Thunderclap headache

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Primary thunderclap headache)
Jump to: navigation, search
Thunderclap headache
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 G44.80
ICD-9 339.43
DiseasesDB 33023

A thunderclap headache is a headache that is severe and sudden-onset. It is defined as a severe headache that takes seconds to minutes to reach maximum intensity.[1][2] It can be indicative of a number of medical problems, most importantly subarachnoid hemorrhage, which can be life-threatening. Usually, further investigations are performed to identify the underlying cause.[1]

Signs and symptoms[edit]

A headache is called "thunderclap headache" if it is severe in character and reaches maximum severity within seconds to minutes of onset. In many cases, there are no other abnormalities, but the various causes of thunderclap headaches may lead to a number of neurological symptoms. The most important causes are subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and cervical artery dissection.[1]

In subarachnoid hemorrhage, there may be syncope (transient loss of consciousness), seizures, meningism (neck pain and stiffness), visual symptoms, and vomiting. 50–70% of people with subarachnoid hemorrhage have an isolated headache without decreased level of consciousness. The headache typically persists for several days.[1]

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, thrombosis of the veins of the brain, usually causes a headache that reflects raised intracranial pressure and is therefore made worse by anything that makes the pressure rise further, such as coughing. In 2–10% of cases, the headache is of thunderclap character. In most cases there are other neurological abnormalities, such as seizures and weakness of part of the body, but in 15–30% the headache is the only abnormality.[1]

Carotid artery dissection and vertebral artery dissection (together cervical artery dissection), in which a tear forms inside the wall of the blood vessels that supply the brain, often causes pain on the affected side of the head or neck. The pain usually precedes other problems that are caused by impaired blood flow through the artery into the brain; these may include visual symptoms, weakness of part of the body, and other abnormalities depending on the vessel affected.[1]

Causes[edit]

Thunderclap headaches can be caused by a number of primary conditions including:[1]

Diagnosis[edit]

The most important initial investigation is computed tomography of the brain, which is very sensitive for subarachnoid hemorrhage. If this is normal, a lumbar puncture is performed, as a small proportion of SAH is missed on CT and can still be detected as xanthochromia.[1][2]

If both investigations are normal, the specific description of the headache and the presence of other abnormalities may prompt further tests, usually involving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) may be useful in identifying problems with the arteries (such as dissection), and magnetic resonance venography (MRV) identifies venous thrombosis. It is not usually necessary to proceed to cerebral angiography, a more precise but invasive investigation of the brain's blood vessels, if MRA and MRV are normal.[1]

History[edit]

The importance of severe headaches in the diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage has been known since the 1920s, when London neurologist Charles Symonds described the clinical syndrome.[3][4] The term "thunderclap headache" was introduced in 1986 in a report by John Day and Neil Raskin, neurologists at the University of California, San Francisco, in a report of a 42-year old woman who had experienced several sudden headaches and was found to have an aneurysm that had not ruptured.[1][5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Schwedt TJ, Matharu MS, Dodick DW (July 2006). "Thunderclap headache". Lancet Neurol 5 (7): 621–31. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(06)70497-5. PMID 16781992. 
  2. ^ a b Edlow JA, Panagos PD, Godwin SA, Thomas TL, Decker WW (October 2008). "Clinical policy: critical issues in the evaluation and management of adult patients presenting to the emergency department with acute headache". Ann Emerg Med 52 (4): 407–36. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2008.07.001. PMID 18809105. 
  3. ^ Symonds CP (1924). "Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage". Quarterly Journal of Medicine 18: 93–122. doi:10.1093/qjmed/os-118.69.93. 
  4. ^ Longstreth WT, Koepsell TD, Yerby MS, van Belle G (1985). "Risk factors for subarachnoid hemorrhage" (PDF). Stroke 16 (3): 377–85. doi:10.1161/01.STR.16.3.377. PMID 3890278. 
  5. ^ Day JW, Raskin NH (November 1986). "Thunderclap headache: symptom of unruptured cerebral aneurysm". Lancet 2 (8518): 1247–8. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(86)92677-2. PMID 2878133. 

Further reading[edit]