Prince Edward Island

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Prince Edward Island
Île-du-Prince-Édouard (French)
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: Latin: Parva sub ingenti
(The small protected by the great)
Capital Charlottetown
Largest city Charlottetown
Largest metro Charlottetown
Official languages English (de facto)
Demonym Prince Edward Islander, Islander
Government
Type
Lieutenant Governor Frank Lewis
Premier Robert Ghiz (Liberal)
Legislature Legislative Assembly of Prince Edward Island
Federal representation (in Canadian Parliament)
House seats 4 of 308 (1.3%)
Senate seats 4 of 105 (3.8%)
Confederation July 1, 1873 (8th)
Area [1] Ranked 13th
Total 5,660 km2 (2,190 sq mi)
Land 5,660 km2 (2,190 sq mi)
Water (%) 0 km2 (0 sq mi) (0%)
Proportion of Canada 0.1% of 9,984,670 km2
Population  Ranked 10th
Total (2011) 140,204 [2]
Density (2011) 24.77 /km2 (64.2 /sq mi)
GDP  Ranked 10th
Total (2011) C$5.353 billion[3]
Per capita C$36,740 (13th)
Abbreviations
Postal PE
ISO 3166-2 CA-PE
Time zone Atlantic: UTC-4
Postal code prefix C
Flower Pink Lady's Slipper
Tree Red Oak
Bird Blue Jay
Website www.gov.pe.ca
Rankings include all provinces and territories

Prince Edward Island (PEI or P.E.I.; French: Île-du-Prince-Édouard, pronounced: [il dy pʁɛ̃s‿edwaʁ], Quebec French pronunciation: [ɪl d͡zy pʁẽs‿edwɑːʁ], Mi'kmaq: Epekwitk, Scottish Gaelic: Eilean a' Phrionnsa) is a Canadian province consisting of the island itself, as well as other islands.

It is one of the three Maritime provinces and is the smallest province in both land area and population. The island has several informal names: "Garden of the Gulf" referring to the pastoral scenery and lush agricultural lands throughout the province; and "Birthplace of Confederation" or "Cradle of Confederation",[4] referring to the Charlottetown Conference in 1864, although PEI did not join Confederation until 1873, when it became the seventh Canadian province. The backbone of the economy is farming, as it produces 25% of Canada's potatoes. Historically, PEI is one of Canada's older settlements and demographically still reflects older immigration to the country, with Celtic, Anglo Saxon and French last names being overwhelmingly dominant to this day.

According to the 2011 census, the province of Prince Edward Island has 145,855 residents. It is located about 200 km north of Halifax, Nova Scotia and 600 km east of Quebec City. It consists of the main island and 231 minor islands.[5] Altogether, the entire province has a land area of 5,685.73 km2 (2,195.27 sq mi).[6]

The main island is 5,620 km2 (2,170 sq mi) in size,[5] which is slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Delaware, is the 104th-largest island in the world, and is Canada's 23rd-largest island.

Etymology[edit]

Edward Scriven engraving of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathern (1834) after W. Beechey's portrait. Presented by Professor Thomas H.B. Symons to Mr. Charles MacKay, Clerk of the Legislative Assembly of Prince Edward Island, in the presence of Ms. Catherine Hennessey on Friday, October 11, 2013. A plaque under the engraving reads "Donated by Tidridge Family in honour of Catherine Hennessey CM". The engraving remains on permanent display at Province House.

The island is named for Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (1767–1820), the fourth son of King George III and the father of Queen Victoria. Prince Edward has been called "Father of the Canadian Crown." [7] The following island landmarks are also named after the Duke of Kent:

  • Prince Edward Battery, Victoria Park, Charlottetown
  • Kent College (Established in 1804 by Lieutenant Governor Edmund Fanning and his Legislative Council, the college would eventually become the University of Prince Edward Island), Charlottetown
  • Kent Street, Charlottetown
  • West Kent Elementary School
  • Kent Street, Georgetown

The island is known in Scottish Gaelic as Eilean a' Phrionnsa (lit. "the Island of the Prince", the local form of the longer 'Eilean a' Phrionnsa Iomhair/Eideard') or Eilean Eòin for some Gaelic speakers in Nova Scotia though not on PEI (lit. "John's Island" in reference to the island's former name of St. John's Island: the English translation of Île Saint Jean); in Míkmaq as Abegweit or Epekwitk roughly translated "land cradled in the waves".

Geography[edit]

Prince Edward Island is located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, west of Cape Breton Island, north of the Nova Scotia peninsula, and east of New Brunswick. Its southern shore bounds the Northumberland Strait. The island has two urban areas. The largest surrounds Charlottetown Harbour, situated centrally on the island's southern shore, and consists of the capital city Charlottetown, and suburban towns Cornwall and Stratford and a developing urban fringe. A much smaller urban area surrounds Summerside Harbour, situated on the southern shore 40 km (25 mi) west of Charlottetown Harbour, and consists primarily of the city of Summerside. As with all natural harbours on the island, Charlottetown and Summerside harbours are created by rias.

The island's landscape is pastoral. Rolling hills, woods, reddish white sand beaches, ocean coves and the famous red soil have given Prince Edward Island a reputation as a province of outstanding natural beauty. The provincial government has enacted laws to preserve the landscape through regulation, although there is a lack of consistent enforcement, and an absence of province-wide zoning and land-use planning.[citation needed]. Under the Planning Act of the province, municipalities have the option to assume responsibility for land-use planning through the development and adoption of official plans and land use bylaws. Thirty-one municipalities have taken responsibility for planning. In areas where municipalities have not assumed responsibility for planning, the Province remains responsible for development control.

The landward side of sand dunes in Cavendish

The island's lush landscape has a strong bearing on its economy and culture. The author Lucy Maud Montgomery drew inspiration from the land during the late Victorian Era for the setting of her classic novel Anne of Green Gables (1908). Today, many of the same qualities that Montgomery and others found in the island are enjoyed by tourists who visit year-round. They enjoy a variety of leisure activities, including beaches, various golf courses, eco-tourism adventures, touring the countryside, and enjoying cultural events in local communities around the island.

The smaller, rural communities as well as the towns and villages throughout the province, retain a slower-paced, old-world flavour. Prince Edward Island has become popular as a tourist destination for relaxation. The economy of most rural communities on the island is based on small-scale agriculture. Industrial farming has increased as businesses buy and consolidate older farm properties.

The coastline has a combination of long beaches, dunes, red sandstone cliffs, salt water marshes, and numerous bays and harbours. The beaches, dunes and sandstone cliffs consist of sedimentary rock and other material with a high iron concentration, which oxidises upon exposure to the air. The geological properties of a white silica sand found at Basin Head are unique in the province; the sand grains cause a scrubbing noise as they rub against each other when walked on, and have been called the "singing sands".

Large dune fields on the north shore can be found on barrier islands at the entrances to various bays and harbours. The magnificent sand dunes at Greenwich are of particular significance. The shifting, parabolic dune system is home to a variety of birds and rare plants; it is also a site of significant archeological interest.

Despite Prince Edward Island's small size and reputation as a largely rural province, it is the most developed and densely populated province in Canada, owing to the lack of vast amounts of undeveloped and sparsely populated wilderness of the other provinces.

Climate[edit]

The coast of Prince Edward Island around Cavendish

During July and August, the average daytime high in PEI is 23 degrees Celsius (73º Fahrenheit), however, the temperature can sometimes exceed 30 degrees (86 Fahrenheit) during these months. In the winter months of January and February, the average daytime high is -3.3 degrees Celsius (26 F). The Island receives an average yearly rainfall of 855 mm and an average yearly snowfall of 285 cm.

Winters are moderately cold, with clashes of cold Arctic air and milder Atlantic air causing frequent temperature swings. From December to April, the island usually has many storms (which may produce rain as well as snow) and blizzards. Springtime temperatures typically remain cool until the sea ice has melted, usually in late April or early May. Summers are moderately warm, but rarely uncomfortable, with the daily maximum temperature only occasionally reaching as high as 30 °C (86 °F). Autumn is a pleasant season, as the moderating Gulf waters delay the onset of frost, although storm activity increases compared to the summer. There is ample precipitation throughout the year, although it is heaviest in the late autumn, early winter and mid spring.

Geology[edit]

Between 250 to 300 million years ago, freshwater streams flowing from ancient mountains brought silt, sand and gravel into what is now the Gulf of St. Lawrence. These sediments accumulated to form a sedimentary basin, and make up the island's bedrock. When Pleistocene glaciers receded about 15,000 years ago, glacial debris such as till was left behind to cover most of the area that would become the island. This area was connected to the mainland by a strip of land, but when ocean levels rose as the glaciers melted this land strip was flooded, forming the island. As the land rebounded from the weight of the ice, the island rose up to elevate it further from the surrounding water.[9][10][11]

Most of the bedrock in Prince Edward Island is composed of red sandstone, part of the Permian aged Pictou Group.[12]

Discoveries[edit]

In 2008, a new ascomycete species, Jahnula apiospora (Jahnulales, Dothideomycetes), was collected from submerged wood in a freshwater creek on Prince Edward Island, Canada.[13]

History[edit]

Lighthouse on Panmure Island

Before the influx of Europeans, the Mi'kmaq people inhabited Prince Edward Island. They named the Island Epekwitk, meaning "resting on the waves"; Europeans represented the pronunciation as Abegweit.[14] The natives believed that the island was formed by the Great Spirit placing on the Blue Waters some dark red crescent-shaped clay.

French colony[edit]

In 1534, Jacques Cartier was the first European to see the island.[14] As part of the French colony of Acadia, the island was called Île Saint-Jean.

Battle at Port-la-Joye (1745)[edit]

After the Siege of Louisbourg (1745) during the War of the Austrian Succession, the New Englanders also captured Île Saint-Jean (Prince Edward Island). An English detachment landed at Port-la-Joye. Under the command of Joseph de Pont Duvivier, the French had a garrison of 20 French troops at Port-la-Joye.[15] The troops fled and New Englanders burned the capital to the ground. Duvivier and the twenty men retreated up the Northeast River (Hillsborough River), pursued by the New Englanders until the French troops received reinforcements from the Acadian militia and the Mi'kmaq.[16] The French troops and their allies were able to drive the New Englanders to their boats, nine New Englanders killed, wounded or made prisoner. The New Englanders took six Acadian hostages, who would be executed if the Acadians or Mi'kmaq rebelled against New England control.[16] The New England troops left for Louisbourg. Duvivier and his 20 troops left for Quebec. After the fall of Louisbourg, the resident French population of Ile Royal were deported to France. The Acadians of Ile Saint-Jean lived under the threat of deportation for the remainder of the war.[17]

Battle at Port-la-Joye (1746)[edit]

The New Englanders had a force of two war ships and 200 soldiers stationed at Port-La-Joye. To regain Acadia, Ramezay was sent from Quebec to the region to join forces with the Duc d'Anville Expedition. Upon arriving at Chignecto, he sent Boishebert to Ile Saint-Jean on a reconnaissance to assess the size of the New England force.[18] After Boishebert returned, Ramezay sent Joseph-Michel Legardeur de Croisille et de Montesson along with over 500 men, 200 of whom were Mi'kmaq, to Port-La-Joye.[19] In July 1746, the battle happened near York River.[20] Montesson and his troops killed forty New Englanders and captured the rest. Montesson was commended for having distinguished himself in his first independent command.[21]

Expulsion of the Acadians[edit]

Roughly one thousand Acadians lived on the island, many of whom had fled to the island from mainland Nova Scotia during the first wave of the British-ordered expulsion in 1755, reaching a population of 5,000.[22] However, many more were forcibly deported during the second wave of the expulsion after the Siege of Louisbourg (1758).[23] In the Ile Saint-Jean Campaign (1758) General Jeffery Amherst ordered Colonel Andrew Rollo to capture the island. Many Acadians died in the expulsion en route to France; on December 13, 1758, the transport ship Duke William sank and 364 died. A day earlier the Violet sank and 280 died; several days later the Ruby sank with 213 on board.[24]

British colony[edit]

Great Britain obtained the island from France under the terms of the Treaty of Paris in 1763 which settled the Seven Years' War. The British called their new colony St. John's Island (also the Island of St. John's).

The first British governor of St. John's Island, Walter Patterson, was appointed in 1769. Assuming office in 1770, he had a controversial career during which land title disputes and factional conflict slowed the initial attempts to populate and develop the island under a feudal system. In an attempt to attract settlers from Ireland, in one of his first acts (1770) Patterson led the island's colonial assembly to rename the island "New Ireland", but the British Government promptly vetoed this as exceeding the authority vested in the colonial government; only the Privy Council in London could change the name of a colony.[25]

Raid on Charlottetown (1775)[edit]

During the American Revolutionary War Charlottetown was raided in 1775 by a pair of American-employed privateers.[26] Two armed schooners, Franklin and Hancock, from Beverly, Massachusetts, made prisoner of the attorney-general at Charlottetown, on advice given them by some Pictou residents after they had taken eight fishing vessels in the Gut of Canso.[27]

During and after the American Revolutionary War, from 1776 to 1783, the colony's efforts to attract exiled Loyalist refugees from the rebellious American colonies met with some success. Walter Patterson's brother, John Patterson, one of the original grantees of land on the island, was a temporarily exiled Loyalist and led efforts to persuade others to come.

The 1787 dismissal of Governor Patterson and his recall to London in 1789 dampened his brother's efforts, leading John to focus on his interests in the United States (one of John's sons, Commodore Daniel Patterson, became a noted United States Navy hero, and John's grandsons, Rear Admiral Thomas H. Patterson and Lt. Carlile Pioou). Edmund Fanning, also a Loyalist exiled by the Revolution, took over as the second governor, serving until 1804. His tenure was more successful than Patterson's.[citation needed]

On November 29, 1798, during Fanning's administration, Great Britain granted approval to change the colony's name from St. John's Island to Prince Edward Island to distinguish it from similar names in the Atlantic, such as the cities of Saint John, New Brunswick and St. John's in Newfoundland. The colony's new name honoured the fourth son of King George III, Prince Edward Augustus, the Duke of Kent (1767–1820), who subsequently led the British military forces on the continent as Commander-in-Chief, North America (1799–1800), with his headquarters in Halifax. (Prince Edward later became the father of the future Queen Victoria.)

During the 19th century the colony of Prince Edward Island began to attract "adventurous Victorian families looking for elegance on the sea. Prince Edward Island became a fashionable retreat in the nineteenth century for British nobility."[28]

Confederation[edit]

In September 1864, Prince Edward Island hosted the Charlottetown Conference, which was the first meeting in the process leading to the Quebec Resolutions and the creation of Canada in 1867. Prince Edward Island did not find the terms of union favourable and balked at joining in 1867, choosing to remain a colony of the United Kingdom. In the late 1860s, the colony examined various options, including the possibility of becoming a discrete dominion unto itself, as well as entertaining delegations from the United States, who were interested in Prince Edward Island joining the United States of America.[citation needed]

Prince Edward Island map 1874

In 1871, the colony began construction of a railway and, frustrated by Great Britain's Colonial Office, began negotiations with the United States.[citation needed] In 1873, Canadian Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald, anxious to thwart American expansionism and facing the distraction of the Pacific Scandal, negotiated for Prince Edward Island to join Canada. The Dominion Government of Canada assumed the colony's extensive railway debts and agreed to finance a buy-out of the last of the colony's absentee landlords to free the island of leasehold tenure and from any new immigrants entering the island (accomplished through the passage of the Land Purchase Act, 1875).[29] Prince Edward Island entered Confederation on July 1, 1873.[30]

As a result of having hosted the inaugural meeting of Confederation, the Charlottetown Conference, Prince Edward Island presents itself as the "Birthplace of Confederation" and this is commemorated through several buildings, a ferry vessel, and the Confederation Bridge (constructed 1993 to 1997). The most prominent building in the province honouring this event is the Confederation Centre of the Arts, presented as a gift to Prince Edward Islanders by the 10 provincial governments and the Federal Government upon the centenary of the Charlottetown Conference, where it stands in Charlottetown as a national monument to the "Fathers of Confederation". The Centre is one of the 22 National Historic Sites of Canada located in Prince Edward Island.[31][32]

Demography[edit]

Historical populations
Year Pop.   ±%  
1851 62,678 —    
1861 80,857 +29.0%
1871 94,021 +16.3%
1881 108,891 +15.8%
1891 109,078 +0.2%
1901 103,259 −5.3%
1911 93,728 −9.2%
1921 88,615 −5.5%
1931 88,038 −0.7%
1941 95,047 +8.0%
1951 98,429 +3.6%
1956 99,285 +0.9%
1961 104,629 +5.4%
1966 108,535 +3.7%
1971 111,635 +2.9%
1976 118,225 +5.9%
1981 122,506 +3.6%
1986 126,640 +3.4%
1991 129,765 +2.5%
1996 134,557 +3.7%
2001 135,294 +0.5%
2006 135,851 +0.4%
2011 140,204 +3.2%
Source: Statistics Canada[33][34]

According to the 2011 National Household Survey,[35][36] the largest ethnic group consists of people of Scottish descent (39.2%), followed by English (31.1%), Irish (30.4%), French (21.1%), German (5.2%), and Dutch (3.1%) descent. Prince Edward Island is mostly a white community and there are few visible minorities. Chinese people are the largest visible minority group of Prince Edward Island, comprising 1.3% of the province's population.[35] Almost half of respondents identified their ethnicity as "Canadian." Most readers will not know that Prince Edward Island is by a strong margin the most Celtic and specifically the most Scottish province in Canada (often thought to be Nova Scotia) and perhaps the most Scottish place (ethnically) in the world, outside of Scotland. 38% of islanders claim Scottish ancestry, but this is an underestimate and it is thought that almost 50% of islanders have Scottish roots. When combined with Irish and Welsh, almost 80% of islanders are of some Celtic stock, albeit most families have resided in PEI for at least two centuries. Few places outside Europe can claim such a homogenous Celtic ethnic background.

* among provinces.
† Preliminary 2006 census estimate.

Source: Statistics Canada[37][38]

Language[edit]

Mother tongue in Prince Edward Island (red: English, blue: French)

The Canada 2006 Census showed a population of 135,851. Of the 133,570 singular responses to the census question concerning mother tongue, the most commonly reported languages were as follows:

Rank Language Number Percent
1. English 125,265 93.8%
2. French 5,345 4.0%
3. Dutch 865 0.6%
4. German 275 0.2%
5. Spanish 220 0.2%
6. Chinese 190 0.1%
7. Arabic 150 0.1%
8. Hungarian 120 0.1%
9. Mi'kmaq 90 0.1%
10. Japanese 80 0.1%
11. Polish 70 0.1%
12. Korean 65

In addition, there were also 105 responses of both English and a 'non-official language'; 25 of both French and a 'non-official language'; 495 of both English and French; 10 of English, French, and a 'non-official language'; and about 1,640 people who either did not respond to the question, or reported multiple non-official languages, or else gave another unenumerated response. (Figures shown are for the number of single language responses and the percentage of total single-language responses.)[39]

Religion[edit]

Sandstone cliffs at North Cape enshrouded in fog
Rolling hills characterise a significant portion of the island's landscape.

Traditionally the population has been evenly divided between Catholic and Protestant affiliations. The 2001 census indicated number of adherents for the Roman Catholic Church with 63,240 (47%) and various Protestant churches with 57,805 (43%). This included the United Church of Canada with 26,570 (20%); the Presbyterian Church with 7,885 (6%) and the Anglican Church of Canada with 6,525 (5%); those with no religion were among the lowest of the provinces with 8,705 (6.5%).[40] If one considers that the founders of the United Church of Canada were largely Presbyterians in Prince Edward Island, the Island has one of the highest percentages of Presbyterians in the Province. Also, while not noted here, the Island has one of the largest number of Free Church of Scotland buildings in Canada, though attendance at many of these churches is very low today.

Economy[edit]

Fisheries form one of the major industries of Prince Edward Island

The provincial economy is dominated by the seasonal industries of agriculture, tourism, and the fishery. The province is limited in terms of heavy industry and manufacturing, though the McCain's food conglomerate runs expansion operations from PEI. Although commercial deposits of minerals have not been found, exploration for natural gas beneath the eastern end of the province has resulted in the discovery of an undisclosed quantity of gas.

Agriculture remains the dominant industry in the provincial economy, as it has since colonial times. During the 20th century, potatoes replaced mixed farming as the leading cash crop, accounting for one-third of provincial farm income. The province currently accounts for a third of Canada's total potato production, producing approximately 1.3 billion kilograms annually.[41] Comparatively, the state of Idaho produces approximately 6.2 billion kilograms annually, with a population approximately 9.5 times greater.[42] The province is a major producer of seed potatoes, exporting to more than twenty countries around the world.[41]

Farmland on Prince Edward Island.

An estimated total of 70% of the land is cultivated and 25% of all potatoes grown in Canada originate from P.E.I.[43] The processing of frozen fried potatoes, green vegetables, and berries is a leading business activity.[44] The island's economy has grown significantly over the last decade in key areas of innovation. Aerospace, Bioscience, ICT and Renewable energy have been a focus for growth and diversification. Aerospace alone now accounts for over 25% of the province's international exports and is the island's fourth largest industry at $355 million in annual sales.

As a legacy of the island's colonial history, the provincial government enforces extremely strict rules for non-resident land ownership. Residents and corporations are limited to maximum holdings of 400 and 1,200 hectares respectively. There are also restrictions on non-resident ownership of shorelines.

Many of the province's coastal communities rely upon shellfish harvesting, particularly lobster fishing[45] as well as oyster fishing and mussel farming.

The provincial government provides consumer protection in the form of regulation for certain items, ranging from apartment rent increases to petroleum products including gas, diesel, propane and heating oil. These are regulated through the Prince Edward Island Regulatory and Appeals Commission (IRAC).[46] IRAC is authorised to limit the number of companies who are permitted to sell petroleum products.

The sale of carbonated beverages such as beer and soft drinks in non-refillable containers, such as aluminum cans or plastic bottles, was banned in 1976 as an environmental measure in response to public concerns over litter. Beer and soft drink companies opted to use refillable glass bottles for their products which were redeemable at stores and bottle depots.

Though often environmental and economic agendas may be at odds, the ‘ban the can’ legislation along with being environmentally driven, was also economically motivated as it protected jobs. Seamans Beverages, a bottling company and carbonated beverage manufacturer, was established in 1939 and a major employer in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. [47] Making it illegal to retail cans led to a bigger share of the carbonated beverage market for Seamans. Seamans Beverages was eventually acquired by Pepsi Bottling Group Inc in 2002 prior to the lifting of the legislation.[48]

The introduction of recycling programs for cans and plastic bottles in neighbouring provinces in recent years (also using a redemption system) has seen the provincial government introduce legislation to reverse this ban with the restriction lifted on May 3, 2008.[49][50][51]

Prince Edward Island has Canada's highest provincial retail sales tax rate, currently (2008) established at 10%. The tax is applied to almost all goods and services except some clothing, food and home heating fuel. The tax is also applied to the Federal Goods and Services Tax.

At present, approximately fifteen percent of electricity consumed on the island is generated from renewable energy (largely wind turbines); the provincial government has set renewable energy targets as high as 30-50% for electricity consumed by 2015. Until wind generation, the province relied entirely on electricity imports on a submarine cable from New Brunswick. A thermal oil-fired generating station in Charlottetown is also available.

The average family income on Prince Edward Island is $62,110/year,[52] and the minimum wage of $9.60/hour as of October 1, 2011.[53]

Government and politics[edit]

The provincial government is responsible for such areas as health and social services, education, economic development, labour legislation and civil law. These matters of government are carried out in the provincial capital, Charlottetown.

Prince Edward Island is governed by a parliamentary government within the construct of constitutional monarchy; the monarchy in Prince Edward Island is the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches.[54] The sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II, who also serves as head of state of 15 other Commonwealth countries, each of Canada's nine other provinces, and the Canadian federal realm, and resides predominantly in the United Kingdom. As such, the Queen's representative, the Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island (presently Harry Frank Lewis), carries out most of the royal duties in Prince Edward Island.[55]

The direct participation of the royal and viceroyal figures in any of these areas of governance is limited; in practice, their use of the executive powers is directed by the Executive Council, a committee of ministers of the Crown responsible to the unicameral, elected Legislative Assembly and chosen and headed by the Premier of Prince Edward Island (presently Robert Ghiz), the head of government. To ensure the stability of government, the lieutenant governor will usually appoint as premier the person who is usually the current leader of the political party that can obtain the confidence of a plurality in the Legislative Assembly. The leader of the party with the second-most seats usually becomes the Leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition (presently Steven Myers) and is part of an adversarial parliamentary system intended to keep the government in check.[56]

Each of the 27 Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) is elected by simple plurality in an electoral district. General elections are called by the lieutenant governor on the first Monday in October four years after the previous election, or may be called, on the advice of the premier, should the government lose a confidence vote in the legislature.[57] Traditionally, politics in the province have been dominated by both the Liberal Party and the Progressive Conservative Party.

The Mi'kmaq Confederacy of PEI is the tribal council and provincial territorial organization in the province that represents both the Lennox Island and Abegweit First Nations.

Municipalities[edit]

PEI-basemap.png
Ten largest communities by population
Community 2011 2001
Charlottetown 32,545a 32,455
Summerside 15,654b 14,433
Stratford 8,043 6,314
Cornwall 5,375 4,412
Montague 2,034c 1,095
Kensington 1,445 1,379
Souris 1,162 1,238
Alberton 1,081 975
Tignish 998 846
Georgetown 678 680
aCensus agglomeration population: 58,358.
bCensus agglomeration population: 16,200.
cCensus agglomeration population: 6,011.

Transportation[edit]

Cardigan River, one of The Three Rivers

Prince Edward Island's transportation network has traditionally revolved around its seaports of Charlottetown, Summerside, Borden, Georgetown, and Souris —linked to its railway system, and the two main airports, Charlottetown and Summerside, for communication with mainland North America. The railway system was abandoned by CN in 1989 in favour of an agreement with the federal government to improve major highways.

Until 1997, the province was linked by two passenger-vehicle ferry services to the mainland: one, provided by Marine Atlantic, operated year-round between Borden and Cape Tormentine, New Brunswick; the other, provided by Northumberland Ferries Limited, operates seasonally between Wood Islands and Caribou, Nova Scotia. A third ferry service provided by CTMA operates all year round with seasonal times between Souris and Cap-aux-Meules, Quebec, in the Magdalen Islands.

On June 1, 1997, the Confederation Bridge opened, connecting Borden-Carleton to Cape Jourimain, New Brunswick. The longest bridge over ice covered waters in the world,[58] it replaced the Marine Atlantic ferry service. Since then, the Confederation Bridge's assured transportation link to the mainland has altered the province's tourism and agricultural and fisheries export economies.

Several airlines service the Charlottetown Airport (CYYG); the Summerside Airport (CYSU) is an additional option for general aviation.

The Island has the highest concentration of roadways in Canada. The provincially-managed portion of the network consists of 3,824 kilometres of paved roadways and 1,558 kilometres of non-paved or clay roads.

The province has very strict laws regarding use of road-side signs. Billboards and the use of portable signs are banned. There are standard direction information signs on roads in the province for various businesses and attractions in the immediate area. Some municipalities' by-laws also restrict the types of permanent signs that may be installed on private property.

There is an extensive bicycling / hiking trail that spans the island. The Confederation Trail is a 470 kilometre recreational trail system. The land once was owned and used by Canadian National Railway (CN) as a rail line on the island.

Education[edit]

Prince Edward Island is home to one university, the University of Prince Edward Island (UPEI), located in the city of Charlottetown. The university was created by the Island legislature to replace Prince of Wales College and St. Dunstan's University. UPEI is also home to the Atlantic Veterinary College, which offers the region's only veterinary medicine program.

Prince Edward Island is also home to Maritime Christian College, the only Bible college in the Maritimes. It is also home to Immanuel Christian School, a private Christian School in Charlottetown.

Holland College is the provincial community college, with campuses across the province, including specialised facilities such as the Atlantic Police Academy, Marine Training Centre, and the Culinary Institute of Canada.

Prince Edward Island's public school system has an English school district named the English Language School Board,[59] as well as a Francophone district, the Commission scolaire de langue française. The English language districts have a total of 10 secondary schools and 54 intermediate and elementary schools while the Francophone district has 6 schools covering all grades. 22 per cent of the student population is enrolled in French immersion. This is one of the highest levels in the country.

Today 23.5 per cent of residents aged 15 to 19 have bilingual skills, an increase of 100 per cent in a decade. Prince Edward Island, along with most rural regions in North America, is experiencing an accelerated rate of youth emigration. The provincial government has projected that public school enrollment will decline by 40% during the 2010s.

Healthcare[edit]

Panorama of the banks of the River Clyde in New Glasgow

The province has a single health administrative region (or district health authority) called Health PEI. Health PEI receives funding for its operations and is regulated by the Department of Health and Wellness. There are eight hospitals in the province.

Prince Edward Island offers programs and services in areas such as acute care, primary care, home care, palliative care, public health, chronic disease prevention, and mental health and addictions, to name a few. The provincial government has opened several family health centres in recent years in various rural and urban communities. A provincial cancer treatment centre at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital provides support to those dealing with various types of cancer-related illnesses. A family medicine residency program was established in 2009 with the Dalhousie University Faculty of Medicine as a means to encourage new physicians to work in Prince Edward Island.

Long-term-care services are also available with several programs in place to support seniors wishing to remain independent in their communities. Many medications for seniors are subsidized through a provincial pharmaceutical plan, however, Prince Edward Island remains one of the only provinces lacking a catastrophic drug coverage program for its residents.

The provincial government has several programs for early illness detection, including mammography and pap screening clinics. There are also asthma education and diabetes education programs, as well as prenatal programs, immunization programs and dental health risk prevention programs for children. The government is also attempting to implement a comprehensive integrated Electronic Health Record system.

The provincial government has recently committed to enhancing primary care and home care services and has invested in health care facilities in recent capital budgets; mostly replacements and upgrades to provincial government operated nursing homes and hospitals.

Some specialist services require patients to be referred to clinics and specialists in neighbouring provinces. Specialist operations and treatments are also provided at larger tertiary referral hospitals in neighbouring provinces such as the IWK Health Centre and Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre in Nova Scotia or the Saint John Regional Hospital, Moncton Hospital, and Dr. Georges-L.-Dumont University Hospital Centre in New Brunswick.

Ground ambulance service in Prince Edward Island is provided under contract by Island EMS. Air ambulance service is provided under contract by LifeFlight.

In recent decades, Prince Edward Island's population has shown statistically significant and abnormally high rates of diagnosed rare cancers, particularly in rural areas. Health officials, ecologists and environmental activists point to the use of pesticides for industrial potato farming as a primary contaminant.[60]

Prince Edward Island is the only province in Canada that does not provide abortion services through its hospitals. The last abortion was performed in the province in 1982 prior to the opening of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital which saw the closure of the Roman Catholic-affiliated Charlottetown Hospital and the non-denominational Prince Edward Island Hospital; a condition of the "merger" being that abortions not be performed in the province. In 1988, following the court decision R. v. Morgentaler, the then-opposition Progressive Conservative Party of Prince Edward Island tabled a motion demanding that the ban on abortions be upheld at the province's hospitals; the then-governing Prince Edward Island Liberal Party under Premier Joe Ghiz acquiesced and the ban was upheld.[61] The Government of Prince Edward Island will fund abortions for women who travel to another province. Women desiring an abortion in Prince Edward Island must have one physician referral (PEI physician), PEI physicians may not refuse this referral, if they do, patients can file a complaint with the Medical Society. Then women must travel to Halifax, to The Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre. While the procedure at this hospital is funded by the PEI government, travel expenses are not. Women from Prince Edward Island may also travel to the nearest private user-pay, Morgentaler Clinic in Fredericton, New Brunswick, where they must pay for the procedure using their own funds.[62][63][64][65][66] (See also abortion in Canada)

A local advocacy group titled the Prince Edward Island Reproductive Rights Organization has challenged the current understanding on abortion, and has held two rallies[67][68] to raise awareness on this issue. Currently the status remains unchanged.

Culture and sports[edit]

Sandstone arch

Arts[edit]

The island's cultural traditions of art, music and creative writing are supported through the public education system. There is an annual arts festival, the Charlottetown Festival, hosted at the Confederation Centre of the Arts.

Lucy Maud Montgomery, who was born in Clifton (now New London) in 1874, wrote some 20 novels and numerous short stories that have been collected into anthologies. Her first Anne book Anne of Green Gables was published in 1908. The musical play Anne of Green Gables has run every year at the Charlottetown festival for more than four decades. The sequel, Anne & Gilbert, premiered in the Playhouse in Victoria in 2005. The actual location of Green Gables, the house featured in Montgomery's Anne books, is in Cavendish, on the north shore of PEI.

Elmer Blaney Harris founded an artists colony at Fortune Bridge and set his famous play Johnny Belinda on the island. Robert Harris was a well-known artist.

Prince Edward Island's documented music history begins in the 19th century with religious music, some written by the local pump and block maker and organ-importer, Watson Duchemin. Several big bands including the Sons of Temperance Band and the Charlottetown Brass Band were active. Today, Acadian, Celtic, folk, and rock music prevail, with exponents including Gene MacLellan, his daughter Catherine MacLellan, Al Tuck, Lennie Gallant and Two Hours Traffic. The celebrated singer-songwriter Stompin' Tom Connors spent his formative years in Skinners Pond. Celtic music is certainly the most common traditional music on the island, with fiddling and step dancing being very common. This tradition, largely Scottish, Irish and Acadian in origin is very similar to the music of Cape Breton and to a lesser extent, Newfoundland and is unique to the region. A March 4/4 for bagpipes was composed in honour of Prince Edward Island.[69]

There is also an annual jazz festival, the P.E.I. Jazz and Blues Festival.[70] The one week long series of concerts takes place at a multitude of venues including Murphy's Community Center, outdoor stages and churches at Charlotteville. The moving of its date to mid August caused in 2011 a serious loss in funding from Ottawa's regional development agency ACOA.[71] The musician's line up in 2011 included Oliver Jones, Sophie Milman, Matt Dusk, Jack de Keyzer, Jack Semple, Meaghan Smith, Meaghan Blanchard, Hupman Brothers, Alex Dean, Charlie A'Court, Sean Ferris, Jimmy Bowskill, West End Blues Band, Bad Habits, Brian McConnell and Mellotones.

Sports[edit]

  • Water sports are very popular on Prince Edward Island during the summer, perhaps because the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Northumberland Strait are warmer than the Atlantic Ocean off the shores of nearby New England.
  • In 1991, Prince Edward Island hosted the Canada Winter Games.
  • In 2009, Prince Edward Island hosted the Canada Summer Games.
  • Charlottetown Islanders play in the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League.
  • Island Storm play in the National Basketball League of Canada.
  • In 2008 and 2009, Prince Edward Island hosted the Tour de PEI, a province wide cycling race consisting of women from around the world.
  • The most common sports participated in on the island are hockey, curling, golf, horse racing, baseball, soccer, rugby, football, broomball and basketball.

Notable people[edit]

Sister province[edit]

Hainan Province, China, has been the sister province of Prince Edward Island since 2001. This came about after Vice-Governor Lin Fanglue stayed for two days to hold discussions about partnership opportunities and trade.[72]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  5. ^ a b Natural Resources Canada (August 2009). "The Atlas of Canada - Sea Islands". Retrieved August 5, 2012. 
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  7. ^ Tidridge, Nathan. Prince Edward, Duke of Kent: Father of the Canadian Crown. Toronto: Dundurn Press, 2013.
  8. ^ "Canadian Climate Normals 1971-2000". Environment Canada. Retrieved 5 October 2012. 
  9. ^ Prince Edward Island - The Canadian Encyclopedia Retrieved: April 6, 2011
  10. ^ Russel, F. The Atlantic Coast. The Illustrated Natural History of Canada. Natural Science of Canada Ltd. Toronto. 1970. pp. 30-31. LCCCN 70109048
  11. ^ Parks Canada, Teacher Resource Centre, Prince Edward Island National Park of Canada Retrieved: April 6, 2011
  12. ^ Lexicon of Canadian Geological Units. "Pictou Group". Retrieved June 16, 2013. 
  13. ^ "Freshwater ascomycetes: Jahnula apiospora (Jahnulales, Dothideomycetes), a new species from Prince Edward Island, Canada". Retrieved 29 September 2013. 
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  15. ^ Harvey, p. 110
  16. ^ a b Harvey, p. 111
  17. ^ Harvey, p. 112
  18. ^ Boishebert Canadian Biography On Line
  19. ^ John Clarence Webster's, "Memorial on Behalf of Sieur de Boishebert" (Saint John: Historical Studies No. 4, Publications of the New Brunswick Museum, 1942) at p. 11.
  20. ^ "Mi'kmaw History - Timeline (Post-Contact)". Muiniskw.org. 2011-08-04. Retrieved 2012-05-19. 
  21. ^ "LEGARDEUR DE CROISILLE ET DE MONTESSON, JOSEPH-MICHEL - Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online". Biographi.ca. 2007-10-18. Retrieved 2012-05-19. 
  22. ^ The Canadian Enclyclopedia, Hurtig Publishers, Edmonton, Alberta, (1988) p. 1753.
  23. ^ Johnston, A. J. B. (2007). Endgame 1758: The Promise, the Glory and the Despair of Louisbourg's Last Decade. University of Nebraska Press. p. 366. 
  24. ^ Earl Lockerby. The Deportation of the Acadians from Prince Edward Island.
  25. ^ Brendan O'Grady, Exiles and Islanders: The Irish Settlers of Prince Edward Island, p. 15)
  26. ^ PEI Provincial Government. "Historical Milestones". Retrieved August 17, 2007. 
  27. ^ Julian Gwyn. Frigates and Foremasts. University of British Columbia. 2003. p. 58
  28. ^ PEI history Government of Canada
  29. ^ "Assembly Timeline". Legislative Assembly of Prince Edward Island. Government of Prince Edward Island. Retrieved October 22, 2011. 
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  32. ^ Confederation Centre of the Arts National Historic Site of Canada. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
  33. ^ "Population urban and rural, by province and territory". 
  34. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2006 and 2001 censuses – 100% data". 
  35. ^ a b [1], National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011
  36. ^ Statistics Canada (2002). "Population of Canada's Provinces". Retrieved April 3, 2007. 
  37. ^ PEI population trend (Statistics Canada).
  38. ^ Population urban and rural, by province and territory (Statistics Canada, 2005).
  39. ^ "Detailed Mother Tongue (186), Knowledge of Official Languages (5), Age Groups (17A) and Sex (3) (2006 Census)". 2.statcan.ca. December 7, 2010. Retrieved February 23, 2011. 
  40. ^ "Religions in Canada". 2.statcan.ca. Retrieved February 23, 2011. 
  41. ^ a b "PEI Potato". PEI Potato. Retrieved February 23, 2011. 
  42. ^ "Idaho Potato Production". Potatopro.com. November 12, 2008. Retrieved February 23, 2011. 
  43. ^ Weihs, Jean (1995). Facts about Canada, its provinces and territories. New York: H.W. Wilson Co. p. 159. ISBN 9780824208646. 
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  45. ^ Lobster Fishing
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  56. ^ Library of Parliament. "The Opposition in a Parliamentary System". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved May 23, 2011. 
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  59. ^ "New School Board". 
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  61. ^ Boesveld, Sarah (December 23, 2011). "P.E.I. to 'stay with status quo' on abortions". National Post. Retrieved August 25, 2012. 
  62. ^ Wright, Teresa (July 7, 2008). "Abortion policy to remain same: Ghiz". The Guardian (Charlottetown, PUI). Retrieved May 13, 2010. 
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  69. ^ Archie Cairns - Book 1 Pipe Music 'Prince Edward Island' March 4/4, 1995
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]


Coordinates: 46°15′N 063°00′W / 46.250°N 63.000°W / 46.250; -63.000