The 1959 season of the Primera División Peruana, the top category of Peruvian football, was played by 10 teams. The national champions were Universitario. At the end of the regular season (home and away matches) teams were split in 2 groups of 5 teams: top 5 played for the title and bottom 5 played for the relegation. Teams carried their regular season records and played an additional round (4 further matches). Sporting Cristal won a play-off against Ciclista Lima to determine 5th place in the first stage.