Primary peritoneal carcinoma

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Primary peritoneal carcinoma
Classification and external resources
Serous carcinoma cytology.jpg
Micrograph of a serous carcinoma, which may arise from the peritoneal lining
ICD-10 C48.1-C48.2
ICD-9 158
MeSH D010534

Primary peritoneal cancer or carcinoma is also known as: serous surface papillary carcinoma, primary peritoneal carcinoma, extra-ovarian serous carcinoma, primary serous papillary carcinoma, psammomacarcinoma. It was historically classified under "carcinoma of unknown primary" (CUP). Primary peritoneal cancer (PPC, or PPCa)[1] is a cancer of the cells lining the peritoneum, or abdominal cavity.

Some studies indicate that up to 15% of serous ovarian cancers are thought to be actually primary peritoneal carcinomas in origin.[citation needed]

Histomorphological and molecular biological characteristics suggest that serous carcinomas, which include ovarian serous carcinoma, uterine serous carcinoma, Fallopian tube serous carcinoma, cervical serous carcinoma, and primary peritoneal serous carcinoma really represent one entity.[2]

Theory[edit]

Ovarian and peritoneal epithelium share common embryonal origin, the coelomic epithelium (mesodermal origin). Coelomic epithelium is thought to be of mesonephric origin. With the overall point being that normal ovarian and peritoneal tissue is derived from the mesonephros. On the contrary, fallopian tube epithelium, endometrium and endocervix are related to paramesonephros (Müllerian duct). Surprisingly, epithelial ovarian cancer and primary peritoneal cancer are histologically similar to the Mullerian epithelium; not their embryonal origin, the mesonephros. Either a metaplasia has occurred or Mullerian remnants have been left behind in coelemic epithelium, which have turned oncogenic.

Genetic causes[edit]

Although the precise causes are not known, a link with certain variants of BRCA1/2 has been described.[3] Furthermore, women with BRCA1/2 mutation have a 5% risk of developing primary peritoneal cancer even after prophylactic oophorectomy.

Primary peritoneal carcinoma shows similar rates of tumor suppressor gene dysfunction (p53, BRCA, WT1) as ovarian cancer and can also show an increased expression of HER-2/neu.

An association with vascular endothelial growth factor has been observed.[4]

Prognosis and treatment[edit]

Prognosis and treatment is the same as for the most common type of ovarian cancer, which is epithelial ovarian cancer.[5][6]

The median survival of primary peritoneal carcinomas is usually shorter by 2–6 months time when compared with serous ovarian cancer. Studies show median survival varies between 11.3–17.8 months. One study reported 19-40 month median survival (95% CI) with a 5 year survival of 26.5%.

Elevated albumin levels have been associated with a more favorable prognosis.[7]

Mesothelioma[edit]

This cancer involves mesothelial cells and thus could be medically described as mesothelioma, a rare form of cancer caused by exposure to asbestos.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jaaback KS, Ludeman L, Clayton NL, Hirschowitz L (2006). "Primary peritoneal carcinoma in a UK cancer center: comparison with advanced ovarian carcinoma over a 5-year period". Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer. 16 Suppl 1: 123–8. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1438.2006.00474.x. PMID 16515579. 
  2. ^ Dubeau, L. (Dec 2008). "The cell of origin of ovarian epithelial tumours.". Lancet Oncol 9 (12): 1191–7. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(08)70308-5. PMID 19038766. 
  3. ^ "Gynecologic Cancer Treatment — Primary Peritoneal Cancer — Dana-Farber Cancer Institute". 
  4. ^ Burger RA, Sill MW, Monk BJ, Greer BE, Sorosky JI (November 2007). "Phase II trial of bevacizumab in persistent or recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer or primary peritoneal cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study". J. Clin. Oncol. 25 (33): 5165–71. doi:10.1200/JCO.2007.11.5345. PMID 18024863. 
  5. ^ "New Drug Combination for Ovarian and Primary Peritoneal Cancers - National Cancer Institute". 
  6. ^ "eMedicine — Peritoneal Cancer : Article by Wissam Bleibel". 
  7. ^ Alphs HH, Zahurak ML, Bristow RE, Díaz-Montes TP (December 2006). "Predictors of surgical outcome and survival among elderly women diagnosed with ovarian and primary peritoneal cancer". Gynecol. Oncol. 103 (3): 1048–53. doi:10.1016/j.ygyno.2006.06.019. PMID 16876237. 

External links[edit]