The CBD seen from the southeast
|Motto: Præstantia Prævaleat Prætoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence)|
|Municipality||City of Tshwane|
|• City||687.54 km2 (265.46 sq mi)|
|• Metro||6,298 km2 (2,432 sq mi)|
|Elevation||1,271 m (4,170 ft)|
|• Density||1,100/km2 (2,800/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||460/km2 (1,200/sq mi)|
|Racial makeup (2011)|
|• Black African||42.0%|
|First languages (2011)|
|• Northern Sotho||8.0%|
|Postal code (street)||0002|
Pretoria is a city in the northern part of Gauteng Province, South Africa. It is one of the country's three capital cities, serving as the executive (administrative) and de facto national capital; the others are Cape Town, the legislative capital, and Bloemfontein, the judicial capital. Pretoria is sometimes regarded as being divided into three sections: west, east and north, relative to the central business district. Pretoria is contained within the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality as one of several constituent former administrations (among which also Centurion and Soshanguve). Pretoria itself is sometimes referred to as "Tshwane" due to a long-running and controversial proposed change of name, which has yet to be decided, as of 2014.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Cityscape
- 5 Transport
- 6 Society and culture
- 7 Education
- 8 Change of name
- 9 International relations
- 10 Shopping malls
- 11 Places of interest
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
During the difaqane in Natal, another band of refugees arrived in this area under the leadership of Mzilikazi. However, they were forced to abandon their villages in their flight from a regiment of Zulu raiders in 1832.
Pretoria itself was founded in 1855 by Marthinus Pretorius, a leader of the Voortrekkers, who named it after his father Andries Pretorius. The elder Pretorius had become a national hero of the Voortrekkers after his victory over the Zulus in the Battle of Blood River. Andries Pretorius also negotiated the Sand River Convention (1852), in which Britain acknowledged the independence of the Transvaal. It became the capital of the South African Republic (ZAR) on 1 May 1860. The founding of Pretoria as the capital of the South African Republic can be seen as marking the end of the Boers' settlement movements of the Great Trek.
During the First Boer War, the city was besieged by Republican forces in December 1880 and March 1881. The peace treaty which ended the war was signed in Pretoria on 3 August 1881 at the Pretoria Convention.
The Second Boer War (1899 to 1902) resulted in the end of the Transvaal Republic and start of British hegemony in South Africa. During the war, Winston Churchill was imprisoned in the Staats Model School in Pretoria but escaped to Mozambique. The city surrendered to British forces under Frederick Roberts on 5 June 1900 and the conflict was ended in Pretoria with the signing of the Peace of Vereeniging on 31 May 1902.
Union of South Africa
The Boer Republics of the ZAR and the Orange River Colony were united with the Cape Colony and Natal Colony in 1910 to become the Union of South Africa. Pretoria then became the administrative capital of the whole of South Africa, with Cape Town the legislative capital. Between 1860 and 1994, the city was also the capital of the province of Transvaal, superseding Potchefstroom in that role.
On 14 October 1931, Pretoria achieved official city status. When South Africa became a republic in 1961, Pretoria remained its administrative capital.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (March 2010)|
After the creation of new municipal structures across South Africa in 2000, the name Tshwane was adopted for the Metropolitan Municipality that includes Pretoria and surrounding towns.
Beginning in 2005, portions of the African National Congress wished to change the name of the city to match the name of the Tshwane municipality, however this met with stiff opposition, particularly from Afrikaner civil rights groups and political parties since it denies the history of the city as founded by Pretorius.
In 1994 Peter Holmes Maluleka was elected as transitional mayor of Pretoria, until the first democratic election held later that year, making him the first black mayor of this capital of South Africa. Maluleka later became the chairman of the Greater Pretoria Metropolitan City Council (later City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality), then was elected Speaker of the Tshwane Metro Council and in 2004 was chosen to be a member of the South African Parliament for the Soshanguve constituency.
Pretoria is situated approximately 55 km (34 mi) north-northeast of Johannesburg in the north-east of South Africa, in a transitional belt between the plateau of the Highveld to the south and the lower-lying Bushveld to the north. It lies at an altitude of about 1,350 m (4,500 ft) above sea level, in a warm, sheltered, fertile valley, surrounded by the hills of the Magaliesberg range.
The city has a moderately dry subtropical climate, specifically a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cwa), with long hot and rainy summers and short cool and dry winters. The average annual temperature is 18.7 °C (65.7 °F). This is rather high considering its relatively high altitude of about 1350 metres and is due mainly to its sheltered valley position, which acts as a heat trap and cuts it off from cool southerly and south-easterly air masses for much of the year. Rain is chiefly concentrated in the summer months, with drought conditions prevailing over the winter months, when frosts may be sharp. Snowfall is an extremely rare event; snowflakes were spotted in 1959, 1968 and 2012 in the city, but the city has never experienced an accumulation in its history. During a nationwide heatwave in November 2011, Pretoria experienced temperatures that reached 39 °C (102 °F), extraordinarily unusual for that time of the year. Similar record-breaking extreme heat events also occurred in January 2013, when Pretoria experienced temperatures exceeding 37 °C (99 °F) on several days. The all-time high recorded in Pretoria was 42 °C (108 °F) on 25 January 2013.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
|Climate data for Pretoria|
|Record high °C (°F)||42
|Average high °C (°F)||29
|Daily mean °C (°F)||23.5
|Average low °C (°F)||18
|Record low °C (°F)||8
|Precipitation mm (inches)||154
|Avg. precipitation days||14||11||10||7||3||1||1||2||3||9||12||15||87|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||261||235||254||246||283||271||289||296||284||275||254||272||3,220|
|Source #1: South African Weather Service|
|Source #2: The Weather Network (sun only) |
Depending on the extent of the area understood to constitute "Pretoria", the population ranges from 500,000 to 2.950 million. The main language spoken in the Pretoria is Afrikaans; also widely spoken are Pedi, Sotho, Tswana, Tsonga, Zulu and English. The city of Pretoria has the largest white population of anywhere on the African continent. Since its founding it has been a major Afrikaner population centre, and currently there are roughly 1 000,000 Afrikaners living in or around the city.
Even since the end of Apartheid, Pretoria itself still has a white majority, albeit an ever increasing black middle-class. However in the townships of Soshanguve and Atteridgeville blacks make up close to all of the population. The largest white ethnic group are the Afrikaners and the largest black ethnic group are the Northern Sothos.
If one considers the lower estimate for the population of Pretoria, this includes largely former-white designated areas and there is therefore a white majority. However if one includes the geographically separate townships, this increases Pretoria's population beyond a million and makes whites a minority.
- Media related to Buildings in Pretoria at Wikimedia Commons
Pretoria has over the years had very diverse cultural influences and this is reflected in the architectural styles that can be found in the city. It ranges from British Colonial Architecture to Art Deco with a good mix of uniquely South African style mixed in.
Some of the notable structures in Pretoria include the Union Buildings, Voortrekker Monument, the main campus of the University of South Africa, Mahlamba Ndlopfu (the President's House), Reserve Bank of South Africa (Office Tower) and the Telkom Lukas Rand Transmission Tower. Other known structures and buildings include the Loftus Versfeld Stadium, The South African State Theatre, University of Pretoria, and Head Quarters of the Department of International Relations and Co-Operation (modern architecture).
Neomodern architecture in Pretoria
Central business district
The Central business district (CBD) of Pretoria has been the traditional centre of government and commerce, although today many corporate offices, small businesses, shops and government departments are situated in Pretoria's sprawling suburbs rather than the CBD. However to bring service delivery back to the people, various Government departments are returning to the CBD. National Departments with their Head Office in the CBD include: Department of Health, Basic Education, Transport, Higher Education and Training, Sport and Recreation, Justice and Constitutional Development, Water and Environmental Affairs and the National Treasury.
Parks and gardens
Pretoria is home to the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa as well as the Pretoria National Botanical Garden, one of the National Botanical Gardens in South Africa. There are also a number of smaller parks and gardens located throughout the city, including the Austin Roberts Bird Sanctuary..
Commuter rail services around Pretoria are operated by Metrorail. The routes, originating from the city centre, extend south to Germiston and Johannesburg, west to Atteridgeville, northwest to Ga-Rankuwa, north to Soshanguve and east to Mamelodi.
Pretoria Station is a departure point for the Blue Train luxury train. Rovos Rail, a luxury mainline train safari service operates from the colonial-style railway station at Capital Park. The South African Friends of the Rail have recently moved their vintage train trip operations from the Capital Park station to the Hercules station.
Various bus companies exist in Pretoria, of which Putco is one of the oldest and most recognised. Tshwane(Pretoria) municipality provides for the rest of the bus transport and to view the time table please visit them at Tshwane Bus Booklet.
The N1 is the major freeway that runs through Pretoria. It enters the city from the south as the Ben Schoeman Highway. At the Brakfontein Interchange with the N14 it continues as The N1 Eastern Bypass bisects the large expanse of the eastern suburbs, routing traffic from Johannesburg to Polokwane and the north of the country. The R101 is the original N1, and served the same function before the construction of the highway. It runs through the centre of town rather than the eastern suburbs.
The N4 enters the town as a highway from Witbank in the east, merging with the N1 at the Proefplaas Interchange. It begins again north of the city, branching westr from the N1 as the Platinum Highway, forming the Northern Bypass, and heading to Rustenburg. The The N4 runs east-west through South Africa, connecting Maputo to Gaborone. Before the Platinum Highway was built, the N4 continued passed the Proefplaas Interchange to the city centre, where it became a regular road, before again becoming a highway west of the city. These roads are now designated the M2 and M4. There is a third, original east-west road: the R104, Church Street. Church Street is in the process of being renamed to a number of new names.
The N14 starts in the centre of town from the M4 (former N4). It is a normal road heading south through the centre before becoming the Ben Schoeman highway. At the Brakfontein interchange, the Ben Schoeman highway becomes the N1, but the N14 continues as the intersecting west-south-western highway towards Krugersdorp. The R114 parallels the N14 in its westward journey running just to the north of the highway.
The R21 provides a second north-south highway, further east. It starts from the Fountains Interchange south of the city centre, but is still a road until Monument Park, when it becomes a true highway. It crosses the N1 east of the Brakfontein Interchange at the Flying Saucer Interchange and runs north/south towards Ekurhuleni (specifically Kempton Park and Boksburg). Importantly it links Pretoria with the OR Tambo International Airport in Kempton Park.
A proposed third north-south highway, in the west of the city, the R80 is partially built. At present the highway begins in Soshanguve. It terminates just north of the city centre at an intersection with the M1. Plans have been in place for some time to extend this all the way past the M4 and N14 highways to the N1 in Randburg.
Pretoria is also served my many regional roads. The R55 starts at an interchange with the R80, and runs north-south west of the city to Sandton. The R50 starts from the N1 just after the Flying Saucer Interchange in the south-east of the city, and continues south-east towards Delmas. The R511 runs north-south from Randburg towards Brits and barely by-passes Pretoria to the west. The R514 starts from the M1, north of the city centre, and terminates at the R511. The R513 crosses Pretoria's northern suburbs from east to west. It links Pretoria to Cullinan and Bronkhorstspruit in the east and Hartbeespoort in the west. The R566 takes origin in Pretoria's northern suburbs, and exits the town to the west just north of the R513. It connects Pretoria to Brits. Finally the R573 starts from the R513, just east of the town and heads north-east to Siyabuswa.
Pretoria is also served internally by metropolitan routes.
For scheduled air services, Pretoria is served by Johannesburg's airports: OR Tambo International, 45 kilometres (28 mi) south of central Pretoria; and Lanseria, 35 kilometres (22 mi) south-west of the city. Wonderboom Airport in the suburb of Wonderboom in the north of Pretoria services light commercial and private aircraft. There are two military air bases to the south of the city, Swartkop and Waterkloof.
Society and culture
Since Pretoria forms part the Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, most radio, television and paper media is the same as what can be found in the rest of the metro area.
- African Window
- Freedom Park
- Kruger House (Residence of the president of the ZAR, Paul Kruger)
- Mapungubwe Museum
- Melrose House (The Treaty of Vereeniging which ended the Anglo-Boer War was signed here in 1902)
- Pretoria Forts
- Transvaal Museum
- Van Wouw Museum
- Voortrekker Monument
A number of popular South African bands and musicians are originally from Pretoria. These include Desmond and the Tutus, Seether, Zebra & Giraffe, popular mostwako rapper JR, and DJ Mujava who was raised in the town of Attridgeville.
The song "Marching to Pretoria" refers to this city. The opening line of The Beatles' song I Am the Walrus, "I am he as you are he as you are me and we are all together", is based on the song "Marching to Pretoria", which contains the lyric "I'm with you and you're with me and we are all together".
One of the most popular sports in Pretoria is rugby union. Loftus Versfeld is home to the Blue Bulls, who compete in the domestic Currie Cup, and also to the Bulls in the international Super Rugby competition. The Bulls Super Rugby team, which is operated by the Blue Bulls, won the competition in 2007, 2009 and 2010. Loftus Versfeld also hosts the soccer side Mamelodi Sundowns.
There are three soccer teams in the city campaigning in South Africa's top flight football League, the Premier Soccer League. They are Mamelodi Sundowns and Supersport United. Supersport United were the 2008–09 PSL Champions. Following the 2011/2012 season the University of Pretoria F.C. will gain promotion to the South African Premier Soccer League (PSL), the top domestic league.
Cricket is also a popular game in the city. As there is no international cricket stadium in the city, it does not host any major cricket tournament, although the nearby situated Centurion has Supersport Park which is an international cricket stadium and has hosted many important tournaments such as 2003 Cricket World Cup, 2007 ICC World Twenty20, 2009 IPL and 2009 ICC Champions Trophy. The most local team to Pretoria is the Titans. Many Pretoria born cricketers have gone on to play for South Africa, including current ODI captain AB de Villiers and T20 captain Faf du Plessis.
Commerce and industry
As the national administrative (executive) capital of South Africa, Pretoria is the seat of government and houses the headquarters of the main government departments and ministries. As the de facto capital city, it also hosts the foreign embassies and diplomatic missions. The city is a major commercial centre and an important industrial centre. Its main industries are iron and steel works, copper casting, and the manufacture of automobiles, railway carriages and heavy machinery.
Pretoria has a number of industrial areas, business districts and small home businesses. A number of chambers of commerce exist for Pretoria and its business community including Pretoriaweb a business networking group that meets once a month to discuss the issues of doing business in Pretoria. The members of Pretoriaweb also discuss issues in various social media environments and on the website.
Pretoria is one of South Africa's leading academic cities and is home to both the largest residential university, largest distance education university and a research intensive university.
The Tshwane University of Technology (commonly referred to as TUT) is a higher education institution, offering vocational oriented diplomas and degrees, and came into being through a merger of Technikon Northern Gauteng, Technikon North-West and Technikon Pretoria. TUT caters for approximately 60,000 students and it has become the largest residential higher education institution in South Africa.
The University of South Africa (commonly referred to as Unisa), founded in 1873 as the University of the Cape of Good Hope, is the largest university on the African continent and attracts a third of all higher education students in South Africa. It spent most of its early history as an examining agency for Oxford and Cambridge universities and as an incubator from which most other universities in South Africa are descended. In 1946 it was given a new role as a distance education university and in 2012 it had a student headcount of over 300 000 students, including African and international students in 130 countries worldwide, making it one of the world's mega universities. Unisa is a dedicated open distance education institution and offers both vocational and academic programmes.
The University of Pretoria (commonly referred to as UP, Tuks, or Tukkies) is a multi campus public research university. The university was established in 1908 as the Pretoria campus of the Johannesburg based Transvaal University College and is the fourth South African institution in continuous operation to be awarded university status. Established in 1920, the University of Pretoria Faculty of Veterinary Science is the second oldest veterinary school in Africa and the only veterinary school in South Africa. In 1949 the university launched the first MBA programme outside of North America. Since 1997, the university has produced more research outputs every year than any other institution of higher learning in South Africa, as measured by the Department of Education's accreditation benchmark.
The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) is South Africa's central scientific research and development organisation. It was established by an act of parliament in 1945 and is situated on its own campus in the city. It is the largest research and development organisation in Africa and accounts for about 10% of the entire African R&D budget. It has a staff of approximately 3,000 technical and scientific researchers, often working in multi-disciplinary teams.
Main Building of Pretoria Boys High School
The Main Campus of UNISA
University of Pretoria's Old Arts Building
Change of name
On 26 May 2005 the South African Geographical Names Council (SAGNC), which is linked to the Directorate of Heritage in the Department of Arts and Culture, approved changing the name of Pretoria to Tshwane, which is already the name of the Metropolitan Municipality in which Pretoria, and a number of surrounding towns are located. Although the name change was approved by the SAGNC, it has not yet been approved by the Minister of Arts and Culture. The matter is currently under consideration while he has requested further research on the matter. Should the Minister approve the name change, the name will be published in the Government Gazette, giving the public opportunity to comment on the matter. The Minister can then refer that public response back to the SAGNC, before presenting his recommendation before parliament, who will vote on the change. Various public interest groups have warned that the name change will be challenged in court, should the minister approve the renaming. The long process involved made it unlikely the name would change anytime soon, if ever, even assuming the Minister had approved the change in early 2006.
The Tshwane Metro Council has advertised Tshwane as "Africa's leading capital city" since the name change was approved by the SAGNC in 2005. This has led to further controversy, however, as the name of the city had not yet been changed officially, and the council was, at best, acting prematurely. Following a complaint lodged with the Advertising Standards Authority (ASA), it was ruled that such advertisements are deliberately misleading and should be withdrawn from all media. Despite the rulings of the ASA, Tshwane Metro Council failed to discontinue their "City of Tshwane" advertisements. As a result, the ASA requested that Tshwane Metro pay for advertisements in which it admits that it has misled the public. Refusing to abide by the ASA's request, the Metro Council was banned consequently from placing any advertisements in the South African media that refer to Tshwane as the capital. ASA may still place additional sanctions on the Metro Council that would prevent it from placing any advertisements in the South African media, including council notices and employment vacancies.
After the ruling, the Metro Council continued to place Tshwane advertisements, but placed them on council-owned advertising boards and busstops throughout the municipal area. In August 2007, an internal memo was leaked to the media in which the Tshwane mayor sought advice from the premier of Gauteng on whether the municipality could be called the "City of Tshwane" instead of just "Tshwane". This could increase confusion about the distinction between the city of Pretoria and the municipality of Tshwane.
In early 2010 it was again rumoured that the South African government would make a decision regarding the name, however, a media briefing regarding name changes, where it may have been discussed, was cancelled shortly before taking place. Rumours of the name change provoked outrage from Afrikaner civil rights and political groups. It later emerged that the registration of the municipality as a geographic place had been published in the government gazette as it had been too late to withdraw the name from the publication, but it was announced that the name had been withdrawn, pending "further work" by officials. The following week, the registration of "Tshwane" was officially withdrawn in the Government Gazette. The retraction had reportedly been ordered at the behest of the Deputy President of South Africa Kgalema Motlanthe, acting on behalf of President Jacob Zuma, as minister of Arts and Culture Lulu Xingwana had acted contrary to the position of the ANC, which is that Pretoria, and the municipality are separate entities, which was subsequently articulated by ANC secretary general Gwede Mantashe.
In March 2010, the "Tshwane Royal House Committee", claiming to be descendents of Chief Tshwane, called for the name to be changed, and for the descendents of Chief Tshwane to be recognised, and to be made part of the administration of the municipality.
Twin towns and sister cities
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2013)|
Pretoria is twinned with:
- Amman, Jordan
- Bethlehem, Palestinian Authority
- Baku, Azerbaijan
- Delft, Netherlands
- Johannesburg, South Africa
- Kiev, Ukraine
- Taipei, Taiwan
- Tehran, Iran
- Washington, D.C., United States
- Atterbury Boulevard
- Atterbury Value Mart
- Brooklyn Mall*
- Brooklyn Design Square
- Centurion Mall (upon Hennops River)*
- Hatfield Plaza*
- Irene Village Mall*
- Kolonnade Centre*
- Mall @ Reds*
- Menlyn Retail Park
- Menlyn Park*
- Parkview Centre
- Sammy Marks Shopping Centre
- Sancardia Shopping Centre
- Sterland Mall*
- Sunny Park
- The Grove Shopping Centre*
- Woodlands Boulevard*
- Wonderboom Junction Shopping Centre
- Wonderpark Shopping Centre*
Note: Malls marked with an asterisk are malls with at least a 4-screen cinema complex. Kolonnade Centre was the only mall in the city with a public ice-skating rink. It closed due to high levels of rent and the management of the mall deciding to build shops in its place. In 2014, The Grove Shopping Centre opened an ice-skating rink.
Places of interest
- Pretoria National Botanical Garden
- The National Zoological Gardens of South Africa
- Church Square
- Union Buildings
- Menlyn Park
- Voortrekker Monument
- Hatfield Square
- Groenkloof Nature Reserve
- Rietvlei Nature Reserve
- Moreletaspruit Nature Reserve
- Faerie Glen Nature Reserve
- Wonderboom Nature Reserve
- Ptawug Pretoria Wireless Users Group—a free, non-profit, community wireless network in Pretoria
- Symbolism of the Voortrekker Monument
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- Population, according to the 2007 Community Survey, of the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality after the 2011 annexation of the Metsweding District Municipality.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pretoria.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1922 Encyclopædia Britannica article Pretoria.|