Albert II, Prince of Monaco

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Albert II
The Prince of Monaco in 2013.jpg
Prince of Monaco
Reign 6 April 2005 – present
Predecessor Rainier III
Heir apparent Jacques
Ministers of State
Regency 31 March 2005 – 6 April 2005
Spouse Charlene Wittstock (2011–present)
Issue
Detail
Legitimate:
Princess Gabriella
Prince Jacques

Illegitimate:
Jazmin Grace Grimaldi
Alexandre Coste
House House of Grimaldi
Father Rainier III, Prince of Monaco
Mother Grace Kelly
Born (1958-03-14) 14 March 1958 (age 56)
Monaco-Ville, Monaco
Religion Roman Catholicism
Signature

Albert II[1][2] (Albert Alexandre Louis Pierre Grimaldi; born 14 March 1958) is the reigning monarch of the Principality of Monaco, and head of the Princely House of Grimaldi. He is the son of Rainier III, Prince of Monaco, and the American actress Grace Kelly. His sisters are Caroline, Princess of Hanover and Princess Stéphanie. In July 2011, Prince Albert married Charlene Wittstock.[3]

Prince Albert II is one of the wealthiest royals in the world, with assets valued at more than $1 billion,[4] which includes land in both Monaco and France. While his real estate does not include the Prince's Palace, it does include holdings in the Société des bains de mer de Monaco, which operates Monaco's casino and other entertainment properties in the principality.[5][6]

Early life[edit]

Prince Albert with his mother Grace in 1972.

Albert was born in the Prince's Palace of Monaco. His godmother was Queen Victoria Eugenia of Spain. Albert attended high school at the Lycee Albert Premier, graduating with distinction in 1976. He was a camper and later a counselor for six summers at Camp Tecumseh on Lake Winnipesaukee, Moultonborough, New Hampshire, in the 1970s. He spent a year training in various princely duties, and enrolled at Amherst College in Massachusetts in 1977 as Albert Grimaldi, studying political science, economics, music, and English literature, and also joined Chi Psi fraternity. He speaks French, English, German, and Italian.[citation needed]

He spent the summer of 1979 touring Europe and the Middle East with the Amherst Glee Club and graduated in 1981 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science. Albert also undertook an exchange program with the University of Bristol, at the Alfred Marshall School of Economics and Management in 1979.[citation needed] Albert was an enthusiastic sportsman, participating in cross country, javelin throwing, handball, judo, swimming, tennis, rowing, sailing, skiing, squash and fencing. He is a patron of Monaco's football teams. Albert competed in the bobsleigh at five consecutive Winter Olympics for Monaco, taking part in both the two-man and four-man events. In the two-man bobsleigh Albert finished 25th at the 1988 games in Calgary, 43rd at the 1992 games in Albertville, and 31st at the 2002 games. In the four-man bobsleigh Albert finished 27th in 1992, 26th at the 1994 games in Lillehammer, and 28th at both the 1998 games in Nagano and the 2002 games in Salt Lake City.[7] Albert was Monaco's flag bearer at the 1988, 1994, and 1998 Winter Olympics.[7] Albert has been a member of the International Olympic Committee since 1985, and his maternal grandfather, John B. Kelly, Sr., and maternal uncle, John B. Kelly, Jr., were both Summer Olympic medal winners in rowing.[7]

Regency[edit]

Princess Caroline and Albert, then Hereditary Prince of Monaco, with Ronald and Nancy Reagan in Washington D.C. on 28 March 1983.

On 7 March 2005, Albert's father Rainier III, Prince of Monaco was admitted to a hospital in the principality; he was later moved to an intensive care ward. The Prince was being treated for breathing, kidney, and heart trouble. On 31 March 2005, the Palace of Monaco announced that Hereditary Prince Albert would take over the duties of his father as regent since Rainier was no longer able to exercise his functions as sovereign. This decision was reached by the Crown Council of Monaco, a body made up of notable local figures with residual powers to make judgments about certain constitutional matters. The 47-year-old prince spent his first day as regent of Monaco caring for his critically ill 81-year-old father who was at that time Europe's longest serving monarch and the world's third longest serving monarch.

Accession[edit]

On 6 April 2005, Prince Rainier III died and Hereditary Prince Albert became Albert II, Sovereign Prince of Monaco.

The first part of Prince Albert II's enthronement as ruler of the Principality was on 12 July 2005, after the end of the three-month mourning period for his father. A morning Mass at Saint Nicholas Cathedral presided over by the Archbishop of Monaco, the Most Reverend Bernard Barsi, formally marked the beginning of his reign. Afterward Albert II returned to the princely palace to host a garden party for 7,000 Monégasques born in the principality. In the courtyard, the Prince was presented with two keys of the city as a symbol of his investiture. The evening ended with a spectacular fireworks display on the waterfront.

The second part of his investiture was on 19 November 2005. Albert was enthroned at Saint Nicholas Cathedral. His family was there in attendance, including his elder sister Princess Caroline with her husband Ernst, Prince of Hanover and three of her four children, Andrea, Pierre and Charlotte; as well as his younger sister Princess Stéphanie, his paternal aunt Princess Antoinette, Baroness of Massy, his godson, Jean-Léonard Taubert-Natta de Massy, and his cousin Elisabeth-Anne de Massy. Royalty from 16 delegations were present for the festivities throughout the country. The evening ended with an opera performance in Monte Carlo.

Reign[edit]

Prince Albert with Russian President Vladimir Putin on 4 October 2013.

Prince Albert continues the policy – initiated by previous rulers of the microstate – of strengthening environmental awareness. Just like his great-great-grandfather Albert I, he travelled to Spitsbergen in July 2005. During this trip, he visited the glaciers "Lillihöök" and "Monaco". Prince Albert II also engaged in a Russian Arctic expedition, reaching the North Pole on Easter, 16 April 2006.[8] As a result, he is the first incumbent head of state to have reached the North Pole.

Prince Albert is the Vice-Chairman of the American charity founded in 1982, after his mother's death, the Princess Grace Foundation-USA, which supports, as Princess Grace did in her lifetime, emerging artists in theater, dance and film.

In 2006, Prince Albert created the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation, which continues the Principality of Monaco's commitment by supporting sustainable, and ethical projects around the world. The foundation focus on three main challenges, climate change, and developing renewable energies; combating the loss of biodiversity; and water management (improving universal access to clean water).[9] Albert is also a global adviser to Orphans International.

Personal life and relationships[edit]


Monegasque Princely FamilyGreat coat of arms of the house of Grimaldi.svg

HSH The Prince
HSH The Princess


HRH The Princess of Hanover
HSH Princess Stéphanie

Prior to Albert's marriage, there was much discussion of his continual bachelor status. Although he had received much press attention for dating well-known fashion models and actresses, his apparent disinclination to marry gave rise to rumors that he is homosexual. Prince Albert has consistently denied suggestions of homosexuality, most notably in a 1994 interview published in the French magazine Madame Figaro. "At first it was amusing", he said, "but it becomes very irritating in the long term to hear people say that I am homosexual".[10] He has since confirmed that he is the father of two children, and in July 2011, Prince Albert married Charlene Wittstock.

In October 2005, the German magazine Bunte reported that Prince Albert was dating Telma Ortiz Rocasolano, a sister-in-law of the Prince of Asturias. However, in November 2005, the Prince instructed his lawyer, Thierry Lacoste, to commence legal proceedings against the French newspaper France Dimanche for violation of privacy and false information regarding the story.

Prince Albert is a well-known automotive enthusiast, owning vehicles like the BMW Hydrogen 7,[11] the Lexus LS 600h,[12] the Lexus RX 400h,[12] and the Toyota Prius PHV.[12][13] Although Prince Albert does not directly own the Prince's Palace, he does own personal homes in both La Turbie,[14][15] and Marchais.[16] Prince Albert owns a Dassault Aviation Falcon 7X, a fourteen-passenger leisure jet, currently stationed at Nice Côte d'Azur Airport.[17][18]

Children in the line of succession[edit]

On 10 December 2014, Prince Albert and Princess Charlene welcomed their first children, twins Gabriella Thérèse Marie and Jacques Honoré Rainier. The twins were born at Monaco's Princess Grace Hospital. Jacques, as his father's heir, bears the titles Hereditary Prince of Monaco and Marquis of Baux while Albert has granted Gabriella the title of Countess of Carladès.

Children born out of wedlock[edit]

Jazmin Grace Grimaldi[edit]

In 1992, a California woman, Tamara Rotolo, filed a paternity suit against the prince, claiming that he was the father of her daughter, whom she named Jazmin Grace Grimaldi. Prince Albert was also listed as the father on the child's Riverside County, California, birth certificate, according to the website of the Desert Sun. However, the case, which went to trial in 1993, eventually was dismissed by Superior Court Judge Graham Anderson Cribbs, who claimed that there was "insufficient contact between [Prince] Albert and the state of California to justify hearing a suit there"[19] agreeing with an assertion by the prince's lawyer, Stanley Arkin, that the California court had no jurisdiction.

On 31 May 2006, after DNA test confirmed the child's parentage, Prince Albert admitted, in a statement from his lawyer, that he is Jazmin's father. He also extended an invitation for the girl to study, and live in Monaco.[citation needed]

Alexandre Coste[edit]

In May 2005, Nicole Coste, a former Air France flight attendant, originally from Togo (West Africa), claimed that her youngest son, whom she calls Alexandre Coste, is Prince Albert's son, proven by DNA tests conducted by Swiss technicians working on orders from the Monegasque government. She further claimed the prince had signed a notarized certificate confirming paternity but that she had not received a copy of it. The French weekly Paris Match published a ten-page interview with Coste and included photographs of the prince holding and feeding the child. Coste also told Paris Match that she was living in the prince's Paris apartment, and receiving an allowance from him while pretending to be the girlfriend of one of his friends in order to maintain privacy. She also said that the prince had last seen the boy in February 2005. A spokesman for Prince Albert had no comment, though upon news of Coste's claims, the prince's lawyer, Thierry Lacoste, announced that "A judicial strategy will be determined within the next few days".

In mid-May 2005, Lacoste announced that as a result of the international publicity over the revelations of the prince's son, Prince Albert is suing the Daily Mail, Bunte, and Paris Match for delving too deeply into his private life.

On 6 July 2005, a few days before he was enthroned on 12 July, Prince Albert officially confirmed via his lawyer Lacoste that the 22-month-old is his biological son.[20]

Other alleged children[edit]

In an earlier paternity suit, Bea Fiedler, a German topless model whom the Daily Telegraph described as a "sex-film star", claimed her son Daniel was the prince's son. This suit was reportedly dismissed. A blood test, which was refused by the judge, did not prove that the prince was the father of Fiedler's son.[21]

Marriage[edit]

Prince Albert and Princess Charlene during a 2012 visit to Kraków, Poland.

Prince Albert married former South African swimmer Charlene Wittstock on 1 July 2011. They announced their engagement on 23 June 2010.[22] They had been seen together since 10 February 2006, when Prince Albert was accompanied by Wittstock to the opening ceremony of the Torino Olympics. They were seen again together at the Monaco Grand Prix. The Prince and Wittstock attended the opening ceremony of the Beijing Olympics in 2008, and both the "Bal de la Rose", and Princess Grace Awards Gala in 2009. They also attended the opening ceremony of the Vancouver Olympics. As a couple, they also attended the wedding of Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden and Daniel Westling in Stockholm four days before their own engagement was announced and the wedding of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, and Catherine Middleton on 29 April 2011. The wedding took place over two days: the civil marriage ceremony took place on 1 July 2011, followed by the religious ceremony on 2 July 2011.[23]

On 30 May 2014, it was announced by the Prince's Palace of Monaco that Princess Charlene was pregnant, with the couple later announcing Charlene was expecting twins. [24][25] The twins, Gabriella Thérèse Marie, Countess of Carladès and Jacques Honoré Rainier, Hereditary Prince of Monaco were born on December 10, 2014.[26]

Succession issues[edit]

As Rainier III's health declined, his son's lack of legitimate children became a matter of public and political concern owing to the legal and international consequences. Had Prince Albert died without lawful heirs, it would have triggered Article 3 of the 1918 Franco-Monegasque Treaty, according to which the Principality of Monaco would become a protectorate of the French Republic.[27] Prior to 2002, Monaco's constitution stipulated that only the last reigning prince's "direct and legitimate" descendants could inherit the crown.

On 2 April 2002, Monaco promulgated Princely Law 1.249, which provides that if a reigning prince dies without surviving legitimate issue, the throne passes to his legitimate siblings and their legitimate descendants of both sexes, according to the principle of male-preference primogeniture.[28] Following Albert's accession, this law took full effect when ratified by France, pursuant to the Franco-Monégasque Treaty regulating relations between the Principality of Monaco and its neighbor. Prince Albert's sisters and their legitimate children thereby retained the right to inherit the Monegasque throne, which they would have otherwise lost upon the death of Prince Rainier.

Under the current constitution neither Jazmin Rotolo nor Alexandre Coste are in the line of succession as they are not Prince Albert's legitimate children, and he emphasized their ineligibility to inherit the throne in statements confirming his paternity.[8][20] Monegasque law stipulates that any non-adulterine child is legitimised by the eventual marriage of his/her parents, thereupon obtaining the rights to which that child would have been entitled if born in lawful marriage. Thus Alexandre would have become Monaco's heir apparent under current law if Albert were to marry his son's mother. But in a 2005 exchange with American reporter Larry King, Albert stated that this would not happen.[29]

Prior to the birth of Princess Gabriella and Prince Jacques, Prince Albert's elder sister, Caroline, was heir presumptive and, according to the Grimaldi house law, bore the traditional title of Hereditary Princess of Monaco.[30] Following their birth, she is now third in line.

Environmental issues[edit]

Albert rides through a river on a guided tour in the Shoshone National Forest, September 2013

Year of the Dolphin[edit]

The year 2007 was declared as (International) Year of the Dolphin by the United Nations and United Nations Environment Programme.[31] Prince Albert served as the International Patron of the "Year of the Dolphin", saying "The Year of the Dolphin gives me the opportunity to renew my firm commitment towards protecting marine biodiversity. With this strong initiative we can make a difference to save these fascinating marine mammals from the brink of extinction."

Jardin Animalier[edit]

The Zoological Garden of Monaco (Jardin Animalier) was founded by Prince Rainier in 1954. Rainier was petitioned unsuccessfully for many years by Virginia McKenna, founder of the Born Free Foundation, to release a pair of leopards at the zoo.[32] Prince Albert met McKenna after his accession to the throne, and agreed to release the leopards as well the zoo's hippo and camel. He intends to convert the Jardin into a zoo for children.[32]

Expedition to Antarctica[edit]

In January 2009, Prince Albert left for a month-long expedition to Antarctica, where he visited 26 scientific outposts and met with climate-change experts in an attempt to learn more about the impact of global warming on the continent.[33] During the trip he stopped at the South Pole, making him the only incumbent head of state to have visited both poles.[34][35][36]

CITES and bluefin tuna[edit]

Prince Albert II at the 5th Global Conference on Oceans, Coasts and Islands. UNESCO, Paris (2010)

In June 2009, Prince Albert co-authored an open letter to the Wall Street Journal with Charles Clover, the author of The End of the Line, a book about overfishing and ocean conservation issues that had recently been made into a documentary by Rupert Murray. In the letter, Prince Albert acknowledges that bluefin tuna has been severely overfished in the Mediterranean, and decries the common European Union practice of awarding inflated quotas to bluefin fleets.[37] He announced that Monaco would seek to award endangered species status to the Mediterranean bluefin Thunnus thynnus, (also called the Northern bluefin) under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). If upheld by the voting CITES delegates, this proposal would effectively ban the international trade in Mediterranean bluefin. This was the first time a nation had called for the inclusion of Mediterranean bluefin under CITES since Sweden[37] at the 1992 CITES Conference, which was vehemently opposed by Japan who eventually threatened retaliation through trade barriers.[38] Sweden withdrew its proposal.

On 16 July 2009, France declared that it too would seek to have Mediterranean bluefin listed as an endangered species.[39] Only hours later, the United Kingdom followed suit.[40]

Roger Revelle Prize[edit]

On 23 October 2009, Prince Albert was awarded the Roger Revelle Prize for his efforts to protect the environment and to promote scientific research.[41] This award was given to Prince Albert by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California.[42] Prince Albert is the second recipient of this prize.[43]

Awards[edit]

In 1996, Prince Albert received the Eagle Award from the United States Sports Academy. The Eagle Award is the Academy's highest international honor and was awarded to Prince Albert for his significant contributions in promoting international harmony, peace and goodwill through the effective use of sport.[44]

In popular culture[edit]

In the film The Social Network, Albert II is played by actor James Shanklin.[45]

Commemorative coins[edit]

As Monaco's head of state, Prince Albert is depicted on coins, including collectors' coins, with very rare exceptions. One of the most recent examples is the €5 silver Prince Albert II commemorative coin, the first commemorative coin with his effigy on it, minted in 2008. On the obverse, the prince is depicted in profile with his name on the top of the coin. On the reverse, the Grimaldi coat of arms appears; around it, the words "Principauté de Monaco" (Principality of Monaco) also appear along with the nominal monetary value of the coin.[46]

Other roles[edit]

Titles, styles, and honours[edit]

Titles and styles[edit]

Albert has held two positions:

As the prince, his official shortened title is His Serene Highness Albert II, Sovereign Prince of Monaco; this does not include the many other styles claimed by the Grimaldi family (see Sovereign Prince of Monaco for a complete list of titles).

Honours[edit]

Monegasque orders[edit]

Military appointments[edit]

Foreign orders[edit]

Non-State foreign orders[edit]

Other awards[edit]

Ancestry[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Titles of Sovereign Prince of Monaco. princerainier3.palais.mc.
  2. ^ a b c d Biography of Prince Albert – Website of the Palace of Monaco
  3. ^ "Prince Albert of Monaco – Fast Facts". CNN. 20 March 2014. 
  4. ^ "The World's Richest Royals – Forbes". Forbes. 29 April 2011. 
  5. ^ Serafin, Tatiana (17 June 2009). "The World's Richest Royals". Forbes. Retrieved 10 October 2012. 
  6. ^ "In Pictures: The World's Richest Royals – Prince Albert II, Monaco". Forbes. 7 July 2010. 
  7. ^ a b c "Albert, Prince Grimaldi profile". Sports Reference. Retrieved 17 November 2014. 
  8. ^ a b "Albert, à nouveau père". Le Figaro. France. 20 April 2011. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 2 July 2011. 
  9. ^ Prince Albert. Fpa2.com. Retrieved on 7 May 2014.
  10. ^ "Madame Figaro", 1994; reported in Daily Mail, 13 August 1994, p. 17
  11. ^ Joseph, Noah (9 April 2008). "Crown Jewel: Prince Albert II of Monaco gets a BMW Hydrogen 7". Autoblog. Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  12. ^ a b c "Le Prince Albert de Monaco, 1er utilisateur de la Lexus LS 600h". Ecologie.caradisiac.com. Retrieved 24 October 2010. 
  13. ^ "Europe’s first production Prius PHV Delivered to H.S.H. Prince Albert II of Monaco". Toyota Motors. 9 April 2012. Retrieved 14 June 2013. 
  14. ^ Charlène de Monaco: pour l'amour des enfants. Gala.fr. 29 September 2011.
  15. ^ Monaco Princely Wedding: Miscellaneous News, Information, and Updates. Royalcorrespondent.com. 21 June 2011.
  16. ^ (French) Le château des Grimaldi en Picardie. Journaldunet.com. 12 January 2011.
  17. ^ New jet for Prince Albert II. Rivieratimes.com (30 April 2014). Retrieved on 7 May 2014.
  18. ^ Le prince Albert de Monaco s'offre un Falcon 7X et un hangar flambant neuf à Nice. Aeronautique.ma. Retrieved on 7 May 2014.
  19. ^ Evening Standard article, 24 March 1993, page 20
  20. ^ a b Monaco prince admits love child, BBC News, 6 July 2005. Retrieved 18 September 2009.
  21. ^ "Bea in His Bonnet," Daily Telegraph, 29 July 1987. Also Sunday Mirror, 8 March 1998, pages 1+
  22. ^ "Prince Albert of Monaco engaged to Charlene Wittstock". BBC. 23 June 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2011. 
  23. ^ The program from Prince's Palace of Monaco, 30 June 2011
  24. ^ "C'est officiel, Charlène de Monaco attend des jumeaux". Retrieved 6 November 2014. 
  25. ^ "$1.45bn fortune is double trouble for Monaco". Retrieved 6 November 2014. 
  26. ^ http://www.today.com/parents/monacos-princess-charlene-prince-albert-welcome-twins-1D80333548?cid=par-huffpost-gravity
  27. ^ United Nations Treaty Series, 1975, vol. 981, Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1918. P. 360. "Should the throne become vacant, particularly for lack of a direct or adoptive heir, the territory of Monaco shall form, under the protectorate of France, an autonomous State under the name of the State of Monaco," United Nations translation.
  28. ^ The Constitution (2002)
  29. ^ Larry King Live. Interview with Prince Albert II. 25 October 2005. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
  30. ^ The House Laws
  31. ^ "International Year of the Dolphin Website". Yod2007.org. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 2 July 2011. 
  32. ^ a b Gilchrist, Roderick (26 January 2008). "Leopards incredible journey to freedom". London: The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 24 May 2013. 
  33. ^ "Monaco's Prince Albert heads to Antarctica". AFP via The Free Library. 5 January 2009.
  34. ^ A royal visit, The Antarctic Sun published by the United States Antarctic Program
  35. ^ HSH Albert II of Monaco Conveys a Continent's Warning from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  36. ^ HSH Prince Albert II of Monaco reached the geographic South Pole on Wednesday 14 January 2009. palais.mc. 14 January 2009.
  37. ^ a b Clover, Charles; Grimaldi, Albert (5 June 2009). It's Not Too Late to Save the Tuna, The Wall Street Journal.
  38. ^ Olsson, Jan. "The Atlantic Bluefin Tuna". Outdoor.se. 
  39. ^ France Supports International Trade Ban for Endangered Bluefin Tuna, NatGeo News Watch, 16 July 2009. Retrieved 18 September 2009.
  40. ^ Webster, Ben. Britain to support a ban on international trade in blue-fin tuna, The Times, 17 July 2009. Retrieved 18 September 2009.
  41. ^ "San Diego gives Monaco's Prince Albert the royal treatment". Cbs8.com. 23 October 2009. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 2 July 2011. 
  42. ^ Casey, Shannon (2 November 2009) A Prize Fit for a Prince, UCSD News.
  43. ^ Scripps to Honor Prince Albert II of Monaco for his Environmental Efforts, Scripps News, 1 April 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  44. ^ "News 21/01/08 – FISU President Receives USSA Award". Fisu.net. 21 January 2008. Archived from the original on 2 July 2011. Retrieved 2 July 2011. 
  45. ^ The Social Network (2010) – Full cast and crew. IMDb
  46. ^ "Albert II (silver) commemorative coin". The Euro Coins Store. Retrieved 28 December 2008. 
  47. ^ "Honorary Board". IPC. 
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Official Website Prince Albert II wore the miniature of the Order on his uniform during the evening gala dinner after the wedding
  49. ^ Prince Albert II Photos – Monaco National Day 2011 – Award Ceremony – Zimbio. Zimbio.com. Retrieved on 7 May 2014.
  50. ^ fr:Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince
  51. ^ L'Uniforme de S.A.S le Prince Albert II de Monaco – Palais Princier de Monaco. palais.m
  52. ^ a b c Official website, Biographie (French), mention of receiving the Order
  53. ^ a b Official website, Biography, mention of receiving the Order
  54. ^ Italian Presidency website, decorations – S.A.S. il Principe Alberto II Sovrano del Principato di Monaco Decorato di Gran Cordone
  55. ^ Video of the state visit of Monaco in Lithuania, 15 October 2012
  56. ^ "The Princely has arrived in Poland", Nice Matin, 18 October 2012, mention of receiving the order of Merit without citing the grade
  57. ^ Recipients table. presidency.ro.
  58. ^ A l’invitation du Président de la République Tunisienne, S.A.S. le Prince Albert II a effectuéune visite officielle de deux jours le 7 et 8 septembre en Tunisie. Lepetitjournal.com. 11 September 2006.
  59. ^ 50Th Anniversary Of King Carl Gustav Of Sweden In Stockholm, Sweden On 30 April 1996. Gettyimages (30 April 1996). Retrieved on 7 May 2014.
  60. ^ Déjeuner au Palais Princier en l'honneur de LL. AA. RR. le Prince et la Princesse de Savoie à l'occasion du 1er Millénaire de la Maison de Savoie.1 March 2003 (French)
  61. ^ Official Visit by the Grand Master of the Order of Malta, His Most Eminent Highness Fra’ Matthew Festing – website of the Prince's Palace of Monaco
  62. ^ Website of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, "The Grand Master of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta receives Prince Albert of Monaco", quote : "The Grand Master conferred the Collar of the Order of Merit on the Prince"

External links[edit]

Albert II, Prince of Monaco
Born: 14 March 1958
Monegasque royalty
Preceded by
Caroline
Hereditary Prince of Monaco
1958–2005
Succeeded by
Caroline
Preceded by
Rainier III
Marquis of Baux
1958–2014
Succeeded by
Jacques
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Rainier III
Prince of Monaco
2005–present
Incumbent
Heir apparent:
Jacques
Olympic Games
Preceded by
David Lajoux
Flagbearer for  Monaco
1988, 1992, 1994
Succeeded by
Gilbert Bessi