Prevalence of mental disorders

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The prevalence of mental disorders has been studied around the world, providing estimates on how common mental disorders are. Different criteria or thresholds of severity have sometimes been used.

National and international figures are typically estimated by large-scale surveys of self-reported symptoms up to the time of assessment; sometimes a figure is calculated for the occurrence of disorder in the week, month or year prior to assessment–a point or period prevalence; sometimes the figure is for a person's lifetime prior to assessment–the so-called lifetime prevalence.

Population studies[edit]

Numerous large-scale surveys of the prevalence of mental disorders in adults in the general population have been carried out since the 1980s based on self-reported symptoms assessed by standardized structured interviews, usually carried out over the phone.

Mental disorders have been found to be common, with over a third of people in most countries reporting sufficient criteria to be diagnosed at some point in their life.[1] The World Health Organization (WHO) reported in 2001 that about 450 million people worldwide suffer from some form of mental disorder or brain condition, and that one in four people meet criteria at some point in their life.[2][3][4]

World Health Organization global study[edit]

The World Health Organization is currently undertaking a global survey of 26 countries in all regions of the world, based on ICD and DSM criteria.[5] The first published figures on the 14 country surveys completed to date, indicate that, of those disorders assessed, anxiety disorders are the most common in all but 1 country (prevalence in the prior 12-month period of 2.4% to 18.2%) and mood disorders next most common in all but 2 countries (12-month prevalence of 0.8% to 9.6%), while substance disorders (0.1%–6.4%) and impulse-control disorders (0.0%–6.8%) were consistently less prevalent.[6]

The United States, Colombia, the Netherlands and Ukraine tended to have higher prevalence estimates across most classes of disorder, while Nigeria, Shanghai and Italy were consistently low, and prevalence was lower in Asian countries in general. Cases of disorder were rated as mild (prevalence of 1.8%–9.7%), moderate (prevalence of 0.5%–9.4%) and serious (prevalence of 0.4%–7.7%).[6][dead link]

The World Health Organization has published worldwide incidence and prevalence estimates of individual disorders. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is two to three times as common in Latin America, Africa, and Europe as in Asia and Oceania.[7] Schizophrenia appears to be most common in Japan, Oceania, and Southeastern Europe and least common in Africa.[8] Bipolar disorder and panic disorder have very similar rates around the world.[9][10]

However, these are widely believed to be underestimates, due to poor diagnosis (especially in countries without affordable access to mental health services) and low reporting rates, in part because of the predominant use of self-report data, rather than semi-structured instruments such as the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID); actual lifetime prevalence rates for mental disorders are estimated to be between 65% and 85%.[citation needed]

[8]

US mental health studies[edit]

Previous widely cited large-scale surveys in the US were the Epidemiological Catchment Area (ECA) survey and subsequent National Comorbidity Survey (NCS). The NCS was replicated and updated between 2000 and 2003 and indicated that, of those groups of disorders assessed, nearly half of Americans (46.4%) reported meeting criteria at some point in their life for either a DSM-IV anxiety disorder (28.8%), mood disorder (20.8%), impulse-control disorder (24.8%) or substance use disorders (14.6%). Half of all lifetime cases had started by age 14 and 3/4 by age 24.[11]

In the prior 12-month period only, around a quarter (26.2%) met criteria for any disorder—anxiety disorders 18.1%; mood disorders 9.5%; impulse control disorders 8.9%; and substance use disorders 3.8%. A substantial minority (23%) met criteria for more than two disorders. 22.3% of cases were classed as serious, 37.3% as moderate and 40.4% as mild.[12][13]

European population studies[edit]

A 2004 cross-European study found that approximately one in four people reported meeting criteria at some point in their life for one of the DSM-IV disorders assessed, which included mood disorders (13.9%), anxiety disorders (13.6%) or alcohol disorder (5.2%). Approximately one in ten met criteria within a 12-month period. Women and younger people of either gender showed more cases of disorder.[14]

A 2005 review of 27 studies have found that 27% of adult Europeans is or has been affected by at least one mental disorder in the past 12 months. It was also found that the most frequent disorders were anxiety disorders, depressive, somatoform and substance dependence disorders.[15]

Specific mental disorders[edit]

Anxiety disorders[edit]

A review that pooled surveys in different countries up to 2004 found overall average prevalence estimates for any anxiety disorder of 10.6% (in the 12 months prior to assessment) and 16.6% (in lifetime prior to assessment), but that rates for individual disorders varied widely. Women had generally higher prevalence rates than men, but the magnitude of the difference varied.[16]

Mood disorders[edit]

A review that pooled surveys of mood disorders in different countries up to 2000 found 12-month prevalence rates of 4.1% for major depressive disorder (MDD), 2% for dysthymic disorder and 0.72% for bipolar 1 disorder. The average lifetime prevalence found was 6.7% for MDD (with a relatively low lifetime prevalence rate in higher-quality studies, compared to the rates typically highlighted of 5%–12% for men and 10%–25% for women), and rates of 3.6% for dysthymia and 0.8% for Bipolar 1.[17]

Schizophrenia[edit]

A 2005 review of prior surveys in 46 countries on the prevalence of schizophrenic disorders, including a prior 10-country WHO survey, found an average (median) figure of 0.4% for lifetime prevalence up to the point of assessment and 0.3% in the 12-month period prior to assessment. A related figure not given in other studies (known as lifetime morbid risk), reported to be an accurate statement of how many people would theoretically develop schizophrenia at any point in life regardless of time of assessment, was found to be "about seven to eight individuals per 1,000" (0.7/0.8%). The prevalence of schizophrenia was consistently lower in poorer countries than in richer countries (though not the incidence), but the prevalence did not differ between urban/rural areas or men/women (although incidence did).[18]

Personality disorders[edit]

Studies of the prevalence of personality disorders (PDs) have been fewer and smaller-scale, but a broader Norwegian survey found a similar overall prevalence of almost 1 in 7 (13.4%), based on meeting personality criteria over the prior five-year period. Rates for specific disorders ranged from 0.8% to 2.8%, with rates differing across countries, and by gender, educational level and other factors.[19] A US survey that incidentally screened for personality disorder found an overall rate of 14.79%.[20]

Child psychiatric disorders[edit]

Approximately 7% of a preschool pediatric sample were given a psychiatric diagnosis in one clinical study, and approximately 10% of 1- and 2-year-olds receiving developmental screening have been assessed as having significant emotional/behavioral problems based on parent and pediatrician reports.[21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Cross-national comparisons of the prevalences and correlates of mental disorders. WHO International Consortium in Psychiatric Epidemiology". Bull. World Health Organ. 78 (4): 413–26. 2000. doi:10.1590/S0042-96862000000400003. PMC 2560724. PMID 10885160. 
  2. ^ WHO | The world health report
  3. ^ Sherer R (January 2002). "Mental Health Care in the Developing World". Psychiatric Times XIX (1). 
  4. ^ Mental problems 'hit one in four'
  5. ^ The World Mental Health Survey Initiative
  6. ^ a b Demyttenaere K, Bruffaerts R, Posada-Villa J, et al. (June 2004). "Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys". JAMA 291 (21): 2581–90. doi:10.1001/jama.291.21.2581. PMID 15173149. 
  7. ^ Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis. "Global burden of obsessive-compulsive disorder in the year 2000". World Health Organization. Retrieved February 27, 2013. 
  8. ^ a b Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis. "Global burden of schizophrenia in the year 2000". World Health Organization. Retrieved February 27, 2013. 
  9. ^ Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis. "Global burden of bipolar disorder in the year 2000". World Health Organization. Retrieved December 9, 2012. 
  10. ^ Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis. "Global burden of panic disorder in the year 2000". World Health Organization. Retrieved February 27, 2013. 
  11. ^ Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Walters EE (June 2005). "Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication". Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 62 (6): 593–602. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.593. PMID 15939837. 
  12. ^ Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Merikangas KR, Walters EE (June 2005). "Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication". Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 62 (6): 617–27. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.617. PMC 2847357. PMID 15939839. 
  13. ^ US National Institute of Mental Health (2006) The Numbers Count: Mental Disorders in America Retrieved May 2007
  14. ^ Alonso J, Angermeyer MC, Bernert S, et al. (2004). "Prevalence of mental disorders in Europe: results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project". Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl 109 (420): 21–7. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0047.2004.00327.x. PMID 15128384. 
  15. ^ Wittchen HU, Jacobi F (August 2005). "Size and burden of mental disorders in Europe--a critical review and appraisal of 27 studies". Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 15 (4): 357–76. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2005.04.012. PMID 15961293. 
  16. ^ Somers JM, Goldner EM, Waraich P, Hsu L (February 2006). "Prevalence and incidence studies of anxiety disorders: a systematic review of the literature". Can J Psychiatry 51 (2): 100–13. PMID 16989109. 
  17. ^ Waraich P, Goldner EM, Somers JM, Hsu L (February 2004). "Prevalence and incidence studies of mood disorders: a systematic review of the literature". Can J Psychiatry 49 (2): 124–38. PMID 15065747. 
  18. ^ Saha S, Chant D, Welham J, McGrath J (May 2005). "A systematic review of the prevalence of schizophrenia". PLoS Med. 2 (5): e141. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020141. PMC 1140952. PMID 15916472. 
  19. ^ Torgersen S, Kringlen E, Cramer V (June 2001). "The prevalence of personality disorders in a community sample". Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 58 (6): 590–6. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.58.6.590. PMID 11386989. 
  20. ^ Grant BF, Hasin DS, Stinson FS, et al. (July 2004). "Prevalence, correlates, and disability of personality disorders in the United States: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions". J Clin Psychiatry 65 (7): 948–58. doi:10.4088/JCP.v65n0711. PMID 15291684. 
  21. ^ Carter AS, Briggs-Gowan MJ, Davis NO (January 2004). "Assessment of young children's social-emotional development and psychopathology: recent advances and recommendations for practice". J Child Psychol Psychiatry 45 (1): 109–34. doi:10.1046/j.0021-9630.2003.00316.x. PMID 14959805. 

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