Prince August Wilhelm of Prussia

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For the brother of King Frederick II of Prussia, see Prince Augustus William of Prussia (1722–1758).
Prince August Wilhelm
Prince August Wilhelm of Prussia
Prince August Wilhelm of Prussia.jpg
Spouse Princess Alexandra Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
Issue Prince Alexander Ferdinand of Prussia
House House of Hohenzollern
Father Wilhelm II of Germany
Mother Duchess Augusta Viktoria of Schleswig-Holstein
Born (1887-01-29)29 January 1887
Potsdam, Prussia
Died March 25, 1949(1949-03-25) (aged 62)
Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg
Prussian Royalty
House of Hohenzollern
Wappen Deutsches Reich - Reichsadler 1889.svg
Wilhelm II
Children
   Crown Prince Wilhelm
   Prince Eitel Friedrich
   Prince Adalbert
   Prince August Wilhelm
   Prince Oskar
   Prince Joachim
   Victoria Louise, Duchess of Brunswick

Prince August Wilhelm Heinrich Günther Viktor of Prussia (29 January 1887 in Potsdam, Germany – 25 March 1949 in Stuttgart, Germany), called "Auwi", was the fourth son of Emperor Wilhelm II, German Emperor by his first wife, Augusta Viktoria of Schleswig-Holstein.

Early life[edit]

He was born in the Potsdamer Stadtschloss when his grandfather was still the Crown Prince of Prussia. He spent his youth with his siblings at the New Palace, also in Potsdam, and his school days at the Prinzenhaus in Plön. Later, he studied at the universities of Bonn, Berlin and Strasbourg. He received his doctorate in political science in 1907 "in an exceedingly dubious manner", as one author[who?] describes it.[this quote needs a citation]

Prince August Wilhelm married his cousin Princess Alexandra Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (21 April 1887 Germany – 15 April 1957 France) on 22 October 1908 at the Berliner Stadtschloss. The couple had planned to take up residence in Schönhausen Palace in Berlin, but changed their mind when August Wilhelm's father decided to leave his son the Villa Liegnitz in the Sanssouci Park. On 26 December 1912 their only child, Prince Alexander Ferdinand of Prussia (died 12 June 1985), was born. Their Potsdam residence developed into a meeting place for artists and scholars.[citation needed]

During the First World War, August Wilhelm was made district administrator (Landrat) of the district of Ruppin; his office and residence was now Schloss Rheinsberg. His personal adjutant Hans Georg von Mackensen, with whom he had been close friends since his youth, played an important role in his life. These "pronounced homophilic tendencies" contributed to the failure of his marriage to Princess Alexandra Victoria. They never undertook a formal divorce due to the opposition of August Wilhelm's father, Kaiser Wilhelm II.

Weimar Republic[edit]

After the end of the war, the couple separated and formally divorced in March 1920. August Wilhelm was awarded custody of their son. After his divorce and the marriage of his friend Hans Georg von Mackensen to Winifred von Neurath, the daughter of Konstantin von Neurath, August Wilhelm lived a reclusive life in his villa in Potsdam. He took drawing lessons with Professor Arthur Kampf, and the sale of his pictures secured him an additional source of income.

August Wilhelm joined the nationalist veteran's group "Stahlhelm". In the following years he had increasing contact with the National Socialists. Finally, to the discomfort of his family and against his father's will, he joined the "dangerous, revolutionary" NSDAP on 1 April 1930, whereupon he received the low membership number 24, for symbolic reasons. In November 1931, he was accepted into the SA with the rank of "Standartenführer". Due to his ingratiation with the National Socialists and his adoration of Adolf Hitler, August Wilhelm was often the subject of mockery by the left-wing press ("Braunhemdchen Auwi", i.e. "Auwi the Little Brown Shirt), politicians ("Hanswurst" i.e. "Hans the Brown Sausage" by André François-Poncet), and from National Socialists themselves (Goebbels called him a "good-natured but slightly gormless boy").

As a representative of the erstwhile Prussian royal dynasty and German imperial dynasty, August Wilhelm was deliberately used by the National Socialists to gain votes in elections, for example as the lead candidate of the NSDAP for election to the Prussian Landtag in April 1932 or as an election speaker alongside Hitler, whom he accompanied on flights across Germany at the same time. Through his appearances at mass rallies of the National Socialists he addressed himself to sections of the population that were lukewarm towards National Socialism, and convinced them, "that Hitler was not a threat, but a benefactor of the German people and the German Empire".[this quote needs a citation]

National Socialism[edit]

In 1933 August Wilhelm was given a position within the Prussian state, and became a member of the German Reichstag. However, after the establishment of a dictatorship, the National Socialists no longer needed the former prince, who himself had secretly hoped "that Hitler would one day hoist him or his son Alexander up to the vacant throne of the Kaiser". Thus in spring 1934 he was denied direct access to Hitler and by the summer after the Röhm affair, he found himself in the wilderness politically. This did not, however, reduce his adoration of Hitler. On 30 June 1939 he was made an Obergruppenführer, the second highest rank in the SA, but after making derogatory remarks about Joseph Goebbels in private, he was denounced in 1942. From then on, he was completely sidelined and was also banned from making public speeches.

At the beginning of February 1945, in the company of the former Crown Princess Cecilie, August Wilhelm fled the approaching Red Army, going from Potsdam to Kronberg to take refuge with his aunt Princess Margaret of Prussia, a sister of his father.

Post World War II[edit]

At the end of the Second World War, on 8 May 1945, August Wilhelm was arrested by United States soldiers and imprisoned on the premises of the Flak-Kaserne Ludwigsburg. "At the denazification trial [Spruchkammerverfahren] of 1948, to the question whether he meanwhile had at least repudiated National Socialism, he asked uncomprehendingly: 'I beg your pardon?'" He was thus categorized as "incriminated" by the denazification court of the internment camp of Ludwigsburg, and was sentenced to two and a half years' hard labour. Due to his confinement since 1945 in an internment camp, he was considered to have served his sentence.

Immediately after his release, however, new proceedings were instituted against him. There was an arrest warrant against him from a court in Potsdam in the Soviet zone. He was never arrested, as soon after he became seriously ill and died at a hospital in Stuttgart at the age of 62. August Wilhelm was buried in Langenburg in the cemetery of the princes of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. During his lifetime, he had produced a son:

Regimental Commissions through World War I[edit]

  • 1. Garderegiment zu Fuß (1st Regiment of Foot Guards), Potsdam: Leutnant à la suite, from January 29, 1897; Oberleutnant, before 1908.
  • à la suite, Grenadierregiment Konig Friedrich Wilhelm I. (2. Ostpreussisches) Nr. 3
  • à la suite, 2. Gardegrenadierlandwehrregiment (2nd Reserve Regiment of Grenadier Guards) [1][citation needed]

Chivalric Orders[edit]

  • Knight, First Class (with Crown), Order of the Wendish Crown, Mecklenburg Grand Duchies
  • Knight, First Class (Star with diamonds), Osminieh Order, Ottoman Empire (Turkey) [2]

Ancestry[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Schench, G. Handbuch über den Königlich Preußischen Hof und Staat fur das Jahr 1908. Berlin, Prussia, 1907.
  2. ^ Schench, G. Handbuch über den Königlich Preußischen Hof und Staat fur das Jahr 1908. Berlin, Prussia, 1907.