Pret a Manger
|Founders||Morgan Rees and Jordan Townrow|
|Headquarters||City of Westminster, London, United Kingdom|
|Number of locations||355 (October 2014)|
|Area served||United Kingdom, United States of America, Hong Kong, France|
|Key people||Clive Schlee (CEO), Nicholas Candler (COO)|
|Products||Sandwiches, salads, sushi, soups, coffees and snacks|
|Revenue||£ 510 Million (2013) |
|Operating income||£ 41 Million (2013) |
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (November 2012)|
The name Prêt à Manger (French pronunciation: [pʁɛt‿a mɑ̃ʒe], ready to eat) was coined by Hyman's sister Valerie Tomalin, who morphed the title from prêt-à-porter, meaning "ready-to-wear". The outlet focused on gourmet, ready-to-eat food which was inspired by what the traiteurs of Paris served; the store's design was inspired by steel and chrome sandwich bars in New York City.
The store was located opposite Hampstead Underground station, had its own kitchen, and offered ready-to-eat French food. Most of the products were sold for takeaway, but there was also a small cafe area for customers to eat and drink in the store.
To advertise, the company used poster sites, the London Underground, local press and door-to-door leafleting.
The company traded at 58 Hampstead High Street for a year. It closed following the erection of maintenance scaffolding outside the shop by The Greater London Council which stayed in place for 18 months. It was sold by company liquidator David Rubin to college friends Sinclair Beecham and Julian Metcalfe (who later founded the Itsu chain of sushi cafes); the two met while studying at the Polytechnic of Central London.
Beecham and Metcalfe had little business experience. Their company claims they "created the sort of food they craved but could not find anywhere else." They opened their first branch near Victoria Station, London.
In 2001, McDonald's bought a 33% non-controlling stake in the USA branch of the company, which they sold in 2008 to private equity firm Bridgepoint Capital, owners of clothing retailer Fat Face.
In 2011 its sales were £377 million.
As of 2012, efforts were underway in London to unionize shop employees.
The company emphasizes the use of natural ingredients and advertises all sandwiches are made on the day of purchase in a kitchen at each location (with the stated exception of a few small outlets). Food left unsold at the end of the day is collected by charities. Sandwiches are packaged in paperboard rather than sealed plastic.
67% of its trade is in London, where around three-quarters of its stores are located. As of February 2014, there were 289 UK shops, 187 in London, nine in Scotland and one in Wales. There are 92 outlets throughout the rest of the UK. Pret has expanded to New York (38 stores), Hong Kong (14 stores), Washington, D.C. (7 stores), Boston (4 stores) and Chicago (9 stores). Unlike many other fast food outlets, Pret a Manger does not franchise.
- Hong Kong: 14 outlets, as of February 2014.
- New York: 38 outlets, as of February 2014.
- Chicago: 9 outlets, as of February 2014.
- Washington, D.C.: 7 outlets, as of February 2014.
- Shanghai: 1 outlet, as of October 2014.
- Paris: 10 outlets, as of February 2014. The first outlet in France opened on 9 January 2012. The shop was opened in La Défense a major business district of the Paris aire urbaine.
- Boston: 4 outlets, as of June 2014. Two stores opened in December 2012, in the Back Bay and Financial District. In June 2014, Pret opened its largest American location in Boston's Downtown Crossing neighborhood. This location stands at 5,335 square feet and can seat 100 people.
In 1998, the company employed 1,400 people, of whom 19% were from the UK and 60% were from other European Union countries, mainly in Eastern Europe. Pret A Manger employs one in every 14 applicants. Applicants go on a one-day experience day at a shop and their success is determined by the other staff members, who vote the applicant in or not. Many managers and senior executives have come from within the company.
The organisational structure of Pret a Manger is divided between its stores and the main offices. The London head office is the hub for the UK stores, while the office in New York City is the hub for the American stores. Each store contains levels of positions that range from Team Member to the General Manager of the store. Above the in-store manager is the Operations Manager who is in charge of a group of roughly 10 stores, and above that are more senior management positions based out of the offices that are tasked with coordinating an entire region and maintaining communication with the company’s CEO in London. All the office employees are paired with a “buddy shop” where they work at least two days a year.
While the uppermost levels of management are located in the offices, not all the office jobs are above the store jobs in the organizational structure. Pret does not franchise any of its stores, in order to keep management strategies uniform across the entire brand. Orders do not strictly flow from the head offices in a top-down manner; instead, the channel of communication between the executives and the stores is open in both directions.
Pret a Manger promotes an internal culture as described in a leaflet entitled “Pret Behaviours.” The Behaviours break down traits into three categories: passion, clear talking and team working – and identify specific behaviours as “Don’t want to see,” “Want to see,” and “Pret perfect!” The number of Behaviours Pret hopes an employee exhibits increases with one's rank within the company: Team Members should practise around six Behaviours, Managers ten, and the company’s executives all of them.
Affective labour issues
Pret a Manger has been cited as being particularly vigorous in extracting affective labour from its employees. Affective labour (or emotional labour) is work which involves manipulating a person's emotional state.
Pret a Manger demands go beyond traditional requirements for fast-food workers (such as courtesy, efficiency, and reliability) to such tasks as having "presence", demonstrating a quirky sense of fun, and exhibiting behaviour consistent with being inwardly happy with oneself. Pret A Manger uses mystery shoppers to ensure that employees deploy markers of a positive emotional state. This has led to some criticism of the company for overreaching while drawing some praise for the business model.
Pret a Manger Staff Union
In response to labour issues within the company the Pret a Manager Staff Union was established in 2012 as an independent union with its principal demand being made around calls for a Living Wage. Andrej Stopa, the founder of the union was later sacked from his Pret branch.
- "Company Overview of Pret A Manger (Europe) Ltd.". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved November 2012.
- Company Number 1763373, Pret A Manger (Hampstead) Ltd, incorporated 21 October 1983. Shareholders include Robin Wight, Peter Scott WCRS, James Pilditch, Monty White, Lynsey de Paul Singer, Jeffrey Hyman, Valerie Hyman.
- "The Food & Drink Innovation Network". The FDIN. Retrieved 18 April 2012.
- "About the Founders". Pret A Manger. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
- "Pret a Manger founders sitting pretty". The Daily Telegraph (London). 24 February 2008. Retrieved 2012-02-16.
- "G2: Pret a Manger goes global | World news". The Guardian (London). 1 February 2001. Retrieved 2010-02-25.
- "McDonald's offloads Pret stake to Bridgepoint". Brand Republic News. Retrieved 2010-02-25.
- Sibun, Jonathan (23 February 2008). "Pret a Manger to be sold to private equity". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 2010-02-25.
- "Morning business round-up: Eurozone unemployment rises". BBC News. 3 April 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2013. "rose 15% last year to £377.3m"
- "Shops in the UK". Pret A Manger. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
- "Shops in HK". Pret A Manger. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
- "Shops in the US". Pret A Manger. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
- "Pret arrives in Paris". Pret A Manger. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
- "Pret-a-Manger opens on Boylston Next Monday". Eater.com. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- "Pret A Manger Opens its Largest U.S. Cafe in Boston Tomorrow". streetwise. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- The Economist: Employment: A new mix - In London, almost one in every nine workers is a foreign citizen. 24 September 1998
- “Working at Pret,” Pret a Manger. Retrieved 15 October 2012, http://pret.com/jobs.
- Richard Preston, “Smiley Culture: Pret A Manger’s Secret Ingredients,” The Telegraph, 9 March 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/foodanddrink/9129410/Smiley-culture-Pret-A-Mangers-secret-ingredients.html.
- “Working in Hudson’s Place (our office),” Pret a Manger. Retrieved 15 October 2012, http://www.pret.com/jobs/office.htm.
- Julia Werdigier, “Rallying the Team to Cater to the Company’s Strengths,” The New York Times, 9 May 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/07/business/global/rallying-the-team-to-cater-to-the-companys-strengths.html?pagewanted=print. .
- "The Pret Behaviours". Pret a Manger. Retrieved November 2012.
- Matt Blumberg (15 May 2012). "Pret a Manger". Business Insider. Retrieved November 2012.
- Paul Myerscough (January 3, 2013). "Short Cuts". London Review of Books. Retrieved February 4, 2013.
- Timothy Noah (February 1, 2013). "Labor of Love: The enforced happiness of Pret A Manger". The New Republic. Retrieved February 4, 2013.
- "Pret Behaviors". Pret A Manger official website. Retrieved February 4, 2013.
- Stephani Clifford (August 6, 2011). "Would You Like a Smile With That?". New York Times. Retrieved February 4, 2013.
- Matthew Yglesias (February 2, 2013). "Caring Is Creepy (When Enforced By Others)". Moneybox. Slate. Retrieved February 4, 2013.
- Marty Lariviere (August 11, 2011). "Pret A Manger: A different way of managing fast food workers". The Operations Room. Kellogg School of Management (Northwestern University). Retrieved February 4, 2013.
- "About Us". Pret a Manager Staff Union. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- "Pret fires longstanding employee who attempted to unionise, asked for the London Living Wage for all employees". Boing Boing. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- McDermott, Kerry (2 February 2013). "http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2272400/Revealed-Pret-Mangers-bizarre-emotional-labour-rules-workers-told-happy-touch-NEVER-act-moody.html". Mail Online (London). Retrieved 21 November 2013.
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