Prince William, Duke of Cambridge

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Prince William
Duke of Cambridge (more)
The Duke of Cambridge.jpg
The Duke of Cambridge at the wedding of Lady Melissa Percy in June 2013
Spouse Catherine Middleton (m. 2011)
Issue Prince George of Cambridge
Full name
William Arthur Philip Louis[fn 1]
House House of Windsor
Father Charles, Prince of Wales
Mother Diana, Princess of Wales
Born (1982-06-21) 21 June 1982 (age 32)
St Mary's Hospital, London, United Kingdom
Signature
Religion Church of England

Prince William, Duke of Cambridge KG KT ADC(P) (William Arthur Philip Louis;[fn 1] born 21 June 1982), is the elder son of Charles, Prince of Wales, and his first wife Diana, Princess of Wales. His paternal grandparents are Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. He is second in line to succeed his grandmother, after his father.

Prince William was educated at four schools in the United Kingdom and obtained a degree from the University of St Andrews. He spent parts of a gap year in Chile, Belize, Tanzania, and Kenya, where he has lived and holidayed several times. Prince William has also taken Kiswahili studies at universities in Kenya and Tanzania. He also completed training as an officer (eventually being commissioned as a lieutenant in the Blues and Royals Regiment), and a pilot (earning his wings by completing pilot training at Royal Air Force College Cranwell) in the British military. He then underwent helicopter flying training in order to become a full-time pilot with the Search and Rescue Force.

Prince William married Catherine Middleton, on 29 April 2011 at Westminster Abbey. Hours prior to the event, Buckingham Palace announced that he would be created Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn, and Baron Carrickfergus. Their first child, Prince George of Cambridge, was born on 22 July 2013.

Following the end of his more than seven-and-a-half years of full-time service with the British armed forces, in early 2014, from early January to late March, Prince William attended a series of seminars, lectures, and meetings in agricultural management at the University of Cambridge.[3]

Early life[edit]

Prince William, the first child of the Prince and Princess of Wales, was born at St Mary's Hospital, London, on 21 June 1982.[4] A week later on 28 June his name was announced by Buckingham Palace: William Arthur Philip Louis.[4] He was baptised in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace on 4 August 1982 (the 82nd birthday of his paternal great-grandmother, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother) by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Runcie.[5] William had six godparents; former King Constantine II of Greece (his paternal cousin); Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy (his paternal cousin); the Duchess of Westminster; Lady Susan Hussey; Lord Romsey (his paternal cousin); and Sir Laurens van der Post.[4][6] He was the first child born to a Prince and Princess of Wales since Prince John in 1905.[7] The Prince was affectionately called "Wombat" by his parents[8] or "Wills" (the latter a name coined by the press).[9]

At age seven, William reportedly told his mother that he desired to be a police officer when he was older so that he might be able to protect her; a statement to which his brother responded: "Oh, no you can't. You've got to be King."[10] William's first public appearance was on 1 March 1991 (Saint David's Day), during an official visit of his parents to Cardiff, Wales. After arriving by aeroplane, William was taken to Llandaff Cathedral where he signed the visitors' book, thereby demonstrating that he was left-handed. On 3 June 1991, William was admitted to Royal Berkshire Hospital after being accidentally hit on the side of the forehead by a fellow student wielding a golf club. He did not lose consciousness, but suffered a depressed fracture of the skull and was operated on at the Great Ormond Street Hospital, resulting in a permanent scar.[11] In a 2009 interview, he dubbed this scar a "Harry Potter scar". He was reported to have said, "I call it (the scar) that because it glows sometimes and some people notice it—other times they don't notice it at all".[12]

His mother wanted him and his younger brother Harry to have wider experiences than are usual for royal children. She took them to Walt Disney World and McDonald's as well as AIDS clinics and shelters for the homeless. She bought them typical teenage items, such as video games.[13] Diana, who was by then divorced from the Prince of Wales, died in a car accident in 1997. William, along with his brother and father, was staying at Balmoral Castle at the time. The Prince of Wales waited until early the following morning to tell his sons about their mother's death.[14] At his mother's funeral, William accompanied his father, brother, paternal grandfather and maternal uncle in walking behind the funeral cortège from Buckingham Palace to Westminster Abbey.

Education[edit]

Chapel of Eton College

William was educated at independent schools, starting at Jane Mynors' nursery school and the pre-preparatory Wetherby School, both in London.[15] Following this, he attended Ludgrove School near Wokingham, Berkshire, and was privately tutored during summers by Rory Stewart.[16] At Ludgrove he also participated in football—along with swimming, basketball, clay pigeon shooting, and cross country running. William sat for the entrance exam to Eton College and was admitted. There, he studied geography, biology and history of art at A-Level, obtaining an A in geography, a C in biology and a B in history of art.[17][18][19] At Eton, he continued to play football, captaining his house team, and took up water polo.[20] The decision to place William in Eton went against the family tradition of sending royal children to Gordonstoun (William's grandfather, father, two uncles, and two cousins all attended); however, both Diana's father and brother had attended Eton.[13] The Royal Family and the tabloid press agreed that William would be allowed to study free of paparazzi intrusion in exchange for regular updates of the Prince's life. The chairman of the Press Complaints Commission, John Wakeham, said of the arrangement: "Prince William is not an institution; nor a soap star; nor a football hero. He is a boy: in the next few years, perhaps the most important and sometimes painful part of his life, he will grow up and become a man."[13]

After completing his studies at Eton, the Prince took a gap year, during which he took part in British Army training exercises in Belize,[21] worked in English dairy farms, visited Africa,[22] and for ten weeks taught children in southern Chile. As part of the Raleigh International programme in the town of Tortel, the Prince lived with other young teachers, sharing in the common household chores, including cleaning the toilet, and also volunteered as the guest radio jockey for the local radio station.[21]

By 2001, William was back in the United Kingdom and had enrolled, under the name William Wales,[23][24] at the University of St Andrews. News of this caused a temporary increase in the number of applications to St Andrews, mostly from young women who wanted an opportunity to meet him.[25] The extra attention did not deter him, though, and he embarked on a degree course in art history, later changing his main subject to geography, and going on to earn a Scottish Master of Arts degree with upper second class honours. While at university, he represented the Scottish national universities water polo team at the Celtic Nations tournament in 2004.[20] He was known as "Steve" by other students to avoid any journalists overhearing and realising his identity.[9]

The Prince returned to St Andrews in February 2011 as Patron of the university's 600th Anniversary Appeal.[26]

Royal duties and career[edit]

William began to accompany his parents on official visits at an early age; his first overseas royal tour was with his parents to Australia and New Zealand in 1983,[27] a decision made by the Princess of Wales that was considered to be unconventional; not only was William so young, but both the first and second in line for the throne would be travelling together.[13] However, he accompanied either both parents or his father on subsequent tours, and, upon graduation from university, began to undertake duties of his own, as well as obtaining experience in the private workforce when he worked with land management at Chatsworth House and interned at HSBC.[13]

Military career[edit]

Military training and secondments[edit]

Prince William in his flight lieutenant's uniform in 2010.

Having decided to follow a military career, in October 2005 William attended the four-day Regular Commissions Board at Westbury in Wiltshire where he underwent selection to judge his suitability to become an army officer. Having passed selection, William went up to the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in January 2006.[28] Successfully completing the course, William graduated from Sandhurst on 15 December 2006, the graduation parade being attended by the Queen and the Prince of Wales, along with other members of the Royal Family. William officially received his commission as a lieutenant at midnight. With his rank obtained, as "Lieutenant Wales" (a name based on his father's title, Prince of Wales), he followed his younger brother[29] into the Blues and Royals as a troop commander in an armoured reconnaissance unit, after which he spent four months in training for the post at Bovington Camp, Dorset.

Once officially enrolled and commissioned in the armed forces, William wanted active service; in this there were recent precedents: his great-great-uncle Edward VIII, when Prince of Wales, served in France during the First World War; his great-grandfather King George VI served during World War I with the Navy at the Battle of Jutland and in France with the Air Force; and his paternal grandfather Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, served with distinction during World War II. More recently, his uncle Prince Andrew, Duke of York, served in the Falklands War.

Though Major-General Sir Sebastian Roberts, General Officer commanding the Household Division, had said William's deployment was possible, the Prince's position as second in line to the throne, and the convention of ministers advising against the person in that position being put into dangerous situations, cast doubts on William's ability to see combat. These doubts increased after Prince Harry's deployment was cancelled in 2007, due to "specific threats". William, instead, went on to training in the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force, obtaining his commission as a sub-lieutenant in the former and flying officer in the latter (both broadly equivalent to the rank of lieutenant in the army). With this complete, William undertook an attachment with the Royal Air Force, undergoing an intensive four-month training course at RAF Cranwell.[30][31] Upon completing the course on 11 April 2008, he was presented with his RAF wings by his father,[32] who had himself received his wings after training at the same college.[33] During this secondment Prince William flew to Afghanistan in a C-17 Globemaster, which repatriated the body of Trooper Robert Pearson, in what Max Clifford described as a "PR exercise".[34] William had been affectionately known by his fellow airmen as "Billy the Fish", a pun on the name "William Wales".[35]

William was then seconded to train with the navy for two months, from June to August 2008, during which time he spent three weeks at the Britannia Royal Naval College, training on units of the surface fleet and submarines, as well as with the Fleet Air Arm and Royal Marines.[36] He spent a day on submarine HMS Talent.[37] During a five week deployment on HMS Iron Duke in the Caribbean, he took part in a joint operation with the US Coast Guard that identified and captured a speedboat carrying 900 kg of cocaine worth approximately £40 million.[38][39] The ship also took part in other raids.[40]

Owing to William's future role, a long-term career in the military was considered out of the question; due to his position his desire to see active service was always unlikely to be granted. William originally joined the military on a short-service commission lasting three years. However, it was announced in September 2008 that he would be extending his time in the forces, first by taking on another secondment in 2008 (including working at the MOD and non-operational flying with the Army Air Corps).[41] Then it was announced that he would transfer from the Army to the RAF in order to train as a full-time search and rescue helicopter pilot, a role that enables him to take an active role in the armed forces without being deployed on combat operations.

Royal Air Force service[edit]

Sea King helicopter being flown by Prince William in 2010.

In January 2009, William transferred his commission to the RAF and was promoted to Flight Lieutenant. He trained to become a helicopter pilot with the RAF's Search and Rescue Force. In January 2010, he graduated from the Defence Helicopter Flying School at RAF Shawbury, where he had been under the instruction of Squadron Leader Craig Finch.[42] On 26 January 2010, he transferred to the Search and Rescue Training Unit at RAF Valley on Anglesey to receive training on the Sea King search and rescue helicopter and graduated from this course on 17 September 2010.[43] This made him the first member of the British Royal Family since Henry VII to live in Wales.[44]

It was announced on 15 April 2010 that William will remain at RAF Valley for his operational tour, being assigned to C Flight No. 22 Squadron[45] and initially performing co-pilot duties.[46] His operational tour was expected to last 30 to 36 months.[47]

His first rescue mission (as co-pilot of an RAF Sea King Helicopter) was a response to an emergency call from the Liverpool Coastguard on 2 October 2010. The Prince, who was excited to finally take part in an active mission, and the other three members of the crew, flew from their base at RAF Valley to an offshore gas rig in Morecambe Bay, northwest England. A man who had suffered an apparent heart attack on the rig was airlifted to a local hospital.[48] In November 2011, he participated in a search and rescue mission involving a sinking cargo ship in the Irish Sea. As co-pilot, he helped rescue two sailors, who were then transported to a hospital in Bangor.[49]

William deployed to the Falkland Islands for a six-week tour with No. 1564 Flight, beginning in February and ending in March 2012.[50][51] The deployment of the Duke to the Falklands close to the 30th anniversary of the beginning of the conflict (2 April 1982) was condemned by Argentina as a "provocative act".[52][53]

In June 2012 Prince William gained a qualification to be captain or pilot in charge of a Sea King rather than a co-pilot.[54] His active service as an RAF search and rescue pilot ended in September 2013.[55]

Royal duties[edit]

At the age of 21, Prince William was appointed as a Counsellor of State, and began his royal duties by first serving in that capacity when the Queen was in Nigeria to attend the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2003. For his 21st birthday, William accompanied his father on a royal tour of Wales, visiting the Anglesey Food Fair and opening a centre for the homeless in Newport.[56] By July 2005, he was on his first solo overseas tour, travelling to New Zealand, to participate in World War II commemorations on behalf of his grandmother in her role as Queen of New Zealand. For the 30th anniversary of his father's charity, The Prince's Trust, William and his brother were interviewed together for the first time by Ant & Dec.[56] In July 2007, Prince William accompanied his grandmother's cousin the Duke of Kent, who is President of the UK Scout Association, in opening the 21st World Scout Jamboree, celebrating the centennial of the founding of the Scout Movement.

William during the opening ceremony of the 21st World Scout Jamboree

Tina Brown said in her 2007 biography of Diana, Princess of Wales, that Prince William had, like his father, expressed a desire to become Governor-General of Australia,[57] though the idea was considered doubtful by Prime Minister of Australia John Howard, who said: "We have for a long time embraced the idea that the person who occupies that post should be in every way an Australian citizen."[58]

In 2009, a private office was set up for William by his grandmother, with Sir David Manning as his adviser.[59]

Manning personally accompanied him in January 2010 as he toured Auckland and Wellington on behalf of the Queen; William opened the new building of the Supreme Court of New Zealand and was welcomed by a Māori chief.[60] William succeeded Lord Attenborough in 2010 as the fifth President of the British Academy of Film and Television Arts.[61]

In March 2011, William visited Christchurch, New Zealand, after the recent earthquake,[62] and addressed the memorial service at Hagley Park, on behalf of his grandmother[63] Upon leaving New Zealand, William travelled to Australia, to visit areas badly affected by flooding in the states of Queensland and Victoria.[64][65] After twice accompanying his parents to Canada, the Prince, with his wife, toured the country and visited the United States in June and July 2011, attending Canada Day celebrations on Parliament Hill.[66][67] On 2 November, the Duke and Duchess visited the UNICEF Supply Division Centre for supplying food to malnourished African children in Copenhagen, Denmark.[68][69] In September 2012, they toured Singapore, Malaysia, Tuvalu and the Solomon Islands as part of the Queen's Jubilee celebrations.

In April 2014, the Duke and Duchess undertook a royal tour together to New Zealand and Australia.

Personal interests[edit]

Prince William playing polo in July 2007.
Prince William and his father, Charles, after a polo match at Ham Polo Club, London.

Following his parents' examples, William took interest in various causes from a relatively early age. The late Princess of Wales' work with HIV/AIDS aid and prevention, and the Prince of Wales' work with the natural environment and the inner-city disadvantaged, directed William into those areas. He also showed a desire to focus on the needy in Africa, sometimes working with his brother's charity, Sentebale.

Humanitarian and environmental causes[edit]

William became aware of HIV/AIDS in the mid-1990s, when his mother began to take her two sons to visit shelters and clinics for those suffering from the disease. In January 2005, William and his brother volunteered at a British Red Cross aid distribution centre to pack emergency supplies for countries that were affected by the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami.[70] Later, in September, William granted his patronage to Centrepoint, a charity that assists the homeless.[71][72] During the period when his mother had been patron of Centrepoint, he had accompanied her on visits to its headquarters and projects.

William also worked in the children's unit at The Royal Marsden Hospital for two days of work experience in 2005, as well as helping out in the medical research, catering, and fund raising departments.[71] The same year, he spent two weeks in North Wales with a mountain rescue team.[70] In May 2007, William became patron of both organisations (his mother had also previously been patron of the Royal Marsden Hospital) and he became attracted to Mountain Rescue England and Wales in order to, in his words, "highlight and celebrate the vital, selfless and courageous work of our mountain rescue organisations".[71]

The Prince also became a patron of the Tusk Trust in December 2005,[71] a charity that works towards conserving wildlife and initiating community development, including providing education, across Africa.[73] He became associated with the organisation after he witnessed its work first hand in Africa. Saying "rural African initiatives that foster education, responsibility and participation in the local community light the way to conservation",[74] he carried out his first official duty with the trust in launching a 5,000-mile (8,000 km) bike ride across the African continent in 2007. In 2010, he became a patron of 100 Women in Hedge Funds Philanthropic Initiatives.[75]

In March 2011, the Duke and Duchess set up a gift fund held by The Foundation of Prince William and Prince Harry to allow well-wishers who wanted to give them a wedding gift to donate money to charities instead.[76] The gift fund supported 26 charities of the couple’s choice, incorporating the armed forces, children, the elderly, art, sport and conservation. These causes are close to their hearts and reflect the experiences, passions and values of their lives so far.[77][78][79][80][81]

Sports[edit]

William plays polo for charitable causes. He is a fan of football and supports Aston Villa.[82] He became President of England's Football Association in May 2006 and vice royal patron of the Welsh Rugby Union (WRU) in February 2007 (supporting the Queen as patron of the WRU).[71] The same year, the WRU's decision to name a new cup for test matches between Wales and South Africa the Prince William Cup caused controversy, with some believing it would have been more fitting to name the trophy after Ray Gravell.[83][84][85]

In 2006, the Prince, along with other Sandhurst officers, took part in running one mile to support the charity Sport Relief, as he had done in 2004 with a team from Clarence House. In May 2007, William became patron of the English Schools' Swimming Association.[71]

The Prince and his brother are both enthusiastic motorcyclists, with the Prince owning a Ducati 1198 S Corse.

Courtship and marriage[edit]

The newly married Duke and Duchess of Cambridge on the balcony of Buckingham Palace

Bachelorhood[edit]

During Prince William's years at university, he participated in university life and said: "I'm not a party animal, despite what some people might think."[13] As with his father before him, William's private life became the subject of tabloid speculation, especially around his relationship with Catherine Middleton, who had been one of William's university flatmates and whom William began dating in 2003. Middleton attended William's passing-out parade at Sandhurst, which was the first high-profile event that she attended as his guest. The relationship between them was followed so closely that bookmakers took bets on the possibility of a royal wedding and the retail chain Woolworths produced memorabilia bearing the likenesses of the couple.[86] Media attention became so intense that William asked paparazzi to keep their distance from Middleton.[86]

It was reported in April 2007 that the couple had split,[86] though Middleton, in June, attended a party at Lulworth Army Barracks as the guest of Prince William and in July the Concert for Diana, which had been organised by Princes William and Harry. In subsequent months, she accompanied William on holiday and joined the Royal Family on private outings and at public events.

Engagement and wedding[edit]

On 16 November 2010, Clarence House announced that William and Catherine were to marry; the couple became engaged in Kenya in October. The engagement ring given by William to Catherine was that which had belonged to his mother.

The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge at the official Canada Day celebration in Ottawa, 2011, during their first royal tour outside the United Kingdom

The wedding took place on 29 April 2011 in Westminster Abbey, London.[87] Catherine and William chose to break with royal protocol and, like Diana, Princess of Wales, omit any vow by Catherine that she "obey" her husband.[citation needed] A few hours prior to the ceremony, William's new titles of Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn, and Baron Carrickfergus were announced,[88][89][90] as is customary for princes on the occasion of their weddings.[91] The titles became official on 26 May 2011, when Letters Patent to that effect were signed and recorded on the Roll of the Peerage.[92]

Fatherhood[edit]

The Duchess of Cambridge's first pregnancy was announced on 3 December 2012.[93] She was admitted on 22 July 2013 to the Lindo Wing, St Mary's Hospital, London, where Prince William himself had been delivered. Later that day, she gave birth to a baby boy—Prince George of Cambridge—with Prince William present.[94][95]

Godchildren[edit]

William is godfather to Prince Constantine Alexios of Greece and Denmark (grandson of William's godfather, the former King Constantine II of Greece),[96] Tom Pettifer (son of William's former nanny, Tiggy Pettifer) and Grace van Cutsem (daughter of William's friend since childhood, Hugh van Cutsem).[97]

Titles, styles, honours and arms[edit]

Titles and styles[edit]

  • 21 June 1982 – 29 April 2011: His Royal Highness Prince William of Wales
  • 29 April 2011 – present: His Royal Highness The Duke of Cambridge
    • in Scotland: 29 April 2011 – present: His Royal Highness The Earl of Strathearn[98][99][100]

The Duke's style and title in full is His Royal Highness Prince William Arthur Philip Louis, Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn, Baron Carrickfergus, Royal Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter,[101] Knight of the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle,[98] Personal Aide-de-Camp to Her Majesty The Queen[102]

As a British prince, William does not use a surname for everyday purposes. For formal and ceremonial purposes, the children of the Prince of Wales use the title of "prince" or "princess" before their Christian name and their father's territorial designation after it. Thus, Prince William was styled as "Prince William of Wales". Such area-based surnames are discarded by women when they marry and by men if they are given a peerage of their own,[103] such as when Prince William was given his dukedom.

For the male-line grandchildren of Elizabeth II, however, there is currently some uncertainty over the correct form of family surname to use, or whether there even is a surname. The Queen has stipulated all her male-line descendants who do not bear the titular dignity of prince shall use Mountbatten-Windsor as their family surname (although Letters Patent exist stipulating the name Windsor, but with the same caveat). According to their flight suits as seen in television interviews, Princes William and Harry both used Wales as their surname for military purposes; this continues to be the case for William since his creation as Duke of Cambridge.[104]

On the morning of his wedding, it was announced the Queen would confer the titles Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn and Baron Carrickfergus upon William.[88] The letters patent received the great seal on 26 May 2011.[105]

Military ranks[edit]

Honours[edit]

Accompanied by his father, Prince William proceeds to St George's Chapel to be installed as a Knight of the Garter.

See also List of honours of the British Royal Family by country

Prince William is the 1,000th member of the register of the Order of the Garter,[116] and was officially invested by the Queen on 16 June 2008 at a service at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.[117] The last time a monarch appointed a grandchild into the Order of the Garter was in 1894, when Queen Victoria invested Prince Alfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

Medals

Appointments[edit]

Personal
Fellowships

Honorary military appointments[edit]

Canada Canada
United Kingdom United Kingdom

Honorific eponyms[edit]

Awards
Schools

Arms[edit]

Arms of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
Coat of Arms of William, Duke of Cambridge.svg
Notes
Prince William was granted a personal coat of arms on his 18th birthday. It is based on the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, with a white (or silver) label with three points, the centre point bearing a red clam shell (an "escallop"), to distinguish it from the arms of other members of the Royal Family. The escallop is drawn from the Spencer coat of arms, a reference to his mother, who was the daughter of the Earl Spencer.[126]
Adopted
21 June 2000
Helm
Upon a coronet of the children of the Heir Apparent, the royal helm Or
Escutcheon
Quarterly: 1st and 4th, Gules, three lions passant guardant in pale Or (England); 2nd, Or, a lion rampant within a double tressure flory counterflory Gules (Scotland); 3rd, Azure, a harp Or stringed Argent (Ireland).
Orders
The Order of the Garter ribbon.
HONI SOIT QUI MAL Y PENSE
(Shame be to him who thinks evil of it)
Other elements
The whole distinguished by a label of three points Argent, the central point charged with an escallop Gules.
Banner
Royal Standard of Prince William.svg The Duke of Cambridge's personal Royal Standard is that of the sovereign in right of the United Kingdom, labelled for difference as in his arms.

Royal Standard of Prince William (in Scotland).svg The Earl of Strathearn's personal standard in Scotland follows the pattern of the Royal Standard used in Scotland, labelled for difference.

Symbolism
As the eldest son of the Prince of Wales, Prince William's coat of arms has a label of three points.[127] The escallop (seashell) alludes to his late mother Diana, Princess of Wales, whose Spencer coat of arms includes three escallops Argent.

In September 2013, the Queen granted a conjugal coat of arms to the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, consisting of their individual arms displayed side by side, beneath a helm and coronet denoting the Duke's status as grandson of the Sovereign.[128]

Personal standard for Canada[edit]

The Canadian royal standard of the Duke of Cambridge

The Duke of Cambridge also holds a personal royal standard for Canada, consisting of the shield of the Canadian Royal Arms defaced with both a blue roundel surrounded by a wreath of gold maple leaves and shells, within which is a depiction William's cypher (a W surmounted by a coronet), and a white label of three points, charged with a red shell.[129]

Ancestry[edit]

Prince William is a descendant by alternating male and female lines of William the Conqueror, first king of Norman England. He is therefore also a descendant of Charlemagne.

By direct paternal ancestry, via his grandfather the Duke of Edinburgh, he is a descendant of Elimar I, Count of Oldenburg, and as such a member of the House of Oldenburg, one of Europe's oldest royal houses, and more specifically the cadet branch known as the House of Glücksburg, founded by William's paternal ancestor Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. William's ancestors on the male line include five kings: Christian I of Denmark, Frederick I of Denmark, Christian III of Denmark, Christian IX of Denmark and George I of Greece, and also eleven counts of Oldenburg, two dukes of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg, five dukes of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, and one duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg.[130]

Via his mother, William descends from the Spencer family, the Earl Spencer, and the Baron Fermoy family, and more anciently from Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton, and Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, two of the illegitimate sons of King Charles II. As king, William would be the first monarch since Anne to descend from Charles I, and the first to descend from Charles II.[131][132]

William descends matrilineally from Eliza Kewark, a housekeeper for his great-great-great-great-great-grandfather Theodore Forbes, a Scottish merchant who worked for the East India Company in Surat. She is variously described in contemporary documents as "a dark-skinned native woman", "an Armenian woman from Bombay", and "Mrs. Forbesian".[132] Genealogist William Addams Reitwiesner assumed she was Armenian.[133] In June 2013, BritainsDNA announced that genealogical DNA tests on two of William's distant matrilineal cousins confirm that Eliza Kewark was matrilineally of Indian descent.[131][134][135][136]

See also[edit]

  • Royal William, a German red rose named after Prince William shortly after his birth

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b As a member of the Royal Family entitled to be called His Royal Highness, William formally has no surname. When one is used, it is Mountbatten-Windsor.[1] In his military career, William uses the surname Wales.[2] According to letters patent of February 1960, his house and family name is Windsor. The middle name Louis is pronounced /ˈl.i/.

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/william-and-kate-win-legal-battle--but-lose-war-to-keep-topless-photos-under-wraps-8153383.html
  2. ^ Duke of Cambridge to deploy to Falklands, Ministry of Defence, 10 November 2011, retrieved 11 November 2011 
  3. ^ Carroll, Linda (30 December 2013). "Prince William plans to go back to school, study agricultural management". Today News. 
  4. ^ a b c "Prince William's his name". The Evening News (London). AP. 28 July 1982. Retrieved 23 July 2013. 
  5. ^ "William baptized". The Palm Beach Post (London). AP. 5 August 1982. Retrieved 31 May 2013. 
  6. ^ "Yvonne's Royalty Home Page – Royal Christenings". Uniserve. Retrieved 29 April 2011. 
  7. ^ "Princess Diana enters hospital in early labor". Youngstown Vindicator (London). AP. 21 June 1982. Retrieved 21 July 2013. 
  8. ^ Dateline NBC, NBC, 6 October 2007
  9. ^ a b "The Saint that looked after Wills". The Sunday Herald. 26 June 2005. 
  10. ^ "Prince William". People. Retrieved 15 October 2008. 
  11. ^ "Prince William marks the end of the first term of his third university year with an interview". Prince of Wales. 14 December 2003. Retrieved 31 May 2008. 
  12. ^ Pierce, Andrew (18 March 2009). "Prince William has 'Harry Potter' scar from golf accident". The Telegraph (UK). 
  13. ^ a b c d e f "Prince William Biography". People. Retrieved 15 October 2008. 
  14. ^ "Timeline: How Diana died". BBC News. 14 December 2006. Retrieved 15 October 2008. 
  15. ^ "Wetherby Pre-Preparatory School". London Pre-Prep. Retrieved 23 July 2013. 
  16. ^ Stratton, Allegra (26 October 2009). "Former royal tutor Rory Stewart selected for safe Tory seat". The Guardian (London). 
  17. ^ [dead link] "Prince William gives an interview at the start of his university career". 22 September 2001. 
  18. ^ "What is it like at Eton College?". BBC News. 4 July 2005. Retrieved 11 October 2009. 
  19. ^ "William makes the grade". The Guardian. 19 August 2000. 
  20. ^ a b "The Prince of Wales – Interests". Princeofwales.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 16 June 2008. Retrieved 15 October 2008. 
  21. ^ a b 11 December 2000 "Rugged prince scores PR triumph". BBC News. Retrieved 15 October 2008. 
  22. ^ Prince of Wales.gov personalprofiles & royal.gov aspx Retrieved 8 February 2012
  23. ^ "Welcome to Will's new world". The Observer. 23 September 2001. Retrieved 15 October 2008. 
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External links[edit]

Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
Born: 21 June 1982
Lines of succession
Preceded by
The Prince of Wales
Line of succession to the British throne
2nd position
Succeeded by
Prince George of Cambridge
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Duke of Cambridge
5th creation
2011 – present
Incumbent
Heir apparent:
Prince George of Cambridge
Orders of precedence in the United Kingdom
Preceded by
The Earl of Wessex
Gentlemen Succeeded by
Prince Harry
Preceded by
The Prince of Wales,
Duke of Rothesay
Gentlemen
in current practice
Succeeded by
The Duke of York
Cultural offices
Preceded by
The Duke of York
President of The Football Association
2006 – present
Incumbent
Preceded by
Lord Attenborough
President of BAFTA
2010 – present
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Sir Sebastian Roberts
Colonel of the Irish Guards
2011 – present
Incumbent