Preston (UK Parliament constituency)

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Preston
Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
Outline map
Boundary of Preston in Lancashire.
Outline map
Location of Lancashire within England.
County Lancashire
Electorate 61,025 (December 2010)[1]
Major settlements Preston
Current constituency
Created 1983 (1983)
Member of Parliament Mark Hendrick (Labour Co-op)
Number of members One
Created from Preston North, Preston South
1529 (1529)1950 (1950)
Number of members Two
Replaced by Preston North, Preston South
1295 (1295)–unknown (unknown)
Overlaps
European Parliament constituency North West England

Preston is a constituency[n 1] represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2000 by Mark Hendrick, a member of the Labour Party and of the Co-operative Party.[n 2]

History[edit]

1295-1950

The seat was created for the Model Parliament and sent members until at least 1331 then the lack of records until a new (possibly confirmatory) grant of two members to Westminster followed. From 1529 unusually extending beyond the 19th century until 1950 the seat had two-member representation. Party divisions have tended to run stronger since 1931 before which two different parties' candidates frequently came first and second at elections under the bloc vote system.

In 1929 recently elected Liberal, Sir William Jowitt decided to join the Labour Party and called for a by-election (which implies a single vacancy) to support this change of party which he won to take up for two years the position of Attorney General of England and Wales as part of the Government. He became the highest judge during the Attlee Ministry, the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain and Speaker of the House of Lords under a then hereditary-dominated House leading to a Conservative majority. Consequently he was selected to be elevated to a peerage as 1st Earl Jowitt. With no sons was to be the last Earl and wrote a Dictionary of English Law.

1983-date

The representatives since the seat's revival after 33 years of being split between (larger area) North and South seats have all been members of the Labour Party.

The member from 1987-2000 was Audrey Wise, a member of the Socialist Campaign Group and reformer of maternity healthcare in opposition on the Select Committee.

Boundaries[edit]

The composition of the Preston constituency was confirmed in time for the United Kingdom general election, 2010 as part of the Fifth Periodic Review of Westminster constituencies.

For the 2010 general election, the electoral wards used to create the constituency of Preston were:

While the seat previously crossed the River Ribble to include Bamber Bridge and Walton-le-Dale from South Ribble District, the seat now falls within the City boundaries.

History[edit]

In the late 19th Century the boundaries of the two-member Preston constituency were described as comprising:[2]

...[T]he old Borough of Preston, the township of Fishwick, so much of the Municipal Borough as is not included in the Parliamentary Borough, the Local Government District of Fulwood, and so much of the parishes of Lea, Ashton, Ingol, and Cotham {sic}, and Penwortham, as will be added to the Municipal Borough of Preston on June 1st, 1889

In the Representation of the People Act, 1918 the boundaries of the two-member constituency were described as the:

County borough of Preston and urban district of Fulwood:[3]

The single seat of Preston formed from 1918 until 1949 was created by the County Borough of Preston and Urban District of Fulwood. From the general election of 1950 to the 1983 Preston was divided into the constituencies of Preston North and Preston South. In time for the 1983 general election, the boundaries on which the current seat is drawn were confirmed. The northern, Fulwood area, was divided between Fylde and Ribble Valley.

The electoral wards used in the composition of the seat in 1983 were[4] Ashton, Avenham, Brookfield, Central, Deepdale, Fishwick, Ingol, Larches, Moorbrook, Park, Ribbleton, St John's, St Matthew's and Tulketh.

Changes for 2010[edit]

The ward of Lea is within the constituency of Fylde.

The wards of Preston Rural North, Preston Rural East and the Fulwood wards (Cadley, College, Garrison, Greyfriars and Sharoe Green) are within the constituency of Wyre and Preston North. By the end of the review, the newly recommended Preston constituency had the smallest number of voters of an English constituency based on 2006 electorates.[5]

Members of Parliament[edit]

MPs 1295–1640[edit]

Parliament First member Second member
1295 Willielmus fil' (filius) Pauli Adam Russel
1298 Adam fil' Radulfi Adam de Biri
1300/1 Willielmus fil' Paulini
1304/5 Robertus fil' Willelmi de Preston Hernricus fil' Willelmi del Tounhende
1306/7 Robertus fil' Rogeri Ricardus Banastre
1307 Henricus del Krykestyle Ricardus Banastre
1326/7 Laurencius Travers Willelmus de Graistok
1327 (Nov) John Stakky Henry Banastre
1328/9 (Feb) Willielmus fil' Paulini Nicholaus de Preston
1330 (Nov) William fitz Paul Henry de Haydock
1331 (Sep) Johannes fil' Galfridi Willielmus fil' Johannis
1331–1529 No returns
1529 Cristoferus Heydock James Walton[6]
1536–1545 No returns
1545 Sir Ralph Sadler John Bourne[6]
1547 George Frevil John Hales[6]
1552/3 (Mar) Anthony Browne Thomas Fleetwood[6]
1553 (Oct) William Gerard Anthony Browne[6]
1554 (Apr) Thomas Ruthall Willielmus Berners[6]
1554 (Nov) Richard Shyrburne John Sylyard[6]
1555 John Arundell John Herle[6]
1557/8 Ricardus Sherbourne Robertus Southwell[6]
1559 (Jan) Robert Aalford Francis Goldsmith, sat for Helston,
repl, by
Richard Cooke[7]
1562/3 Gilbert Moreton James Hodgkinson[7]
1571 Edward Baeshe Reginald Williams[7]
1572 James Hodgkinson George Horsey[7]
1584 (Nov) William Fleetwood Thomas Cromwell[7]
1586 John Brograve Sir Thomas Hesketh[7]
1588 (Oct) Sir Thomas Hesketh Michael Doughty[7]
1593 James Dalton Thomas Bulbeck[7]
1597 (Oct) John Brograve Sir John Stanhope[7]
1601 (Oct) John Brograve William Waad[7]
1604-1611 Sir Vincent Skinner William Holte
1614 (Sir) Edward Mosley Henry Banister
1621-1622 (Sir) Edward Mosley Sir William Pooley
1624 (Sir) Edward Mosley Sir William Pooley, sat for Sudbury,
repl. by
Sir William Hervey
1625 Sir William Hervey Henry Banister
1626 George Garrard Thomas Fanshawe
1628 Robert Carre George Garrard
1629-1640 No Parliaments summoned

MPs 1640–1950[edit]

Year First member[8] First party Second member[8] Second party
April 1640 Richard Shuttleworth Parliamentarian Thomas Standish Parliamentarian
November 1640
November 1642 Standish died November 1642 - seat vacant
1645 William Langton
December 1648 Shuttleworth excluded in Pride's Purge - seat vacant Langton not recorded as sitting after Pride's Purge
1653 Preston was unrepresented in the Barebones Parliament
1654 Colonel Richard Shuttleworth Preston had only one seat in the First and
Second Parliaments of the Protectorate
1656
January 1659 Colonel Richard Standish
May 1659 Not represented in the restored Rump
April 1660 Alexander Rigby Richard Standish
August 1660 Edward Rigby Edward Fleetwood
1661 Geoffrey Rishton
1667 John Otway
February 1679 Sir Robert Carr
April 1679 Sir John Otway
1681 Sir Robert Carr Sir Gervase Elwes
April 1685 Sir Thomas Chicheley[9] Edward Fleetwood
June 1685 Hon. Andrew Newport Tory
1689 James Stanley Thomas Patten
March 1690 Lord Willoughby de Eresby Christopher Greenfield
December 1690 Sir Edward Chisenhall
1695 Sir Thomas Stanley Thomas Molyneux
1698 Henry Ashhurst
January 1701 Edward Rigby
December 1701 Thomas Molyneux
1702 Charles Zedenno Stanley Sir Cyril Wyche
1705 Francis Annesley Edward Rigby
1706 Arthur Maynwaring
1708 Henry Fleetwood
1710 Sir Henry Hoghton
1713 Edward Southwell
1715 Sir Henry Hoghton
1722 Daniel Pulteney Thomas Hesketh
1727 Sir Henry Hoghton
1732 Nicholas Fazackerley
1741 James Shuttleworth
1754 Edmund Starkie
1767 Sir Peter Byrne Leicester
April 1768[10] Sir Frank Standish
November 1768 Brigadier John Burgoyne[11] Whig Sir Henry Hoghton Tory
1792 William Cunliffe Shawe
1795 Sir Henry Philip Hoghton Whig
1796 Lord Stanley Whig
1802 John Horrocks Tory
1804 Samuel Horrocks Tory
1812 Edmund Hornby Whig
1826 Hon. Edward Geoffrey Smith Stanley Whig John Wood Whig
December 1830 Henry Hunt Radical
1832 (Sir) Peter Hesketh-Fleetwood Conservative Hon. Henry Stanley Whig
1837 Robert Townley Parker Conservative
1841 Whig Sir George Strickland Whig
1847 Charles Pascoe Grenfell Whig
1852 Robert Townley Parker Conservative
1857 Charles Pascoe Grenfell Liberal Richard Assheton Cross Conservative
1862 Sir Thomas Hesketh[12] Conservative
1865 Hon. Frederick Stanley Conservative
1868 Edward Hermon Conservative
1872 (Sir) John Holker Conservative
1881 William Farrer Ecroyd Conservative
February 1882 Henry Cecil Raikes Conservative
November 1882 (Sir) William Tomlinson[13] Conservative
1885 Robert William Hanbury Conservative
1903 John Kerr Conservative
1906 John Thomas Macpherson Labour Harold Cox Liberal
January 1910 Major the Hon. George Stanley Conservative Alfred Aspinall Tobin Conservative
1915 Urban H. Broughton Conservative
1918 Thomas Shaw Labour
1922 James Philip Hodge Liberal
1924 Alfred Ravenscroft Kennedy Conservative
1929 Sir William Jowitt Liberal
1929 by-election Labour
1931 Adrian Charles Moreing Conservative William Kirkpatrick Conservative
1936 Edward Charles Cobb Conservative
1940 Randolph Churchill Conservative
1945 John William Sunderland Labour Samuel Segal Labour
1946 by-election Edward Shackleton Labour

MPs since 1983[edit]

Election Member[8] Party
1983 Stanley Thorne Labour
1987 Audrey Wise Labour
2000 by-election Mark Hendrick Labour Co-operative

Overview[edit]

The borough and presently city of Preston has been represented by Labour MPs since 1983. Representatives have sat in Parliament for Preston for nearly 800 years, the first recorded names being Willielmus fil’ Pauli and Adam Russel. Prior to being reformed as "Preston" in 1983, the former Preston North and Preston South seats were amongst the most marginal in the country - in 1979, Conservative Robert Atkins won Preston North by 29 votes.

With the suburban,middle class former Fulwood Urban District area within Ribble Valley (and from 2010 Wyre and Preston North), the southern portion has awarded MPs with much healthier and secure majorities. Almost all of Preston's representatives from 1915 to 1950, and since its recreation as a single constituency in 1983, have been Labour candidates.

Between 1918 and 1949, the two-seat constituency of Preston was formed by the County Borough of Preston and the Urban District of Fulwood. In 1997, Audrey Wise secured a majority of over 18,000. The collapse of the Conservative vote - 10 percentage points down from 1992 - was firmly with the pattern of the Tory fortunes in that year.

The death of Audrey Wise in 2000 triggered a by-election. At that Preston by-election, Mark Hendrick, former Member of the European Parliament (MEP) for the Lancashire Central constituency with Preston at its heart, secured a victory with a 4,400 majority. The surprise of the night was the result of the fledgling Socialist Alliance, for whom Terry Cartright saved his deposit.

Less than a year later, the 2001 general election returned Mark Hendrick with a much healthier 12,200 majority, up against South Ribble councillor Graham O'Hare for the Conservatives and the then local Liberal Democrat leader Bill Chadwick. In real terms, all three main parties lost support from 1997 - Labour down by over 8,000 votes, Conservatives reduced by over 2,200 and LibDems 2,300 lower. One notable candidate in 2001 was David Braid, also a candidate in a number of other seats that year, who had been the "Battle for Britain" candidate in the previous year's by-election.

The 2005 general election election was notable for the changes in share of the vote of the minor parties. The first ever Respect candidate, local councillor Michael Lavalette, firmly saved his deposit with nearly 7% of the vote. The Liberal Democrats had chosen former Conservative County Councillor William Parkinson, and had their best result since 1997. Fiona Bryce for the Conservatives, remained in second place seeing her share of the vote remain stable despite the United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP) polling over 1,000 votes. Mark Hendrick secured another term as MP, although his vote total was 3,000 less than 2001 and 12,000 less than Audrey Wise in 1997.

Labour continued its representation of Preston at the United Kingdom general election, 2010 with Mark Hendrick securing less than 50% of the votes cast, the first time this has occurred at a Preston election since 1983. For the first time since their formation the Liberal Democrats finished in second place, with the Conservatives in third.

Elections[edit]

Elections in the 2010s[edit]

General Election 2010: Preston[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Co-op Mark Hendrick 15,668 48.2 −2.3
Liberal Democrat Mark Jewell 7,935 24.4 +7.7
Conservative Nerissa Warner-O'Neill 7,060 21.7 +5.0
UKIP Richard Muirhead 1,462 4.5 +1.4
Christian George Ambroze 272 0.8 N/A
Independent Krishna Murty Tayya 108 0.3 N/A
Majority 7,733 23.8
Turnout 32,505 52.0 -1.8
Labour Co-op hold Swing −5.0

Elections in the 2000s[edit]

General Election 2005: Preston
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Co-op Mark Hendrick 17,210 50.5 −6.5
Conservative Miss Fiona J. Bryce 7,803 22.9 −0.1
Liberal Democrat William R. Parkinson 5,701 16.7 +3.5
Respect Michael Lavalette 2,318 6.8 N/A
UKIP Miss Ellen Boardman 1,049 3.1 N/A
Majority 9,407 27.6
Turnout 34,081 53.8 +4.6
Labour Co-op hold Swing −3.2
General Election 2001: Preston
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Co-op Mark Hendrick 20,540 57.0 −3.8
Conservative Graham O’Hare 8,272 23.0 +1.0
Liberal Democrat William David Chadwick 4,746 13.2 −1.5
Independent Bilal Moosa Patel 1,241 3.4 N/A
Green Richard John Merrick 1,019 2.8 N/A
Independent David Oswald Franklin-Braid 223 0.6 N/A
Majority 12,268 34.0
Turnout 36,041 49.2 −16.6
Labour Co-op hold Swing
Preston by-election, 2000[15]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Co-op Mark Hendrick 9,765 45.7 −15.1
Conservative Graham O'Hare 5,339 25.0 +3.1
Liberal Democrat William David Chadwick 3,454 16.2 +1.5
Socialist Alliance Terry Cartwright 1,210 5.7 N/A
UKIP Gregg R. Beaman 458 2.1 N/A
Green Richard John Merrick 441 2.1 N/A
Independent Peter A. Garrett 416 2.0 N/A
BNP Chris Michael Jackson 229 1.1 N/A
Independent David Oswald Franklin-Braid 51 0.2 N/A
Majority 4,426 20.7
Turnout 21,363 29.4
Labour Co-op hold Swing

Elections in the 1990s[edit]

General Election 1997: Preston
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Audrey Wise 29,220 60.8 +6.5
Conservative Paul S. Gray 10,540 21.9 −5.9
Liberal Democrat William David Chadwick 7,045 14.7 −2.5
Referendum Party John C. Porter 924 1.9 N/A
Natural Law John Ashforth 345 0.7 +0.0
Majority 18,680 38.9
Turnout 48,074 65.8
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1992: Preston[16]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Audrey Wise 24,983 54.3 +1.8
Conservative Simon G. O'Toole 12,808 27.8 −0.7
Liberal Democrat William David Chadwick 7,897 17.2 −1.8
Natural Law Mrs. Janet Aycliffe 341 0.7 N/A
Majority 12,175 26.5 +2.5
Turnout 46,029 71.7 +0.7
Labour hold Swing +1.3

Elections of the 1980s[edit]

General Election 1987: Preston
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Audrey Wise 23,341 52.5 +5.8
Conservative Dr. Raj T. Chandran 12,696 28.5 −3.3
Liberal John P. Wright 8,452 19.0 −2.5
Majority 10,645 24.0 +9.1
Turnout 44,489 71.0 −0.8
Labour hold Swing +4.6
General Election 1983: Preston
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Stan Thorne 21,810 46.7 N/A
Conservative Tom N. Huntley 14,832 31.8 N/A
Social Democrat Mike J. Connolly 10,039 21.5 N/A
Majority 6,978 14.9 N/A
Turnout 46,681 71.8 N/A
Labour win (new seat)

Elections in the 1940s[edit]

Preston by-election, 1946
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Wing Commander Edward Shackleton 32,189 55.6
Conservative Harmar Nicholls 25,718 44.4
Majority 6,471 11.2
Turnout 57,907
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1945: Preston (2 seats)

Electorate 88,378

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Samuel Segal 33,053 24.2
Labour John William Sunderland 32,889 24.1
Conservative Randolph Churchill 29,129 21.4
Conservative Harold Julian Amery 27,885 20.4
Liberal J.M. Toulmin 8,251 6.1
Communist P.J. Devine 5,168 3.8
Majority 3,760 2.7
Turnout 77.0
Labour hold Swing
Preston by-election September 1940
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Randolph Churchill Unopposed
Conservative hold Swing

For the general election expected to take place in 1939/1940, the following candidates had been selected; Conservative: Adrian Charles Moreing, Edward Charles Cobb. Labour: P.C. Hoffman, John William Sunderland.

Elections in the 1930s[edit]

Preston by-election, 1936
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Edward Charles Cobb 32,575 48.8
Labour Francis George Bowles 30,970 46.4
Independent Miss F. White 3,221 4.8
Majority 1,605 2.4
Turnout 63,746 79.0 −3.6
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1935: Preston (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Adrian Charles Moreing 37,219 26.9
Conservative William MacColin Kirkpatrick 36,797 26.7
Labour Robert Arthur Lyster 32,225 23.3
Labour Richard Leopold Reiss 31,827 23.1
Majority 4,572 3.4
Turnout 81.9
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1931: Preston (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative William MacColin Kirkpatrick 46,276 32.5
Conservative Adrian Charles Moreing 45,843 32.2
Labour Rt Hon Thomas Shaw CBE 25,710 18.0
Labour Edward Porter 24,660 17.3
Majority 20,133 14.2
Turnout 84.6

Elections in the 1920s[edit]

Preston by-election, 1929
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour William Jowitt 35,608 54.6
Conservative Dr. Alfred Bakewell Howitt 29,168 44.8
Independent Labour S. M. Holden 410 0.6
Majority 6,440 9.8
Turnout 65,186 79.6
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1929: Preston (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Rt Hon. Thomas Shaw 37,705 29.5
Liberal William Jowitt 31,277 24.4
Conservative Dr. Alfred Bakewell Howitt 29,116 22.8
Conservative Charles Ernest George Campbell Emmott 27,754 21.7
Independent Labour S M Holden 2,111 1.6
Majority 8,589 6.7
Turnout 78.2
General Election 1924

Electorate: 60,840

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Rt Hon. Thomas Shaw CBE 27,009
Conservative Alfred Ravenscroft Kennedy KC 25,887
Liberal Lt-Col. James Philip Hodge 25,327
Conservative G Barnes 24,577
Majority
Turnout
Labour hold Swing
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing
General Election 1923

Electorate: 59,406

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Thomas Shaw CBE 25,816
Liberal Lt-Col. James Philip Hodge 25,155
Conservative William MacColin Kirkpatrick 23,953
Majority
Turnout
Labour hold Swing
Liberal hold Swing
General Election 1922

Electorate: 57,953

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Thomas Shaw CBE 26,259
Liberal Lt-Col. James Philip Hodge 24,798
Conservative Col. Hon. George Frederick Stanley CMG 22,574
Conservative A R M Camm 20,410
Majority
Turnout
Labour hold Swing
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing

Elections in the 1910s[edit]

  • For all elections from 1906 to 1918 the Liberal and Labour parties ran only one candidate each, and these candidates ran in harness.
General Election 1918

Electorate: 57,795

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Green tickYThomas Shaw 19,213
Conservative Green tickYLt-Col. Hon. George Frederick Stanley 18,970
Liberal Lt. John Joseph O'Neill 18,485
Conservative Warwick Brookes 17,928
Majority
Turnout
Conservative hold Swing
Labour gain from Conservative Swing

For the general election expected to take place in 1914/1915, the following candidates had been selected;

General Election December 1910

Electorate: 19,521

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Green tickYHon. George Frederick Stanley 9,184 26.8
Conservative Green tickYAlfred Aspinall Tobin 8,993 26.3
Liberal Edward Hilton Young 8,193 23.9
Labour William Henry Carr 7,855 23.0
Majority 800 2.4
Turnout 88.9
Conservative hold Swing
Conservative hold Swing
General Election January 1910

Electorate: 19,521

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Green tickYHon. George Frederick Stanley 9,526 27.1
Conservative Green tickYAlfred Aspinall Tobin 9,160 26.0
Labour John Thomas Macpherson 7,539 21.4
Liberal Rt Hon. Sir John Eldon Gorst 6,281 17.8
Independent Liberal 2,704 7.7
Majority 1,621 4.6
Turnout 94.4
Conservative gain from Labour Swing
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing
  • Cox was replaced as Liberal candidate by Gorst but chose to run independently

Elections in the 1900s[edit]

Harold Cox
General Election January 1906

Electorate: 18,626

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour John Thomas Macpherson 10,181
Liberal Harold Cox 8,538
Conservative John Kerr 7,303
Conservative Sir William Edward Murray Tomlinson 6,856
Majority
Turnout
Labour gain from Conservative Swing
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing

Elections in the 1880s[edit]

General Election 1885: Preston (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative William E M Tomlinson 8,459
Conservative Robert William Hanbury 7,971
Liberal Thomas W Russell 5,491

Elections in the 1860s[edit]

General Election 1868: Preston (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Edward Hermon 5,803
Conservative Sir Thomas G Hesketh 5,700
Liberal Joseph Francis Leese 4,741
Liberal Lord E.G.F Howard 4,663

Elections in the 1850s[edit]

General Election 1852: Preston (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Robert Townley Parker 1,335
Radical Sir George Strickland 1,253
Whig Charles Pascoe Grenfell 4,741
Radical James German 692

Elections in the 1840s[edit]

General Election 1847: Preston (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Sir George Strickland 1,404
Liberal Charles P Grenfell 1,361
Conservative Robert T Parker 1,378
General Election 1841: Preston (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Sir Peter Hesketh-Fleetwood 1,655
Whig Sir George Strickland 1,629
Conservative Robert T Parker 1,270
Conservative Charles Swainson 1,255

Elections in the 1810s[edit]

General Election 1818: Preston (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Tory Samuel Horrocks 1,694
Whig Edmund Hornby 1,598
Reformer Dr. Peter Crompton 1,245
General Election 1812: Preston (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Tory Samuel Horrocks 1,379
Whig Edmund Hornby 1,368
Independent Edward Hanson 727

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ A borough constituency (for the purposes of election expenses and type of returning officer)
  2. ^ As with all constituencies, the constituency elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election at least every five years.
References
  1. ^ "Electorate Figures - Boundary Commission for England". 2011 Electorate Figures. Boundary Commission for England. 4 March 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2011. 
  2. ^ Debretts House of Commons 1886 Debretts House of Commons 1886, Page 222, "Counties, Divisions, Boroughs, etc
  3. ^ RotPA 1918 Archive.org
  4. ^ Ivor Crewe and Anthony Fox (1983). British Parliamentary Constituencies - A Statistical Compendium. faber and faber. p. 264. ISBN 0-571-13236-7. Retrieved 2014-04-09. 
  5. ^ Boundary Commission for England, fifth periodic review, p195
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i "History of Parliament". Retrieved 2011-09-25. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "History of Parliament". Retrieved 2011-09-25. 
  8. ^ a b c Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "P" (part 2)[self-published source][better source needed]
  9. ^ Chicheley was also elected for Cambridge, which he chose to represent, and never sat for Preston
  10. ^ On petition, Leicester and Standish were adjudged not to have been duly elected and their opponents, Burgoyne and Hoghton, were declared to have been duly elected in their place
  11. ^ Major-General from 1772, Lieutenant-General from 1777
  12. ^ Later adopted the surname Fermor-Hesketh
  13. ^ Created a baronet, 1902
  14. ^ Notice of Poll Preston Council
  15. ^ [1] BBC News
  16. ^ "UK General Election results April 1992". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Politics Resources. 9 April 1992. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 

Sources[edit]

  • Robert Beatson, A Chronological Register of Both Houses of Parliament (London: Longman, Hurst, Res & Orme, 1807) [2]
  • D Brunton & D H Pennington, Members of the Long Parliament (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1954)
  • Cobbett's Parliamentary history of England, from the Norman Conquest in 1066 to the year 1803 (London: Thomas Hansard, 1808) [3]
  • The Constitutional Year Book for 1913 (London: National Union of Conservative and Unionist Associations, 1913)
  • F W S Craig, British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (2nd edition, Aldershot: Parliamentary Research Services, 1989)
  • F W S Craig, British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949 (Glasgow: Political Reference Publications, 1969)
  • Maija Jansson (ed.), Proceedings in Parliament, 1614 (House of Commons) (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1988)
  • J E Neale, The Elizabethan House of Commons (London: Jonathan Cape, 1949)
  • J Holladay Philbin, Parliamentary Representation 1832 - England and Wales (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965)
  • Henry Stooks Smith, The Parliaments of England from 1715 to 1847 (2nd edition, edited by FWS Craig - Chichester: Parliamentary Reference Publications, 1973)