Restore Democracy in Grenada 23-Oct-83
NSDD 111* Steps Toward Progress in Lebanon and Middle East 28-Oct-83
NSDD 112 Processing and Disposition of Documents Acquired by US Forces in Grenada 15-Nov-83
NSDD 113 Security of Communications Systems Used by Key Govt Officials 17-Nov-83
NSDD 114 US Policy Toward Iran - Iraq War 26-Nov-83
NSDD 115 Visit of Prime Minister Shamir 26-Nov-83
NSDD 116 Strategic Defensive Initiative: Congressional and Allied Consultation 2-Dec-83
NSDD 117 Lebanon 5-Dec-83
NSDD 118 Preparations for the 1984 Economic Summit 5-Dec-83
NSDD 119 Strategic Defense Initiative 6-Jan-84
NSDD 120 Visit to the US of Premier Zhao Ziyang 9-Jan-84
NSDD 121 Soviet Noncompliance with Arms Control Agreements 14-Jan-84
NSDD 122 Mutual and Balanced Force Reductions 18-Jan-84
NSDD 123* Steps in Lebanon 1-Feb-84
NSDD 124* Central America: Promoting Democracy, Economic Improvement and Peace 7-Feb-84
NSDD 125* FY 1984-1989 Nuclear Weapons Stockpile 16-Feb-84
NSDD 126 Mutual and Balanced Force Reductions—mbfr 20-Feb-84
NSDD 127 Nuclear Weapons Master Plan - Phase III 23-Feb-84
NSDD 128* Lebanon 26-Feb-84
NSDD 129** Nuclear Weapons Deployment Authorization for FY 1984 and 1985 28-Feb-84
NSDD 130 UN International Information Policy 6-Mar-84
NSDD 131 US Goals and Objectives for the 1984 Economic Summit 12-Mar-84
NSDD 132 Disposition of Presidential Directives 13-Mar-84
NSDD 133 US Policy Toward Yugoslavia 14-Mar-84
NSDD 134 US International Energy Policy Goals and Objectives 27-Mar-84
NSDD 135* Los Angeles Olympic Games Counterintelligence and Security Precautions 27-Mar-84
NSDD 136 US Initiative to Ban Chemical Weapons 2-Apr-84
NSDD 137 US Nuclear Arms Control Strategy for 1984 31-Mar-84
NSDD 138 Combatting Terrorism 33 Apr 84
NSDD 139 Measures to Improve US Posture and Readiness to Respond to Developments in Iran-Iraq War 5-Apr-84
NSDD 140 President's Visit to People's Republic of China 21-Apr-84
NSDD 141 Responding to Escalation in the Iran-Iraq War 25-May-84
NSDD 142 Arms Limitation Talks, September 1984 5-Jul-84
NSDD 143 US Third World Hunger Relief: Emergency Assistance 9-Jul-84
NSDD 144** National Space Strategy 16-Aug-84
NSDD 145 National Policy on Telecommunications and Automated Information Systems Security 17-Sep-84
NSDD 146 The FY 1985 Grenadier Nuclear Test Program 28-Sep-84
NSDD 147 US Policy Toward India and Pakistan 11-Oct-84
NSDD 148 The US Umbrella Talks Proposal 26-Oct-84
NSDD 149** Support to Govt of Lebanon in Planning for Counter Terrorism Operations 1-Nov-84
NSDD 150 The Annual Rpt on Nuclear Weapons Surety 28-Nov-84
NSDD 151 Preparatory Process for Visit of Prime Minister Nakasone and US-Japan Follow-up Effort 10-Dec-84
NSDD 152 Preparations for 1985 Economic Summit 20-Dec-84
NSDD 153 Instructions for the Shultz-Gromyko Meeting in Geneva 1-Jan-85
NSDD 154 US-Japan Trade Policy Relations 3-Jan-85
NSDD 155 US - Soviet Economic and Commercial Relations 4-Jan-85
NSDD 156 US Third World Food Aid: a "Food for Progress" Program 3-Jan-85
NSDD 157** Nuclear Weapons Deployment Authorization for FY 1985 and FY 1986 9-Jan-85
NSDD 158 US Policy in Southeast Asia (The Kampuchea Problem) 9-Jan-85
NSDD 159 Covert Action Policy Approval and Coordination Procedures 18-Jan-85
NSDD 160 Preparing for Negotiations with Soviet Union 24-Jan-85
NSDD 161* Soviet Noncompliance with Arms Control Agreements 6-Feb-85
NSDD 162* FY 1985-1990 Nuclear Weapons Stockpile 11-Feb-85
NSDD 163 US Policy Towards the Philippines 20-Feb-85
NSDD 164 National Security Launch Strategy 25-Feb-85
NSDD 165 Instructions for First Round of US/Soviet Negotiations in Geneva 8-Mar-85
NSDD 166 US Policy, Programs, and Strategy in Afghanistan 27-Mar-85
NSDD 167 Food for Progress Program Implementation 29-Apr-85
NSDD 168* US Policy Toward North Africa 30-Apr-85
NSDD 169** US - USSR Joint Commercial Commission Meetings 17-May-85
NSDD 170* Radio Marti 18-May-85
NSDD 171** Classified Title
NSDD 172 Presenting the Strategic Defense Initiative 30-May-85
NSDD 173 Building an Interim Framework for Mutual Assistance 10-Jun-85
NSDD 174 US National Defense Stockpile Goals, Mobilization Planning Factors and Implementation Measures 10-Jun-85
NSDD 175 Establishment of a Blue Ribbon Commission on Defense Management 17-Jun-85
NSDD 176* Combatting Terrorism in Central America 9-Jul-85
NSDD 177** Classified Title
NSDD 178 Strategic Forces Modernization 10-Jul-85
NSDD 179 Task Force on Combatting Terrorism 17-Jul-85
NSDD 180 Civil Aviation Anti-terrorism Program 22-Jul-85
NSDD 181 Shuttle Pricing for Foreign and Commercial Users 30-Jul-85
NSDD 182** Classified Title
NSDD 183 Meeting with Soviet Leader in Geneva 8-Aug-85
NSDD 184** Classified Title
NSDD 185 Private Sector Cooperation in Pacific Basin 4-Sep-85
NSDD 186 Installation and Operation of Direct Communications Link (DCL)/ Hotline Btw Washington And Moscow 4-Sep-85
NSDD 187 US Policy Toward South Africa 7-Sep-85
NSDD 188 Government Coordination for National Security Emergency Preparedness 16-Sep-85
NSDD 189 National Policy on Transfer of Scientific, Technical and Engineering Information 21-Sep-85
NSDD 190 The FY 1986 Charioteer Nuclear Test Program 30-Sep-85
NSDD 191** Changes in Authorized Nuclear Deployments 7-Oct-85
NSDD 192 The ABM Treaty and the SDI Program 11-Oct-85
NSDD 193 US Policy on New Zealand Port Access Issue 21-Oct-85
NSDD 194 Meeting with Soviet Leader in Geneva: Themes and Perceptions 25-Oct-85
NSDD 195 The US Position: Nuclear and Space Talks 30-Oct-85
NSDD 196* Counterintelligence/Countermeasure Implementation Task Force 1-Nov-85
NSDD 197 Reporting Hostile Contacts and Security Awareness 1-Nov-85
NSDD 198 Preparations for 1986 Economic Summit 7-Nov-85
NSDD 199 Review by PFIAB of Implications of Yurchenko Defection and Related Espionage Cases 12-Nov-85
NSDD 200 US Port Security 4-Dec-85
NSDD 201 National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) Telecommunications Funding 17-Dec-85
NSDD 202* Soviet Noncompliance with Arms Control Agreements 27-Dec-85
NSDD 203 Nuclear Testing Limitations: Responding to Soviet Proposal of December 5 24-Dec-85
NSDD 204* Transfer of National Intelligence Collection Tasking Authority 27-Dec-85
NSDD 205 Acting Against Libyan Support of International Terrorism 8-Jan-86
NSDD 205a* NSDD 205 Annex- Acting Against Libyan Support of International Terrorism 8-Jan-86
NSDD 206 Instructions for Fourth Round of US/USSR Negotiations in Geneva 13-Jan-86
NSDD 207 The National Program for Combatting Terrorism 20-Jan-86
NSDD 208* US Policy Toward the Southwest Indian Ocean 30-Jan-86
NSDD 209 Implementing Decisions of Geneva Summit 4-Feb-86
NSDD 210 Allied Consultations on US Response to General Secretary Gorbachev's Jan 14, 1986, Arms Control Proposal 4-Feb-86
NSDD 211* Diplomatic Telecommunications Service (DTS) 10-Feb-86
NSDD 212 US Policy Towards Angola 10-Feb-86
NSDD 213 US Policy Towards Malta 11-Feb-86
NSDD 214 US Response to Gorbachev's January Arms Control Proposals 21-Feb-86
NSDD 215 Philippines 23-Feb-86
NSDD 216* FY 1986-1991 Nuclear Weapons Stockpile 4-Mar-86
NSDD 217** Classified Title
NSDD 218** Operations in Gulf of Sidra 15-Mar-86
NSDD 219 Implementation of Recommendations of President's Commission on Defense Management 1-Apr-86
NSDD 220* Haiti 2-Apr-86
NSDD 221 Narcotics and National Security 8-Apr-86
NSDD 222 Consultations on US Interim Restraint Policy 21-Apr-86
NSDD 223 Implementing the Geneva Exchanges Initiative 22-Apr-86
NSDD 224** Counter-terrorist Operations Against Libya 12-Apr-86
NSDD 225 Central America: US Policy on Search for a Negotiated Solution 20-May-86
NSDD 226 Machine Tools and National Security 21-May-86
NSDD 227 US Interim Restraint Policy 23-May-86
NSDD 228** Nuclear Weapons Deployment Authorization for FY 1986 and FY 1987 27-May-86
NSDD 229 US/Australian Relations: Policy for Official Working Visit to US of Australian Prime Minister Bob Hawke, April 17, 1986 28-May-86
NSDD 230 Annual Report on Nuclear Weapons Surety 8-Jul-86
NSDD 231** Crisis Management Policies and Procedures 14-Jul-86
NSDD 232 Preparations for next NST Negotiating Round 16-Aug-86
NSDD 233 Consultations on a Response to General Secretary Gorbachev 31-Jul-86
NSDD 234* Libya Policy 16-Aug-86
NSDD 235 Strengthening US Policy Towards Cuba 18-Aug-86
NSDD 236 Interim Restraint Policy 25-Aug-86
NSDD 237** Director, Presidential Contingency Programs 2-Sep-86
NSDD 238* Basic National Security Strategy 2-Sep-86
NSDD 239** Supplemental Nuclear Weapons Deployment Authorization for FY 1986 6-Sep-86
NSDD 240 Instructions for NST Round VI 18-Sep-86
NSDD 241 Preparations for 1987 Economic Summit 26-Sep-86
NSDD 242 The FY 1987 Musketeer Nuclear Test Program 29-Sep-86
NSDD 243 Standing Consultative Commission 30-Sep-86
NSDD 244 Meetings with Soviet General Secretary Gorbachev 3-Oct-86
NSDD 245 Reagan-Gorbachev Preparatory Meeting 7-Oct-86
NSDD 246 The Political Status of Micronesia 8-Oct-86
NSDD 247 Ratification of Existing Treaties Limiting Nuclear Testing 10-Oct-86
NSDD 248* Central America 22-Oct-86
NSDD 249 Additional Instructions for Current NST Negotiating Round 29-Oct-86
NSDD 250 Post Reykjavik Follow-up 3-Nov-86
NSDD 251 Arms Control Discussions 24-Dec-86
NSDD 252* ICBM Modernization 24-Dec-86
NSDD 253** Suriname 24-Dec-86
NSDD 254 US Space Launch Strategy 27-Dec-86
NSDD 255* Nuclear Weapons Stockpile 9-Jan-87
NSDD 256 Instructions for the Seventh NST Negotiating Round 14-Jan-87
NSDD 257* Guidance to US Delegation for Negotiations with Western Europe, Japan and Canada on Space Station 3-Feb-87
NSDD 258* Anti-satellite (ASAT) Program 6-Feb-87
NSDD 259 US Civil Defense 6-Feb-87
NSDD 260 Soviet Noncompliance with Arms Control Agreements 17-Feb-87
NSDD 261 Consultations on the SDI Program 18-Feb-87
NSDD 262** Amendment to NSDD 159 25-Feb-87
NSDD 263 Central America 25-Feb-87
NSDD 264 Central America 27-Feb-87
NSDD 265* Freedom of Navigation Program 16-Mar-87
NSDD 266 Implementation of the Recommnedations of the President's Special Review Board 31-Mar-87
NSDD 267 Review of US Arms Reductions Negotiating Positions 9-Apr-87
NSDD 268 PFIAB Worldwide Evaluation of Procedures and Practices Which Our Foreign Missions Protect Classified Information and Facilities 14-Apr-87
NSDD 269* Nuclear Weapons Deployment Authorization for FY 1987 and 1988 23-Apr-87
NSDD 270 Afghanistan 5-Jun-87
NSDD 271 Instructions for Eighth NST Negotiating Round 7-May-87
NSDD 272 US Objectives in Southern Africa 7-May-87
NSDD 273 US Policy Toward South Africa 7-May-87
NSDD 274 US Policy Toward Angola 7-May-87
NSDD 275** Cooperation with France 5-Jun-87
NSDD 276 National Scurity Council Interagency Process 9-Jun-87
NSDD 277* National Policy and Strategy for Low Intensity Conflict 15-Jun-87
NSDD 278 Establishing a US Negotiating Position on SRINF Missiles 13-Jun-87
NSDD 279 The Annual Report on Nuclear Weapons Surety 16-Jun-87
NSDD 280 National Airlift Policy 24-Jun-87
NSDD 281* Nuclear Weapons Command and Control 28-Aug-87
NSDD 282 Continuing Authority to Deliver Nuclear Materials and to Acquire Utilization Facilities 30-Sep-87
NSDD 283 The FY 1988 Touchstone Nuclear Test Program 7-Oct-87
NSDD 284 US Military Capabilities in Support of NATO 15-Oct-87
NSDD 285** Central America 15-Oct-87
NSDD 286* Approval and Review of Special Activities 15-Oct-87
NSDD 287 Organizing for Summit with General Secretary Gorbachev 10-Nov-87
NSDD 288 My Objectives at the Summit 10-Nov-87
NSDD 289 US Policy Toward Malta 25-Nov-87
NSDD 290 Instructions for Arms Reductions Discussions at Washington Summit (Dec 8-10, 1987) 7-Dec-87
NSDD 291 US Policy Toward Mexico 16-Dec-87
NSDD 292 Organizing for the INF Ratification Effort 29-Dec-87
NSDD 293** National Space Policy 5-Jan-88
NSDD 294** Central America - Transfer of FY 1988 Funds for Nicaraguan Resistance to CIA 6-Jan-88
NSDD 295 Instructions for Ninth NST Negotiating Round 14-Jan-88
NSDD 296** Organizing to Manage on Site Inspection under INF Treaty 15-Jan-88
NSDD 297 Preparations for the 1988 Economic Summit 20-Jan-88
NSDD 298 National Operations Security Program 22-Jan-88
NSDD 299 Restoring Normal Immigration Procedures for Cuban Nationals 26-Jan-88
NSDD 300 US Policy Toward Mexico 11-Feb-88
NSDD 301* Establishment and Operation of US Nuclear Risk Reduction Center 22-Feb-88
NSDD 302* US Policy on Special Nuclear Material 14-Apr-88
NSDD 303** Nuclear Weapons Deployment Authorization for FY 1988 and FY 1989 15-Apr-88
NSDD 304 Organizing for the Moscow Summit 19-Apr-88
NSDD 305 Objectives at the Moscow Summit 26-Apr-88
NSDD 306* National Coordination of Emergency Relocation Sites 23-May-88
NSDD 307 Review of US Arms Reduction Positions in Preparation for the Moscow Summit 27-May-88
NSDD 308* FY 1988- 1989 Nuclear Weapons Stockpile 13-Jun-88
NSDD 309 Nuclear Weapons Safety, Security and Control 27-Jun-88
NSDD 310 Instructions for Tenth Nst Negotiating Round 18-Jul-88
NSDD 311 US-Soviet Defense and Military Relations 28-Jul-88
NSDD 312** Instructions for the Third Five-year Review of the 1972 Anti-ballistic (ABM) Treaty 8-Aug-88
NSDD 313** ABM Treaty Review - US Delegation Instructions 15-Aug-88
NSDD 314* National Security Information and Situation Management System—NSI and SMS 8-Sep-88
NSDD 315 Strengthening US Efforts to Limit Global Missile Proliferation 22-Sep-88
NSDD 316 FY 1989 Cornerstone Nuclear Test Program 11-Oct-88
NSDD 317* Amendment to Nuclear Weapons Deployment Authorization for FY 1988 and FY 1989 20-Oct-88
NSDD 318** Nuclear and Space Talks Additional Elements of the US Position 24-Oct-88
NSDD 319 US Policy Toward Indochina 14-Nov-88
NSDD 320* National Policy on Strategic Trade Controls 20-Nov-88
NSDD 321* Disposition of National Security Decision Directives 2-Dec-88
NSDD 322 US Interests and Policy in Chad 14-Dec-88
NSDD 323* Disposition of Pre-reagan Policy Papers 9-Jan-89
NSDD 324 Special Verification Commission 19-Jan-89
NSDD 325* FY 1989-1994 Nuclear Weapons Stockpile Plan 19-Jan-89

*the document has been declassified and released in part

**the document has not been reviewed for release or release has been denied in full

A 1986 National Security Decision Directive gave the State Department authority and responsibility to coordinate responses to international terrorism across government agencies including the CIA, DoD, and FBI. This was intended to reduce interagency conflicts which were observed in the response to the hijacking of the Achille Lauro cruise ship.[5] The State Department's Bureau of Counterterrorism continues this coordinating function.

List of Homeland Security Presidential Directives[edit]

After September 11, 2001, George W. Bush issued Homeland Security Presidential Directives (HSPDs), with the consent of the Homeland Security Council.

  • The first such directive created the Homeland Security Council.
  • The second changed immigration policies to combat terrorism.
  • HSPD 5 directed the Secretary of Homeland Security to develop and run nationally coordinated emergency incident management systems.
  • HSPD-7 defines policy for protecting certain key infrastructure; the National Infrastructure Protection Plan was developed to implement the policy.
  • HSPD-8 directed Federal agencies to prepare in certain ways for emergencies.
  • HSPD-9 established policy to protect against attacks on food and agriculture.
  • HSPD-12 assigned responsibility for setting standards for the identification to be shown by persons entering federal government buildings.[6] The technical standard FIPS 201 was developed to satisfy this requirement.
  • HSPD-13 established a Maritime Security Policy Coordinating Committee from across federal government agencies.
  • HSPD-14 established a Domestic Nuclear Detection Office to coordinate efforts to protect the domestic U.S. against dangers from nuclear or radiological materials.[7][8]
  • HSPD-20 makes definitions and procedures for continuing the federal government after a catastrophic emergency. Federal agencies developed Continuity of Operations Plans in response to this directive.
  • HSPD-21, issued October 18, 2007, called for public and private healthcare organizations, hospitals, and healthcare facilities to form "disaster healthcare" system.
  • HSPD-23 defines cybersecurity objectives. It was secret at first. The National Cybersecurity Center began in response to this directive.

Regarding the secrecy of presidential directives, Steven Aftergood of the Federation of American Scientists' Project on Government Secrecy stated in February 2008 that:

Of the 54 National Security Presidential Directives issued by the (George W.) Bush Administration to date, the titles of only about half have been publicly identified. There is descriptive material or actual text in the public domain for only about a third. In other words, there are dozens of undisclosed Presidential directives that define U.S. national security policy and task government agencies, but whose substance is unknown either to the public or, as a rule, to Congress.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Moss, R. Legal Effectiveness of a Presidential Directive as Compared to an Executive Order - Memorandum For The Counsel to the President. January 29, 2000.
  2. ^ a b Relyea, Harold C. 2008. Presidential Directives: Background and Overview. Congressional Research Service report 98-611.
  3. ^ Presidential Directives and Executive Orders, Federation of American Scientists' Intelligence Resource Program
  4. ^ Pike, John (2012-10-09). "NSDD - National Security Decision Directives Reagan Administration". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 2012-12-10. 
  5. ^ Johnson, Larry C. 2005. Terrorism: Why the Numbers Matter.
  6. ^ Homeland Security Presidential Directive 12: Policy for a Common Identification Standard for Federal Employees and Contractors. At Department of Homeland Security website.
  7. ^ Homeland Security Presidential Directive - 14 description at Center of Army Lessons Learned web site, U.S. Army Combined Arms Center
  8. ^ Text of HSPD-14 (same as NSPD-43) at Federation of American Scientists website
  9. ^ Aftergood, Steven (2008-02-07). "The next president should open up the Bush Administration's record". Neiman Watchdog; Nieman Foundation for Journalism at Harvard. Retrieved 2008-02-12. 

External links[edit]