List of Prime Ministers of Luxembourg

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The Prime Minister of Luxembourg is the head of government in Luxembourg. His official residence and office is in the Hôtel de Bourgogne at 4 rue de la Congrégation in the city of Luxembourg.

Since 1989, the title of Prime Minister has been an official one,[1] although the head of the government had been unofficially known by that name for some time. Between 1857 and 1989, the Prime Minister went by the name of the President of the Government,[2] with the exception of the 25-day premiership of Mathias Mongenast.[3] Before 1857, the Prime Minister was the President of the Council. In addition to these titles, the Prime Minister uses the title Minister of State, although this is usually relegated to a secondary title.

This is a list of Prime Ministers and governments since the post was founded, in 1848. In larger font are the dates of the Prime Ministers entering and leaving office. The smaller dates, during the respective premierships, are those of the Prime Ministers' governments. Luxembourg has a collegial governmental system; often, the government will present its resignation, only for the successor government to include many, if not most, of the previous ministers serving under the same Prime Minister. Each of the smaller dates reflects a change in the government without a change of Prime Minister.

The era of independents[edit]

From the promulgation of the first constitution, in 1848, until the early twentieth century, Luxembourgish politics was dominated by independent politicians and statesmen.[4] The prerogative powers of the Grand Duke remained undiluted, and, as such, the monarch actively chose and personally appointed the Prime Minister. As a result, the Prime Minister was often a moderate, without any strong affiliation to either of the two major ideological factions in the Chamber of Deputies: the secularist liberals and the Catholic conservatives.

In the early twentieth century, the emergence of socialism as a third force in Luxembourgish politics ended the dominance of independents, and further politicised the government of the country.[4] This did not affect the Prime Minister's position until 1915, when the long-serving Paul Eyschen died in office. His death created a struggle for power between the main factions, leading to the establishment of the formalised party system.[5]

Prime Minister Term of office
Start End
G.T.I. de la Fontaine Gaspard De La Fontaine.jpg 1 August 1848 6 December 1848
First Prime Minister. Resigned following a Vote of no confidence.[6]
Jean-Jacques Willmar Jean-Jacques Willmar.jpg 6 December 1848 23 September 1853
Dismissed by the Governor[7]
Mathias Simons Mathias Simon.JPG 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
23 September 1853
23 September 1854
24 May 1856
2 June 1857
29 November 1857
12 November 1858
23 June 1859
15 July 1859
23 September 1854
24 May 1856
2 June 1857
29 November 1857
12 November 1858
23 June 1859
15 July 1859

26 September 1860
Coup of 1856. President of the Council until November 1857;
thereafter President of the Government. Resigned.[8]
Victor, Baron de Tornaco Victor de Tornaco.jpg 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
26 September 1860
9 September 1863
31 March 1864
26 January 1866
3 December 1866
14 December 1866
18 June 1867
9 September 1863
31 March 1864
26 January 1866
3 December 1866
14 December 1866
18 June 1867

3 December 1867
Shortest cabinet, December 1866. Luxembourg Crisis; Treaty of London.
Resigned following a Vote of no confidence.[9]
Emmanuel Servais E Servais.jpg 1
2
3
4
5
3 December 1867
30 September 1869
12 October 1869
7 February 1870
25 May 1873
30 September 1869
12 October 1869
7 February 1870
25 May 1873

26 December 1874
Resigned.[10]
Félix, Baron de Blochausen Blochausenfelix.jpg 1
2
3
4
5
6
26 December 1874
26 April 1875
8 July 1876
6 August 1878
21 September 1882
12 October 1882
26 April 1875
8 July 1876
6 August 1878
21 September 1882
12 October 1882

20 February 1885
Dismissed by the Grand Duke.[11]
Édouard Thilges Edouard Thilges.jpg 20 February 1885 22 September 1888
Resigned.[12]
Paul Eyschen Paul Eyschen photograph by Grieser.jpg 1
2
3
4
5
6
22 September 1888
26 October 1892
23 June 1896
25 October 1905
9 January 1910
3 March 1915
26 October 1892
23 June 1896
25 October 1905
9 January 1910
3 March 1915

11 October 1915
Longest premiership. Longest cabinet 1896–1905.
Luxembourg occupied by Germany on 2 August 1914. Died in office.[5]
Mathias Mongenast Mongenast Mathias.jpg 12 October 1915 6 November 1915
Shortest premiership. Ruled as President of the Council. Resigned.[3]
Hubert Loutsch Luxembourg politic personality icon.svg 6 November 1915 24 February 1916
Minority government.[13] Resigned following a Vote of no confidence.[13]
Victor Thorn Luxembourg politic personality icon.svg 24 February 1916 19 June 1917
National Union Government. Resigned.[14]
Léon Kauffman Luxembourg politic personality icon.svg 19 June 1917 28 September 1918
Resigned.[15]

The party system[edit]

In 1918, towards the end of the First World War, a new Chamber of Deputies was elected with the explicit ambition of reviewing the constitution.[15] To this end, formalised parties were formed by the main political blocs, so as to increase their bargaining power in the negotiations. The revisions to the constitution introduced universal suffrage and compulsory voting, adopted proportional representation, and limited the sovereignty of the monarch.

Since the foundation of the party system, only one cabinet (between 1921 and 1925) has not included members of more than one party. Most of the time, governments are grand coalitions of the two largest parties, no matter their ideology; this has made Luxembourg one of the most stable democracies in the world.[16] Two cabinets (between 1945 and 1947) included members of every party represented in the Chamber of Deputies.

During the occupation of Luxembourg by Nazi Germany, Luxembourg was governed by a Nazi Party official, Gustav Simon. Pierre Dupong continued to lead the government in exile in the United Kingdom until the liberation of Luxembourg in December 1944, whereupon the constitutional Luxembourg government returned to the Grand Duchy. Thus, although Luxembourg was formally annexed on 30 August 1942, the Prime Minister of the government in exile, Pierre Dupong, is assumed to have remained Prime Minister throughout.

Political Party:       PD       PNI       CSV       DP

Prime Minister Party Term of office Government Coalition
Election Start End
Émile Reuter Luxembourg politic personality icon.svg PD
1919
1922
28 September 1918
5 January 1920
15 April 1921
5 January 1920
15 April 1921

20 March 1925
Reuter (a)
Reuter (b)
Reuter (c)
PD, LL
PD, LL
PD
First partisan government. Armistice; Constitution amended.[15] Only one-party cabinet 1921–25. Resigned.[17]
Pierre Prüm Luxembourg politic personality icon.svg PNI 1925 20 March 1925 16 July 1926 Prüm PNI, PRS
Only PNI premiership. Resigned.[18]
Joseph Bech
(1st time)
Joseph Bech (detail).jpg PD 1928, 31
1934
1937
16 July 1926
11 April 1932
27 December 1936
11 April 1932
27 December 1936

5 November 1937
Bech (a)
Bech (b)
Bech (c)
PD, LdG
PD, PRL
PD, PRL
Longest party-era cabinet 1926–32. Resigned.[19]
Pierre Dupong Luxembourg politic personality icon.svg PD


5 November 1937
7 February 1938
6 April 1940
10 May 1940
7 February 1938
6 April 1940
10 May 1940
23 November 1944
Dupong-Krier (a)
Dupong-Krier (b)
Dupong-Krier (c)
Govt. in Exile
PD, POL, PRL
PD, POL
PD, POL
PD, POL
CSV


1945


1948
1951
23 November 1944
23 February 1945
21 April 1945
14 November 1945
29 August 1946
1 March 1947
14 July 1948
3 July 1951
23 February 1945
21 April 1945
14 November 1945
29 August 1946
1 March 1947
14 July 1948
3 July 1951

23 December 1953
Liberation (a)
Liberation (b)
Liberation (c)
National Union (a)
National Union (b)

Dupong-Schaus (a)
Dupong-Schaus (b)

Dupong-Bodson
CSV, LSAP
CSV, LSAP
CSV, LSAP
CSV, LSAP, GD, KPL
CSV, LSAP, GD, KPL
CSV, LSAP, GD
CSV, LSAP, GD
CSV, LSAP
World War II; Luxembourg remained neutral.[20] Emergency government; Nazi occupation; government in exile.

Liberation Governments;[21] neutrality ended.[22] National Union Governments.[23] Died in office.[24]

Joseph Bech
(2nd time)
Joseph Bech (detail).jpg CSV
1954
29 December 1953
29 June 1954
29 June 1954
29 March 1958
Bech-Bodson (a)
Bech-Bodson (b)
CSV, LSAP
CSV, LSAP
Resigned.[25]
Pierre Frieden Luxembourg politic personality icon.svg CSV 1959 29 March 1958 23 February 1959 Frieden CSV, LSAP
Won 1959 election; died in office.[26]
Pierre Werner
(1st time)
Pierre Werner 204g.jpg CSV
1964

1968

2 March 1959
15 July 1964
3 January 1967
6 February 1969
5 July 1971
19 September 1972
15 July 1964
3 January 1967
6 February 1969
5 July 1971
19 September 1972

15 June 1974
Werner-Schaus I
Werner-Cravatte (a)
Werner-Cravatte (b)

Werner-Schaus II(a)
Werner-Schaus II(b)
Werner-Schaus II(c)
CSV, LSAP, DP
CSV, LSAP
CSV, LSAP
CSV, DP
CSV, DP
CSV, DP
Longest party-era premiership. Went into opposition following 1974 election.[27]
Gaston Thorn Thorn Van Agt 1980 cropped.jpg DP 1974

15 June 1974
21 July 1976
16 September 1977
21 July 1976
16 September 1977

16 July 1979
Thorn (a)
Thorn (b)
Thorn (c)
DP, LSAP
DP, LSAP
DP, LSAP
First DP premiership. Became Deputy Prime Minister under Werner when CSV returned to government following 1979 election.[28]
Pierre Werner
(2nd time)
Pierre Werner 204g.jpg CSV 1979


16 July 1979
3 March 1980
22 November 1980
21 December 1982
3 March 1980
22 November 1980
21 December 1982

20 July 1984
Werner-Thorn (a)
Werner-Thorn (b)

Werner-Flesch (a)
Werner-Flesch (b)
CSV, DP
CSV, DP
CSV, DP
CSV, DP
Retired at 1984 election.[29]
Jacques Santer Jacques Santer cropped.jpg CSV 1984
1989

1994
20 July 1984
14 July 1989
9 December 1992
13 July 1994
14 July 1989
9 December 1992
13 July 1994

26 January 1995
Santer-Poos I
Santer-Poos II(a)
Santer-Poos II(b)

Santer-Poos III
CSV, LSAP
CSV, LSAP
CSV, LSAP
CSV, LSAP
President of the Government until 1989; Prime Minister from 1989. Appointed EC President.[30]
Jean-Claude Juncker EPP Election night 2014 (14267931524).jpg CSV

1999
2004
2009
26 January 1995
4 February 1998
7 August 1999
31 July 2004
23 July 2009
4 February 1998
7 August 1999
31 July 2004
23 July 2009

4 December 2013
Juncker-Poos (a)
Juncker-Poos (b)

Juncker-Polfer
Juncker-Asselborn I
Juncker-Asselborn II
CSV, LSAP
CSV, LSAP
CSV, DP
CSV, LSAP
CSV, LSAP
Longest uninterrupted party-era premiership. Former President of the Euro Group.
Xavier Bettel Xavier Bettel Royal Wedding 2012 cropped.jpg DP 2013 4 December 2013 Incumbent Bettel-Schneider DP, LSAP, DG
Second DP premiership.

Xavier Bettel Jean-Claude Juncker Jacques Santer Pierre Werner Gaston Thorn Pierre Werner Pierre Frieden Joseph Bech Pierre Dupong Pierre Dupong Joseph Bech Pierre Prüm Émile Reuter

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Thewes (2003), p.209
  2. ^ Thewes (2003), p.21
  3. ^ a b Thewes (2003), p.65
  4. ^ a b Thewes (2003), p.8
  5. ^ a b Thewes (2003), p.64
  6. ^ Thewes (2003), p.16
  7. ^ Thewes (2003), p.20
  8. ^ Thewes (2003), p.28
  9. ^ Thewes (2003), p.34
  10. ^ Thewes (2003), p.42
  11. ^ Thewes (2003), p.48
  12. ^ Thewes (2003), p.52
  13. ^ a b Thewes (2003), p.66
  14. ^ Thewes (2003), p.69
  15. ^ a b c Thewes (2003), p.76
  16. ^ Weston, Steve (2 March 2003). "Luxembourg Country Commercial Guide FY 2003: Political Environment". Retrieved 28 June 2006. [dead link]
  17. ^ Thewes (2003), p.88
  18. ^ Thewes (2003), p.90
  19. ^ Thewes (2003), p.104
  20. ^ Thewes (2003), p.107
  21. ^ Thewes (2003), p.115
  22. ^ Thewes (2003), p.118
  23. ^ Thewes (2003), p.122
  24. ^ Thewes (2003), p.140
  25. ^ Thewes (2003), p.148
  26. ^ Thewes (2003), p.151
  27. ^ Thewes (2003), p.182
  28. ^ Thewes (2003), p.192
  29. ^ Thewes (2003), p.204
  30. ^ Thewes (2003), p.222

References[edit]

External links[edit]