Prince Peter of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Portuguese Wikipedia. (May 2012)|
|Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Duke in Saxony
|House||House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha|
|Father||Prince Ludwig August of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha|
|Mother||Princess Leopoldina of Brazil|
19 May 1866|
Palace Leopoldina, Rio de Janeiro, Empire of Brazil
|Died||6 July 1934
Tulln an der Donau, Austria
|Burial||St. Augustin, Coburg|
Peter August Ludwig Maria Michael Gabriel Raphael Gonzaga (19 May 1866 – 6 July 1934), known in Brazil as Dom Pedro Augusto, was a prince of the house of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and a prince of the Empire of Brazil. He was the first of four sons born to German Prince Ludwig August of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Princess Leopoldina of Brazil.
Family and early years
Eldest son of Prince Louis Augustus of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony, and of Dona Leopoldina of Braganza, Princess of Brazil, Dom Pedro Augusto was also the first grandson of Dom Pedro II and Empress Teresa Cristina. Her paternal grandparents were Prince Augustus of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and the Clementine of Orleans (daughter of King Louis Philippe of France) .1 Princess
Due to lack of heirs by the Imperial Princess and the miscarriage suffered by Dona Leopoldina in her first pregnancy, had high expectations surrounding the birth of Don Pedro Augusto.2 the eve of the birth, the council of ministers, as well as representatives of the legislative, the Great Empire and the entire diplomatic corps were warned of the big event: "Having His Majesty the Emperor and by that when SA Mrs. D. Leopoldina find yourself close to giving birth, whether by day or. night the Lord prince or princess, whose birth is expected happy, ministers of state, advisers from the State and the great Empire contribute to the palace residence of His Highness, for what will be a sign of one pinwheel rockets loosened the Imperial Quinta da Boa Vista and matched by another on the hill of In fact, at 16:10 of March 19, 1866, the Leopoldina Hall, "The Preferred" came into the world. The birth was announced with three rockets fired from the Imperial Palace of São Cristóvão, followed by volleys of guns of the forts and ships anchored in the bar. Note 1 The baptism was held in April in the Imperial Chapel, 6 groomsmen taking Prince as the Emperor Dom Pedro II and the Queen of the French, Maria Amalia of Bourbon-Naples (represented by his grandmother, Teresa Cristina), whose death had occurred sixteen days before and had not notified because of slow communications. In the Speech from the Throne on May 3 of that year, the emperor speaking:
"Full of pleasure you Annuncio the birth of Prince Pedro, fructo Happy consortium of my very dear daughter the Princess Leopoldina with my very dear son in law the Duke of Saxe." By virtue of the marriage contract between Princess Leopoldina and the Duke of Saxe, the couple undertook to reside part of the year in Brazil while the emperor considered not ensured the succession of Princess Isabel.Assim, Dom Pedro Augusto spent part of his early childhood between Brazil and Europe. A few weeks after the birth of her fourth and last son, Prince Louis Gaston, Mrs. Leopoldina contracted typhoid fever and died in Vienna on February 7, 1871, at twenty-three years of idade.Neste same year, the imperial couple makes their first visit to Europe, where a family council decides that Don Pedro Augusto and his brother, Don Augusto Leopoldo, must return to Brazil, to be educated by his maternal grandparents. At the request of the Emperor doctor Manuel Pacheco da Silva, the future Baron Pacheco, left his position as dean of Externato Dom Pedro II to become tutor to the grandchildren, that "(...) are lagging badly and speak Portuguese, only know the German language. " At eight, the young prince was enrolled at the Imperial College of Pedro II, becoming a Bachelor of Science and Letters in 1881 On April 1, 1887, graduated in Civil Engineering from Polytechnica School, having already delivered a lecture on Académie des Sciences. Scholar like his grandfather, Peter Augustus was a member of the Institut de France and author of several works on mineralogy, taken today as gems.
The imperial succession
The apparent infertility Princess Dona Isabel Pedro Augusto raised to the status of heir apparent since the day of his birth. Billed as favorite grandson of the emperor, who was bound by ties of affection and common interests, the prince found himself passed over in the line of succession to the throne at the age of nine, with the birth of his cousin Don Pedro de Alcântara, who has had the title of Prince of the Grand Pará.12 18
The context change considerably affect the behavior of Peter Augusto.19 After the birth of his cousin and throughout his adolescence, the prince began to suffer from insomnia, intense headaches, palpitations and hand tremors. The recurring fear of death - feared to be infected with the same disease that killed his mother - became a concern for the father and avós.20
The preference of the emperor by eldest grandson jealousy caused the imperial princess and fed the speculation about a turnaround in the line of succession. Correspondence diplomáticanota 2 and press left transpire family division and the rejection of religious fanaticism to the alleged policy of Dona Isabel elite and the wishes of the government of Gaston d'Orléans, Count d'Eu, ended up creating a favorable partisanship to a III Reign headed by Don Pedro Augusto.21
Installed in Leopoldina Palace, the prince became quite popular, promoting receptions and banquets and reaching even to form an informal court around him whom regaled with great generosity. The sums of money which he asked the father increased considerably, leading Luís Augusto asking for explanations to the emperor: 22
"It's amazing how you like to spend money and one of his letters are filled with requests for money and more money.'s Sad because, at his age, nor should worry about this issue. My orders are to give only 200 reis per month [. ..] I come still ask for a clarification Majesty not to speak of it to Peter. He asked me to give him 500 000 for travel expenses. trip planned or only imagination of Peter? he also wants to make a gift of a fairy reis his repeater, last year did not present this value. "22 The Conspirator Prince, as it was called in Parliament, had, according to his contemporaries, active participation in the campaign that he intended to promote him to the throne instead of his aunt and cousin. His greatest mentor this season and one of its most enthusiastic was the counselor Sousa Dias, president of the council of ministers between 1884 and 1885.23 In Europe, where he was with grandparents between 1887 and 1888, Eduardo Prado and Baron Star was in charge of guide you and do propagate its virtues in contrast to the "defects" of Dona Isabel.
Indeed, on his European tour, Dom Pedro Augusto was received with pomp successor of Dom Pedro II in all countries and royal houses wherever he went and his popularity grew by leaps and bounds. In France, was graced by Sadi Carnot with the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor; in Portugal, the King Dom Luís I awarded him the Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Espada.25 The return to Brazil deepened the silent crisis within the Imperial Family. Support the prince grew in number and political weight: the Baron Maya Monteiro, Count de Figueiredo, the Marquis of Paranaguá - among other leading politicians - and even the empress herself became his partidários.26 When enthusiasm Prince counterpoint was the prophetic words of his brother, Monsignor Augusto: "Come on, that succession is not of carola [Dona Isabel], nor the armed man [Prince of Grão-Pará], nor the deaf [Count d'Eu ], nor thy too.
Republic and exile
Dom Pedro Augusto noted the military coup that resulted in the Proclamation of the Republic hours after the incident, when returning from a horseback ride. Claiming to have gone to ask for guidance to their followers, took to unite with the rest of the family, only coming to the Imperial Palace - which was already surrounded by army men - in the late afternoon of November 15. Required by the provisional government to follow into exile at dawn on November 17, all members of the Imperial family - with the exception of Don Augusto, who was in circumnavigation with the Imperial Navy in the East - were shipped on the steamer Alagoas and escorted by the battleship Riachuelo up to the limit of the Brazilian territorial waters. Was aboard the Alagoas that Prince had his first psychotic break, trying to strangle the captain, whom he accused of taking money to kill everyone. Contained and trapped in his cabin, he was stricken with persecutory delusions, coming to wrap your body in a lifeguard buoy, fearing that the ship was bombed. Alternating moments of excitement and lethargy, Pedro Augusto threw bottles overboard with requests for help. There are records of at least one of these messages, found a bottle on the beach Maragogi, on the coast of Alagoas:
Board of Alagoas, November 23, 1889, at 11 o'clock in the morning.
The imperial family commitments row in the Provisional Government and coerced from under the pretext of security, on the 17th, at 3 o'clock in the Parnaíba cruiser where we wrote several letters and that led to the cove where Abraham soon embarked aboard this steam directed by the Riachuelo, telling themselves that went to Lisbon, thinks well as his entourage in critical position and certainly, I think, are all convicted and all a violent death. The danger is great. Waters of Pernambuco wandering randomly. My God! Pedro Augusto de Coburg Bragança Already in exile, Pedro Augusto is taken to psychiatric treatment in Graz. A few weeks later discharged and meets the grandparents when then receives news of the death of Dona Teresa Cristina, the only familiar ally in his pretensions to the throne. With the transfer of the family to Cannes, going to contact supporters old and plan the monarchical restoration in Brazil. However, their psychological situation further deteriorated and the few still active royalist conspirators soon departed from the prince.
Madness and death
With the abandonment of the "pedristas" called, the psychiatric symptoms progressively worsened Pedro Augusto. He spent sleepless nights, did not eat, babbling incomprehensible words or ranted against imaginary enemies. Often the servants of the Coburg Palace were in their quarters huddled in a corner with a glazed look and foaming at the mouth.
The few who remained her friends tried in vain to help him. At the request of the physician Jean Charcot, the young man was examined by the famous Sigmund Freud, as registered gift Augusto Leopoldo in a letter to Baron de Santa Vitória:
"I want to thank the visit of the young Doctor Sigmund Freud sent by the good Dr. Jean Charcot. In his opinion, there was by my brother monomaniac no symptoms, or uncontrolled excitement, constituting only a deep depression and unhappiness. What felt that it is exhausted, recommending, for now, plenty of rest. " Although he recovered the reason, the young man regained the support of his former coreligionists, who ended up investing in your brother as pretender to the throne extinto.38 With the death of Dom Pedro II, on December 5, 1891, melancholy and mania returned to the scene of persecution: accused uncles - princess Elizabeth and the Count d'Eu - to spread rumors about his sanity, accused journalists of putting in doubt his masculinity and his allies traição.39
In October 1893, articles published in French and Argentine newspapers - realizing now the acclamation of his cousin Don Pedro de Alcântara as emperor of Brazil prays acclaim gift Augusto Leopoldo - Pedro Augusto led to the brink of collapse. Clad plates and bands of all orders that had been bestowed with the Prince rode through the streets of Vienna in the middle of the night, struck the old persecutory delusions. After being restrained and reappointed to the Coburg Palace attempted suicide by throwing himself through one of the windows of your room.
Admitted by the father in a sanatorium in Tulln an der Donau, The Favored spent the rest of his life believing that it would become emperor of Brazil. On April 25, 1900, all of his personal belongings were auctioned in Viena.41 Died July 7, 1934, after 68 years of age and over 40 years of hospitalization. His body was buried in the crypt of St. Augustinkirche in Coburg.
Grand Cross of the Ernestine Ducal House of Saxe
Grand Cross of Order of Saint Alexander of Bulgaria
- Bragança, Dom Carlos Tasso de Saxe-Coburgo e. Palácio Leopoldina, in Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro, vol. 438, 2008, p. 281-300 (ISSN 0101-4366)
- Bragança, Dom Carlos Tasso de Saxe-Coburgo e. A Princesa Leopoldina, in Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro, vol. 243, 1959, p. 70-93 (ISSN 0101-4366)
- Bragança, Dom Carlos Tasso de Saxe-Coburgo e. As Visitas de Dom Pedro II a Coburgo, in Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro, vol. 272, 1966, p. 201-208 (ISSN 0101-4366)
- Bragança, Dom Carlos Tasso de Saxe-Coburgo e. Dom Pedro Augusto e seus contactos com a avó Clementina, Duquesa de Saxe, in Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro, vol. 440, 2008, p. 161-170 (ISSN 0101-4366)
- Bragança, Dom Carlos Tasso de Saxe-Coburgo e. Príncipe Dom Pedro Augusto de Saxe-Coburgo e Bragança e o "Leilão em Viena", in Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro, vol. 422, 2004, p. 205-259 (ISSN 0101-4366)
- Bragança, Dom Carlos Tasso de Saxe-Coburgo e. As confidências do Visconde de Itaúna a Dom Pedro II, in Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro, vol. 424, 2004, p. 89-161 (ISSN 0101-4366)
- Defrance, Olivier. La Médicis des Cobourg, Clémentine d’Orléans, Bruxelles, Racine, 2007 (ISBN 2873864869)
- Del Priore, Mary. O Príncipe Maldito, Rio de Janeiro, Objetiva, 2007 (ISBN 857302867X)
- Figueiredo Junior, Afonso Celso de Assis. Palavras do Conde de Affonso Celso sobre o falecimento do sócio honorário Dom Pedro Augusto de Saxe-Coburgo, in Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro, vol. 169, 1934, p. 429-430 (ISSN 0101-4366)
- Lessa, Clado Ribeiro de. O Segundo Ramo da Casa Imperial e a nossa Marinha de Guerra, in Revista do Instituto Historico e Geografico Brasileiro, vol. 211, 1951, p. 118-133 (ISSN 0101-4366)
- Lyra, Heitor. História de Dom Pedro II - Declínio (1880-1891), Belo Horizonte, Itatiaia; São Paulo, Ed. da Universidade de São Paulo, 1977, p. 37, 173 (ISBN 9788531903571)
- Mello Jr, Donato. Centenário do Príncipe do Grão-Pará - O nascimento em Petrópolis e o batizado no Rio de Janeiro, in Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro, vol. 322, 1979, p. 212-228 (ISSN 0101-4366)
- Sessão em 21 de Março de 1866, in Annaes do Parlamento Brazileiro, Câmara dos Srs. Deputados, Quarto Ano da Duodécima Legislatura, Sessão de 1866, tomo 1, p. 42
- Sessão Imperial do Encerramento da Terceira e da Abertura da Quarta Sessão da Decima-Segunda Legislatura, in Annaes do Parlamento Brazileiro, Sessão de 1866, tomo 1
- Wehrs, Carlos. A Princesa Leopoldina de Bragança e Bourbon e a Casa Ducal de Saxe-Coburg, in Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro, vol. 437, 2007, p. 275-289 (ISSN 0101-4366)
- Bragança (2008), 166
- Del Priore, 124
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