Prime Minister of Thailand

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Prime Minister of Thailand
นายกรัฐมนตรีไทย
Flag of the Prime Minister of Thailand.svg
Standard of the Prime Minister
Prayuth Jan-ocha 2010-06-17 Cropped.jpg
Incumbent
Prayuth Chan-ocha

since 24 August 2014
Style His Excellency
Residence Phitsanulok Mansion
Appointer King of Thailand
Term length Unspecified
(under 2014 constitution)
Inaugural holder Phraya Manopakorn Nititada
Formation Constitution of Thailand,
28 June 1932
Website www.thaigov.go.th
Garuda Emblem of Thailand.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Thailand
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The Prime Minister of Thailand (Thai: นายกรัฐมนตรีไทย; RTGS: Nayok Ratthamontri Thai) is the head of government of Thailand. The Prime Minister is also the chair of the Cabinet of Thailand. The post has existed since the Revolution of 1932, when the country became a constitutional monarchy.

The Prime Minister is appointed by a vote in the Thai House of Representatives by a simple majority, and is then sworn-in by the King of Thailand. The House's selection is usually based on the fact that either the prime minister is the leader of the largest political party in the lower house or the leader of the largest coalition of parties. In accordance with the constitution, the prime minister can only be appointed twice and is therefore limited to a maximum of two consecutive terms. The post of Prime Minister is currently held by General Prayuth Chan-ocha, since the coup d'état on 22 May 2014.

History[edit]

The office of the "President of the People's Committee" (ประธานคณะกรรมการราษฎร), later changed to "Prime Minister of Siam" (นายกรัฐมนตรีสยาม), was first created in the Temporary Constitution of 1932. The office was modeled after the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, as Siam became a parliamentary democracy in 1932 after a bloodless revolution. However the idea of a separate head of government in Thailand is not new.

Prior to 1932 Thailand was ruled by absolute monarchs, who acted as both the head of state and the government. However during the middle and latter reigns of the Chakri Dynasty several individuals were perceived to hold a post equivalent to a head of government. During the reign of King Mongkut: Somdet Chao Phraya Si Suriyawongse, had a very significant role in an otherwise absolutist system. During the reign of King Chulalongkorn, Prince Damrong Rajanubhab took over this role. In fact the office most considered the precursor of that of the Prime Minister was the ancient office of Samuha Nayok (สมุหนายก), which was run by an Akkhra Maha Senabodi (อัครมหาเสนาบดี) or Chief Minister in charge of civilian affairs.

The first Prime Minister of Siam was Phraya Manopakorn Nititada, a judge. The title of the office was changed from "Prime Minister of Siam" to "Prime Minister of Thailand" in 1945 and then permanently with the renaming of Siam to Thailand in 1949. For most of its existence the office has been occupied by Army leaders; sixteen out of twenty-nine, including the incumbent General Prayuth Chan-ocha. Military dominance began with the country's second Prime Minister: Phot Phahonyothin, who ousted his civilian predecessor in a coup in 1933. The longest serving Prime Minister was Field Marshal Plaek Pibulsonggram at 14 years, 11 months and 18 days. The shortest was Tawee Boonyaket at only just 18 days.[1] Nine were removed by coups d'état, three were disqualified by court order, and eleven resigned from office. The youngest ever to occupy office was M.R. Seni Pramoj at 40 years old. Thailand received its first female prime minister, Yingluck Shinawatra, in 2011. Every Prime Minister since Manopakorn Nititada has been Buddhist.

Appointment[edit]

The Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Thailand must be a member of the House of Representatives.[2] Therefore the qualifications for the office of Prime Minister are the same as the qualifications for membership in the House.

To be appointed, the nominee for the office must have the support of one-fifth of the members of the House of Representatives. Then after a simple-majority vote in the House, a resolution will be passed and submitted to the King, who will then make a formal appointment by giving his royal assent to the resolution. This must take place within thirty days after the beginning of the first session of the House of Representatives after an election. If no candidate can be found within this time period, then it is the duty of the President of the National Assembly of Thailand to submit the name considered most worthy for the King to formalize.

The nominee and eventual Prime Minister is always the leader of the largest political party in the lower house or the leader of the majority coalition formed after an election.

Function[edit]

The Prime Minister is the de facto chair of the Cabinet of Thailand. The appointment and removal of Ministers can only be made with their advice. As the leader of the government the Prime Minister is therefore ultimately responsible for the failings and performance of their Ministers and the government as a whole. The Prime Minister cannot hold office for a consecutive period of more than eight years. As the most visible member of the government the Prime Minister represents the country abroad and is the main spokesperson for the government at home. The Prime Minister must, under the constitution, lead the Cabinet in announcing the government's policy statement in front of a joint-session of the National Assembly, within fifteen days of being sworn-in.[3]

The Prime Minister is also directly responsible for many departments, these include: the National Intelligence Agency, the Bureau of the Budget, the Office of the National Security Council, the Office of the Council of State, the Office of the Civil Service Commission, the Office of the National Economic and Social Development Board, the Office of Public Sector Development Commission and the Internal Security Operations Command. Legislatively all money bills introduced in the National Assembly must require the Prime Minister's approval.

The Prime Minister can be removed by a vote of no confidence. This process can be evoked, firstly with the vote of only one-fifth of the members of the House of Representatives for a debate on the matter. Then after the debate a vote will be taken and with a simple majority the Prime Minister can be removed. This process cannot be repeated within one parliamentary session.

Office and Residence[edit]

The Prime Minister is aided in their work by the Office of the Prime Minister (สำนักนายกรัฐมนตรี) a cabinet-level department headed usually by two Ministers of State. These offices are housed in the Government House of Thailand (ทำเนียบรัฐบาล) in the Dusit area of Bangkok.

The official residence of the Prime Minister is Phitsanulok Mansion (บ้านพิษณุโลก) at the center of Bangkok. The Mansion was built during the reign of King Vajiravudh, it became an official residence in 1979. The Mansion is however rumored to have many ghosts,[4] therefore most Prime Ministers live at their own private residences and only use the house for official business.

Deputy Prime Minister[edit]

Several deputy Prime Ministers of Thailand (รองนายกรัฐมนตรี) can be appointed. This position can be combined with other ministerial portfolios. Currently the post of deputy Prime Minister is vacant.

Office Name Appointment Another office
Deputy Prime Minister
for public security
Prawit Wongsuwan 30 August 2014 Minister of Defence
Deputy Prime Minister
for economy
Pridiyathorn Devakula 30 August 2014
Deputy Prime Minister
for sociology
Yongyut Yuttawong 30 August 2014
Deputy Prime Minister
for foreign affairs
Thanasak Patimaprakorn 30 August 2014 Minister of Foreign Affairs
Deputy Prime Minister
for statute
Wisanu Krueangam 30 August 2014

Note: † Military officers

List of Prime Ministers[edit]

The Standard of the Prime Minister of Thailand

Timeline[edit]

Prayuth Chan-ocha Yingluck Shinawatra Abhisit Vejjajiva Somchai Wongsawat Samak Sundaravej Surayud Chulanont Thaksin Shinawatra Chuan Leekpai Chavalit Yongchaiyudh Banharn Silpa-archa Chuan Leekpai Anand Panyarachun Suchinda Kraprayoon Anand Panyarachun Chatichai Choonhavan Prem Tinsulanonda Kriangsak Chomanan Thanin Kraivichien Seni Pramoj Kukrit Pramoj Seni Pramoj Sanya Dharmasakti Thanom Kittikachorn Sarit Thanarat Thanom Kittikachorn Pote Sarasin Plaek Phibunsongkhram Khuang Aphaiwong Thawan Thamrongnawasawat Pridi Banomyong Khuang Aphaiwong Seni Pramoj Tawee Boonyaket Khuang Aphaiwong Plaek Phibunsongkhram Phraya Phahon Phonphayuhasena Phraya Manopakorn Nititada

Living former Prime Ministers[edit]

Name Term of office Date of birth Political party
Tanin Kraivixien 1976-1977 (1927-04-05) 5 April 1927 (age 87) non-partisan
Prem Tinsulanonda 1980-1988 (1920-08-26) 26 August 1920 (age 94) Military
Anand Panyarachun 1991-1992, 1992 (1932-08-09) 9 August 1932 (age 82) non-partisan
Suchinda Kraprayoon 1992 (1933-08-06) 6 August 1933 (age 81) Military
Chuan Leekpai 1992-1995; 1997-2001 (1938-07-28) 28 July 1938 (age 76) Democrat Party
Banharn Silpa-archa 1995-1996 (1932-08-19) 19 August 1932 (age 82) Thai Nation Party
Chavalit Yongchaiyudh 1996-1997 (1932-05-15) 15 May 1932 (age 82) New Aspiration Party
Thaksin Shinawatra 2001-2006 (1949-07-26) 26 July 1949 (age 65) Thai Rak Thai
Surayud Chulanont 2006-2008 (1943-08-28) 28 August 1943 (age 71) non-partisan (Military)
Somchai Wongsawat 2008 (1947-08-31) 31 August 1947 (age 67) People's Power Party
Abhisit Vejjajiva 2008-2011 (1964-08-03) 3 August 1964 (age 50) Democrat Party
Yingluck Shinawatra 2011-2014 (1967-07-21) 21 July 1967 (age 47) Pheu Thai Party

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]