Pretenders to the throne of Parma

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This is a list of pretenders to the throne of Parma, which was ruled by the House of Bourbon-Parma until 1859 when the ducal family escaped after the Italian national insurrection linked to the Second Italian War of Independence.

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Robert I, Duke of Parma
1859–1907
Robert I duke of parma.jpg 9 July 1848
Florence
son of Charles III, Duke of Parma and Louise Marie Thérèse of France
(1) Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
5 April 1869
12 children

(2) Maria Antonia of Portugal
15 October 1884
12 children
16 November 1907
Viareggio
aged 63
Henry of Bourbon-Parma
1907–1939
Henry, Duke of Parma titular.png 13 June 1873
Wartegg
son of Robert I, Duke of Parma and Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
never married 16 November 1939
Pianore
aged 66
Joseph of Bourbon-Parma
1939–1950
Joseph, Duke of Parma titular.png 30 June 1875
Biarritz
son of Robert I, Duke of Parma and Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
never married 7 January 1950
Pianore
aged 75
Elias of Bourbon-Parma
1950–1959
Elias von Parma Postkarte 1910.jpg 23 July 1880
Biarritz
son of Robert I, Duke of Parma and Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
Maria Anna of Austria
25 May 1903
Vienna
8 children
27 June 1959
Friedberg
aged 79
Robert (II) Hugo of Bourbon-Parma
1959–1974
Robert II, Duke of Parma.jpg 7 August 1909
Weilburg
son of Elias of Bourbon-Parma and Maria Anna of Austria
never married 25 November 1974
Vienna
aged 65
Xavier of Bourbon-Parma
1974–1977
Xavier, Duke of Parma.jpg 25 May 1889
Viareggio
son of Robert I, Duke of Parma and Infanta Maria Antonia of Portugal
Madeleine de Bourbon-Busset
12 November 1927
Lignières
6 children
7 May 1977
Zizers
aged 87
Carlos (IV) Hugo of Bourbon-Parma
1977–2010
Charles-Hugues de Bourbon-Parme.jpg 8 April 1930
Paris
son of Xavier of Bourbon-Parma and Madeleine de Bourbon-Busset
Princess Irene of the Netherlands
29 April 1964
Rome
4 children
18 August 2010
Barcelona
aged 80
Carlos (V) of Bourbon-Parma
since 2010
- 27 January 1970
Nijmegen
son of Carlos Hugo of Bourbon-Parma and Princess Irene of the Netherlands
Annemarie Gualthérie van Weezel
12 June 2010
Wijk bij Duurstede (civil)
incumbent