Pret a Manger
|Number of locations||United Kingdom, United States of America, Hong Kong, France|
|Key people||Clive Schlee (CEO), Nicholas Candler (Finance Director)|
|Products||Sandwiches, Salads, Sushi, Soups, Coffees and Snacks|
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (November 2012)|
The name Prêt à Manger (French pronunciation: [pʁɛt‿a mɑ̃ʒe], ready to eat) was coined by Hyman's sister Valerie Tomalin, who morphed the title from prêt-à-porter, meaning "ready-to-wear". The outlet focused on gourmet, ready-to-eat food which was inspired by what the traiteurs of Paris served; the store's design was inspired by steel and chrome sandwich bars in New York City.
The store was located opposite Hampstead Underground station, had its own kitchen, and offered ready-to-eat French food. Most of the products were sold for "take away" (in America, "to go"), but there was also a small cafe area for customers to eat and drink in the store.
To advertise, the company used poster sites, the London Underground, local press and door-to-door leafleting.
The company traded at 58 Hampstead High Street for a year. It closed following the erection of maintenance scaffolding outside the shop by The Greater London Council which stayed in place for 18 months. It was sold by company liquidator David Rubin to college friends Sinclair Beecham and Julian Metcalfe (who later founded the Itsu chain of sushi cafes); the two met while studying at the Polytechnic of Central London.
Beecham and Metcalfe had little business experience. Their company claims they "created the sort of food they craved but could not find anywhere else." They opened their first branch near Victoria Station, London.
In 2001, McDonald's bought a 33% non-controlling stake in the USA branch of the company, which they sold in 2008 to private equity firm Bridgepoint Capital, owners of clothing retailer Fat Face.
As of 2012, efforts were underway in London to unionize shop employees.
The company emphasizes the use of natural ingredients and advertises all sandwiches are made on the day of purchase in a kitchen at each location (with the stated exception of a few small outlets). Food left unsold at the end of the day is collected by charities. Sandwiches are packaged in paperboard rather than sealed plastic.
85% of its trade is in London, where around three-quarters of its stores are located. As of January 2012, there were 230 UK shops, 168 in London, one in Wales. Pret has expanded to New York (32 stores), Hong Kong (13 stores), Washington, D.C. (5 stores), and Chicago (3 stores). Unlike many other fast food outlets, Pret a Manger does not franchise.
- Hong Kong: 14 outlets, as of August 2013.
- New York: 32 outlets, as of January 2012.
- Chicago: 8 outlets, as of August 2013.
- Washington, D.C.: 7 outlets as of August 2013
- Paris: the first outlet in France opened on 9 January 2012. The shop was opened in La Défense a major business district of the Paris aire urbaine.
- Boston: two stores opened in December 2012, in the Back Bay and Financial District.
In 1998, the company employed 1,400 people, of whom 19% were from the UK and 60% were from other European Union countries, mainly in Eastern Europe. Pret A Manger employs one in every 14 applicants. Applicants go on a one-day experience day at a shop and their success is determined by the other staff members, who vote the applicant in or not. Many managers and senior executives have come from within the company.
The organisational structure of Pret a Manger is divided between its stores and the main offices. The London head office is the hub for the UK stores, while the office in New York City is the hub for the American stores. Each store contains levels of positions that range from Team Member to the General Manager of the store. Above the in-store manager is the Operations Manager who is in charge of a group of roughly 10 stores, and above that are more senior management positions based out of the offices that are tasked with coordinating an entire region and maintaining communication with the company’s CEO in London. All the office employees are paired with a “buddy shop” where they work at least two days a year.
While the uppermost levels of management are located in the offices, not all the office jobs are above the store jobs in the organizational structure. Pret does not franchise any of its stores, in order to keep management strategies uniform across the entire brand. Orders do not strictly flow from the head offices in a top-down manner; instead, the channel of communication between the executives and the stores is open in both directions.
Pret a Manger promotes an internal culture as described in a leaflet entitled “Pret Behaviours.” The Behaviours break down traits into three categories: passion, clear talking and team working – and identify specific behaviours as “Don’t want to see,” “Want to see,” and “Pret perfect!” The number of Behaviours Pret hopes an employee exhibits increases with one's rank within the company: Team Members should practise around six Behaviours, Managers ten, and the company’s executives all of them.
Affective labour issues
Pret a Manger has been cited as being particularly vigorous in extracting affective labour from its employees. Affective labour (or emotional labour) is work which involves manipulating a person's emotional state.
Pret a Manger demands go beyond traditional requirements for fast-food workers (such as courtesy, efficiency, and reliability) to such tasks as having "presence", demonstrating a quirky sense of fun, and exhibiting behaviour consistent with being inwardly happy with oneself. Pret A Manger uses mystery shoppers to ensure that employees deploy markers of a positive emotional state. This has led to some criticism of the company for overreaching while drawing some praise for the business model.
Pret a Manger Staff Union
In response to labour issues within the company the Pret a Manager Staff Union was established as an independent union with its principal demand being made around calls for a Living Wage. Andrej Stopa, the founder of the union was later sacked from his Pret branch. 
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- Company Number 1763373, Pret A Manger (Hampstead) Ltd, incorporated 21 October 1983. Shareholders include Robin Wight, Peter Scott WCRS, James Pilditch, Monty White, Lynsey de Paul Singer, Jeffrey Hyman, Valerie Hyman.
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- The Economist: Employment: A new mix - In London, almost one in every nine workers is a foreign citizen. 24 September 1998
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- Julia Werdigier, “Rallying the Team to Cater to the Company’s Strengths,” The New York Times, 9 May 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/07/business/global/rallying-the-team-to-cater-to-the-companys-strengths.html?pagewanted=print. .
- "The Pret Behaviours". Pret a Manger. Retrieved November 2012.
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- Paul Myerscough (January 3, 2013). "Short Cuts". London Review of Books. Retrieved February 4, 2013.
- Timothy Noah (February 1, 2013). "Labor of Love: The enforced happiness of Pret A Manger". The New Republic. Retrieved February 4, 2013.
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- Stephani Clifford (August 6, 2011). "Would You Like a Smile With That?". New York Times. Retrieved February 4, 2013.
- Matthew Yglesias (February 2, 2013). "Caring Is Creepy (When Enforced By Others)". Moneybox. Slate. Retrieved February 4, 2013.
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- "About Us". Pret a Manager Staff Union. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- "Pret fires longstanding employee who attempted to unionise, asked for the London Living Wage for all employees". Boing Boing. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- "http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2272400/Revealed-Pret-Mangers-bizarre-emotional-labour-rules-workers-told-happy-touch-NEVER-act-moody.html". Mail Online. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
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