List of premiers of Newfoundland and Labrador

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Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador

The Premier of Newfoundland and Labrador is the First Minister for the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, which was at certain points in its history a colony, dominion, and province. The province had a system of responsible government from 1855 to 1934, and again since 1949. Newfoundland became a British crown colony in 1855, in 1907 it became a dominion, and in 1949, it became a province and joined Canadian Confederation. Since then, the province has been a part of the Canadian federation and has kept its own legislature to deal with provincial matters. The province was named Newfoundland and Labrador in 2001.[1]

The province has a unicameral Westminster-style parliamentary government, in which the Premier is the leader of the party that controls the most seats in the House of Assembly. The Premier is Newfoundland and Labrador's head of government, and the Queen of Canada is its head of state and is represented by the Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland and Labrador. The Premier picks a cabinet from the elected members to form the Executive Council of Newfoundland and Labrador, and presides over that body. Members are first elected to the House during general elections. General elections must be conducted every four years from the date of the last election. An election may also take place if the governing party loses the confidence of the legislature by the defeat of a supply bill or tabling of a confidence motion.[2]

From 1855 to 1908, the position of First Minister was known as Prime Minister and later Premier. After the colony was granted dominion status, the position became known as Prime Minister.[3] Democratic government was suspended in 1934 and replaced by an appointed Commission of Government, until 1949 Newfoundland became a province of Canada. Since the reinstitution of democratic government in 1949, the position of First Minister has been known as Premier.[4]

Since 1855, Newfoundland and Labrador has been led by ten Colonial Premiers, nine Dominion Prime Ministers, three Chairmen of Commission of Government, and eleven Provincial Premiers. Of the Provincial Premiers five are from the Liberal Party, and six are from the Progressive Conservative Party.

Premiers of the Newfoundland Colony (1855-1907)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
District
Term of office Electoral mandates (Parliament) Political party
1
Philip Francis Little.jpg
Philip Francis Little
(1824–1897)
MHA for St. John's
7 May[5]
1855
16 July[6]
1858
Liberal Party
First premier as colony achieves responsible government.
2
JohnKent(prowse).jpg
John Kent
(1805–1872)
MHA for St. John's East
1858 March[7]
1861
Liberal Party
Largely supported by Catholics, Kent was dismissed by the governor after accusing him of conspiring against the government. The subsequent election was fought on sectarian lines; rioting broke out when the governor cancelled voting in the Catholic town of Harbour Grace thus denying Kent two seats needed to prevent a Conservative majority.
3
HughHoyles1861.jpg
Sir Hugh Hoyles
(1814–1888)
March
1861
1865 Conservative Party
Appointed by the governor after his predecessor's dismissal, Hoyle narrowly won the subsequent election. Government tried to reduce sectarian tensions by inviting Catholics into his cabinet and including them in patronage appointments.
4
(1 of 2)
FrederickCarter.jpg
Sir Frederick Carter
(1819–1900)
1865 1870 Conservative Party
Proposed confederation with Canada but was defeated by Anti-Confederate opposition in 1869.
5
Charles Fox Bennett.jpg
Charles Fox Bennett
(1793–1883)
MHA for Placentia—St. Mary's
14 February[8]
1870
30 January[8]
1874
Anti-Confederation Party
Opposed confederation with Canada; abolished mining royalties; increased geological survey grant and funds for roads and public works; improved coastal steamship service and instituted direct shipping service to England; reorganized Newfoundland Constabulary to take over policing duties after British garrison withdrawn; acquiesced to US fishing rights in Treaty of Washington (1871); began a lead mine at Port au Port, challenging France's rights to the French Shore, but was forced to close by UK government.
4
(2 of 2)
FrederickCarter.jpg
Sir Frederick Carter
(1819–1900)
MHA for Twillingate—Fogo
30 January[9]
1874
April[10]
1878
Conservative Party
Created publicly funded denominational school system
6
(1 of 3)
Whiteway.jpg
Sir William Whiteway
(1828–1908)
MHA for Trinity Bay
April[10]
1878
October[10]
1885
Conservative Party
Non-sectarian government including Catholics and Protestants; Proposed and arranged financing for construction of the transinsular railway in order to develop and diversify the economy; government collapsed following sectarian riots in Harbour Grace when several Protestant ministers quit to protest government's conciliatory attitude towards Catholics.
7
Rthorburn.jpg
Sir Robert Thorburn
(1836–1906)
MHA for Trinity Bay
12 October[11]
1885
1889 Reform Party
Rejected preceding government's railway plan in order to focus on developing fishery based economy; belatedly attempted to invest in public works when fishery downturn caused economic stagnation.
6
(2 of 3)
Whiteway.jpg
Sir William Whiteway
(1828–1908)
1889 1894 Liberal Party
Continued development of the railway; government lost power due to corruption scandal.
8
No image.svg
Augustus F. Goodridge
(1839–1920)
April[12]
1894
December
1894
Tory Party
9
No image.svg
Daniel Joseph Greene
(1850–1911)
13 December[13]
1894
8 February[13]
1895
Liberal Party
6
(3 of 3)
Whiteway.jpg
Sir William Whiteway
(1828–1908)
1895 1897 Liberal Party
Failed negotiations with Canada to enter confederation.
10
No image.svg
Sir James Spearman Winter
(1845–1911)
1897 5 March[14]
1900
Tory Party
11
Robert Bond.jpg
Sir Robert Bond
(1857–1927)
15 March[15]
1900
1907 Liberal Party
Settlement of French Shore territorial dispute giving Newfoundland undisputed control of the island; failed attempt to negotiate free trade with the United States.

Prime Ministers of the Dominion of Newfoundland (1907-1934)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
District
Term of office Electoral mandates (Parliament) Political party
1
Robert Bond.jpg
Sir Robert Bond
(1857–1927)
1907 1909 Liberal Party
Colony achieves dominion status as a result of the 1907 Imperial Conference. Bond continues as the island's leader with the new title of prime minister.
2
Sir Edward Morris - Bain Collection crop.jpg
Sir Edward Patrick Morris
(1859–1935)
1909 1917 People's Party
Expansion of the transinsular railway; allowed speculators to buy timber rights on Crown land. Second term was dominated by the war, introduced income tax and formed a wartime national government. Represented Newfoundland at Imperial War Conference. Upon retirement became first and only Newfoundland born person to be raised to the peerage.
3
John Chalker Crosbie.png
Sir John Crosbie
(1876–1932)
1917 1918 People's Party
4
No image.svg
Sir William F. Lloyd
(1864–1937)
1918 1919 Liberal Party (national government)
Introduced conscription for the Newfoundland Regiment; led coalition government through the conclusion of the war.
5
No image.svg
Sir Michael Patrick Cashin
(1864–1926)
1919 1919 People's Party
6
Richard Squires.jpg
Sir Richard Squires
(1880–1940)
1919 July[16]
1923
Liberal Reform Party
Attempted to diversify the economy and to reform the fisheries; nationalized the financially struggling transinsular railway; government fell due to a bribery scandal.
7
No image.svg
William Warren
(1879–1927)
July[17]
1923
April[17]
1924
Liberal Reform Party
8
No image.svg
Albert Hickman
(1875–1943)
April[17]
1924
1924
  • Inter-election appt. (no assembly)
none (caretaker)
9
Walter Stanley Monroe.jpg
Walter Stanley Monroe
(1871–1952)
1924 15 August[18]
1928
Liberal-Conservative Party
Settlement of the Labrador boundary dispute with Quebec after Newfoundland successfully argued its case at the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London.
10
No image.svg
Frederick C. Alderdice
(1872–1936)
15 August[18]
1928
1928 Liberal-Conservative Party
(6)
Richard Squires.jpg
Sir Richard Squires
(1880–1940)
1928 11 June[18]
1932
Liberal Party
Attempted to govern during the Great Depression which saw a collapse of fish prices and widespread unemployment; Newfoundland requested to join Confederation in exchange for a bailout but was rejected by Canada; economic instability and allegations of corruption inflamed public opinion resulting in a riot and the fall of the government.
(10)
No image.svg
Frederick C. Alderdice
(1872–1936)
11 June[18]
1932
16 February[18]
1934
United Newfoundland Party
Alderdice's United Newfoundland Party wins election on the promise that it will examine the possibility of suspending the constitution and having a commission administer the country until the financial crisis improves. UK and Canada agree to give the dominion financial aid in exchange for a Royal Commission on the Newfoundland's future. Alderdice accepts the Commission's recommendation to suspend responsible government and replace it with a Commission of Government appointed by London.

Chairmen of the Commission of Government (1934-1949)[edit]

With the suspension of responsible government and Newfoundland's dominion status, the colony was administered by the Commission of Government, from 1934 to 1949. It was a body of seven appointed by the British government, made up of three British officials, three Newfoundlanders, and chaired by the Governor of Newfoundland.[19]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office
1
David Murray Anderson.jpg
Admiral Sir David Murray Anderson
(1874–1936)
16 February 1934[18] October 1935[20]
2
Humphrey T. Walwyn.jpg
Vice-Admiral Sir Humphrey T. Walwyn
(1879–1957)
February 1936[21] 16 January 1946[20]
3
No image.svg
Gordon MacDonald
(1888–1966)
16 January 1946[20] 1 April 1949[20]

Premiers of the Province of Newfoundland (1949-2001)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
District
Term of office[22] Electoral mandates (Assembly) Political party
1
Joseph Smallwood signing Newfoundland into Confederation.jpg
Joey Smallwood
(1900–1991)
1 April[23]
1949
18 January
1972
Liberal Party
Named leader in 1949
Led successful campaign for Newfoundland to join Canada; longest serving first minister in Newfoundland history; creation of welfare state; development of hydroelectricity, mining and paper industries; Churchill Falls Generating Station and hyrdo contract with Quebec.
2
No image.svg
Frank Moores
(1933–2005)
MHA for Humber West
18 January[23]
1972
26 March
1979
Progressive Conservative Party
Named leader in 1970
First Progressive Conservative premier; emphasized rural development and resource control
3
No image.svg
Brian Peckford
(b. 1942)
MHA for Green Bay
26 March[23]
1979
22 March
1989
Progressive Conservative Party
Named leader in 1979
Youngest first minister in Newfoundland history; Negotiated first Atlantic Accord with Ottawa to give province greater say in and financial benefit from offshore energy exploitation; Hibernia oil field development; new provincial flag, expansion of high school to grade 12; construction of Trans-Labrador Highway; creation of the Department of the Environment.
4
No image.svg
Tom Rideout
(b. 1948)
MHA for Baie Verte-Springdale
22 March[23]
1989
5 May
1989
Progressive Conservative Party
Named leader in 1989
5
No image.svg
Clyde Wells
(b. 1937)
MHA for Bay of Islands
5 May[23]
1989
26 January
1996
Liberal Party
Named leader in 1987
Obstructed the Meech Lake Accord, negotiated Charlottetown Accord, creation of a public school system replacing two parochial streams, budgetary reform, economic diversification in response to collapse of the Atlantic northwest cod fishery.
6
Briantobin.jpg
Brian Tobin
(b. 1954)
26 January[23]
1996
16 October
2000
Liberal Party
Named leader in 1996
Completed replacement of separate school system with public schools,
7
No image.svg
Beaton Tulk
(b. 1944)
MHA for Bonavista North
16 October[23]
2000
13 February
2001
Liberal Party
Named leader in interim
8
Roger Grimes cropped.jpg
Roger Grimes
(b. 1950)
MHA for Exploits
13 February[23]
2001
6 December[1]
2001
Liberal Party
Named leader in 2001

Premiers of the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador (2001-present)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
District
Term of office[22] Electoral mandates (Assembly) Political party
8
Roger Grimes cropped.jpg
Roger Grimes
(b. 1950)
MHA for Exploits
6 December[1]
2001
6 November
2003
Liberal Party
Named leader in 2001
Royal Commission on Renewing and Strengthening Our Place in Canada
9
Newfoundland Premier Danny Williams.jpg
Danny Williams
(b. 1949)
MHA for Humber West
6 November[23]
2003
3 December[24]
2010
Progressive Conservative Party
Named leader in 2001
Reorganization, of health and education; negotiated Second Atlantic Accord to keep 100% of oil revenues in the province; negotiated deals to develop Hebron offshore oil field and expand Hibernia oil field; successfully opposed sale of New Brunswick Power to Hydro-Québec; further development of Lower Churchill Project and Muskrat Falls with transmission lines to Maritimes and the US;
10
Kathy Dunderdale 31May2011.jpg
Kathy Dunderdale
(b. 1952)
MHA for Virginia Waters
3 December[25]
2010
24 January
2014
Progressive Conservative Party
Named leader in 2011[1]
First female premier; school board consolidation; further resource development; sanctioning of Muskrat Falls and negotiation of federal loan guarantee for the project;
11
No image.svg
Tom Marshall
(b. c. 1946)
MHA for Humber East
24 January[26]
2014
Progressive Conservative Party
Named leader in 2014 (interim)
1.^ Dunderdale was named interim Progressive Conservative Party leader on 26 November 2010,[24] she was not elected party leader until 2 April 2011.[27]

Timeline of Newfoundland Premiers[edit]

Tom Marshall (politician) Kathy Dunderdale Danny Williams (politician) Roger Grimes Beaton Tulk Brian Tobin Clyde Wells Tom Rideout Brian Peckford Frank Moores Joey Smallwood

Living former premiers[edit]

As of January 2014, eight former premiers are alive, the oldest being Clyde Wells (1989–1996, born 1937). The most recent former premier to die was Frank Moores (1972–1979), on 10 July 2005.

Name Term Date of birth
Brian Peckford 1979–1989 (1942-08-27) 27 August 1942 (age 71)
Tom Rideout 1989 (1948-06-25) 25 June 1948 (age 66)
Clyde Wells 1989–1996 (1937-11-09) 9 November 1937 (age 76)
Brian Tobin 1996–2000 (1954-10-21) 21 October 1954 (age 59)
Beaton Tulk 2000–2001 (1944-05-22) 22 May 1944 (age 70)
Roger Grimes 2001–2003 (1950-05-02) 2 May 1950 (age 64)
Danny Williams 2003–2010 (1949-08-04) 4 August 1949 (age 64)
Kathy Dunderdale 2010–2014 (1952-02-05) 5 February 1952 (age 62)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

General
Specific
  1. ^ a b c "Newfoundland". Library and Archives Canada. 2 May 2005. Archived from the original on 8 June 2008. Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  2. ^ "History of the House of Assembly". Newfoundland and Labrador House of Assembly. Retrieved November 12, 2008. 
  3. ^ "Colonial Governors, 1855-1933". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved November 12, 2008. 
  4. ^ "Lieutenant-Governors, 1949-Present". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved November 12, 2008. 
  5. ^ Tapin, Glen W. (1970). Canadian Chronology. Scarecrow Press. p. 149. 
  6. ^ "Little, Philip Francis". Public Archives of Canada. 1956. Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  7. ^ University of Toronto/Université Laval (2000). "Kent, John". Dictionary of Canada Biography Online. Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  8. ^ a b University of Toronto/Université Laval (2000). "Bennett, Charles James Fox". Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online. Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  9. ^ University of Toronto/Université Laval (2000). "Carter, Sir Frederic Bowker Terrington". Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online. Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  10. ^ a b c University of Toronto/Université Laval (2000). "Whiteway, Sir William Vallance". Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online. Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  11. ^ University of Toronto/Université Laval (2000). "Thorburn, Sir Robert". Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online. Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  12. ^ http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/augustus-f-goodridge
  13. ^ a b http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/daniel-joseph-greene
  14. ^ http://www.biographi.ca/009004-119.01-e.php?&id_nbr=7778
  15. ^ http://www.biographi.ca/009004-119.01-e.php?&id_nbr=7899
  16. ^ http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/sir-richard-anderson-squires
  17. ^ a b c Pitt, Robert. "William Robertson Warren". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica-Dominion. Retrieved May 21, 2012. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f "Hon. F.C. Alderdice dead in St. John's". The Gazette. February 27, 1936. Retrieved May 21, 2013. 
  19. ^ "Commission Governors, 1934-1948". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved 12 November 2008. 
  20. ^ a b c d http://www.britishempire.co.uk/maproom/newfoundland/newfoundlandadmin.htm
  21. ^ http://www.heritage.nf.ca/govhouse/governors/g67.html
  22. ^ a b "Former Premiers". Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Newfoundland and Labrador". Parliamentary website. Library of Parliament. Retrieved May 24, 2013. 
  24. ^ a b "N.L. Premier Danny Williams to leave Dec. 3". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. November 26, 2010. Retrieved July 26, 2011. 
  25. ^ "Kathy Dunderdale sworn in as N.L. Premier". CTV News. December 3, 2010. Retrieved March 19, 2011. 
  26. ^ "Tom Marshall sworn in as 11th premier". CBC News. 24 January 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2014. 
  27. ^ "Dunderdale takes risk with Harper pledge". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. April 4, 2011. Retrieved July 26, 2011.