Prince of Orange
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The title is carried by members of the House of Orange-Nassau, as heirs to the crown of the Netherlands which, since 1983, descends via absolute primogeniture - meaning that the Orange-Nassau holder can be either Prince or Princess of Orange.
Rival claims to the title are made by members of the House of Hohenzollern and the family of Mailly.
County of Orange 
The title originally referred to Orange, Vaucluse in the Rhone valley in southern France, which was a property of the House of Orange, then the House of Baux and the House of Châlon-Arlay before passing in 1544 to the House of Orange-Nassau.
The area started as the County of Orange, a fief in the Holy Roman Empire, in its constituent Kingdom of Burgundy. It was awarded to William of Gellone, a grandson of Charles Martel and therefore a cousin of Charlemagne, around the year 800 for his services in the wars against the Moors and reconquering southern France and the Spanish March. His Occitan name is Guilhem. However, as a Frankish lord, he probably knew himself by the old Germanic version of Wilhelm. William was also count of Toulouse, duke of Aquitaine, and marquis of Septimania. The horn that came to symbolize Orange when heraldry came in vogue much later in the 12th century was a pun on his name in French, from the character his deeds inspired in the chanson de geste, the Chanson de Guillaume, "Guillaume au Court Nez" or "Guillaume au Cornet". The chanson appears to be based on William of Gellone's battle at the Orbieu or Orbiel river near Carcassonne in 793 as well as his seizure of the town of Orange.
Principality of Orange 
As the kingdom of Burgundy fragmented in the early Middle Ages, the title was raised by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa elevated to a principality in 1163 to shore up his supporters in Burgundy against the Pope and the King of France. As the Empire's boundaries retreated from those of the principality, the prince acceded to the sovereign rights that the Emperor used to exercise.:7 As William the Silent wrote in his marriage proposal to the uncle of his second wife, the Elector August of Saxony, he held Orange as "my own free property", not as a fief of anyone else, neither the Pope, nor the King of Spain or France. However, in the days where one's position honor and reputation were determined by such things, it drove William the Silent forward as much as it also fueled his great grandson's William III's opposition to Louis XIV when that king continually invaded and occupied Orange.
The last descendant of the original princes, René of Nassau, left the principality to his cousin William the Silent, who was not a descendant of the original Orange family but the legal heir to the principality of Orange.
In 1673, Louis XIV of France annexed all territory of the principality to the royal domain, as part of the war actions against the stadtholder William III of Orange — who later became King William III of England and King William II of Scotland. Orange ceased to exist as a separate sovereign principality, or in today's parlance, a separate sovereign nation.
In 1673, Louis XIV bestowed the (now non-sovereign) principality on Louis of Mailly-Nesles, marquis of Nesles (1689–1764), a very remote descendant of the original princes of Orange, through the marriage of the marquis to a descendant of the Chalons & des Baux. His descendant still claims the title today. In 1714 Louis XIV bestowed the usufruct of the principality on Prince Louis Armand of Bourbon-Conti. He died in 1727 and the principality was merged in the Crown in 1731.
Abolition of the principality, continuation of the title 
Because William III died without legitimate children, the principality was regarded as having been inherited by his closest cognate relative on the basis of the testament of Frederic-Henry, Frederick I of Prussia, who ceded the principality — at least the lands, but not the formal title — to France in 1713. France supported his claim. In this way, the territory of the principality lost its feudal and secular privileges and became a part of France. The Treaty of Utrecht allowed the King of Prussia to erect part of the duchy of Gelderland (the cities of Geldern, Straelen and Wachtendonk with their bailiwicks, Krickenbeck (including Viersen), the land of Kessel, the lordships of Afferden, Arcen-Velden-Lomm, Walbeck-Twisteden, Raay and Klein-Kevelaer, Well, Bergen and Middelaar) into a new Principality of Orange. The kings of Prussia and the German emperors styled themselves Princes of Orange till 1918.
An agnatic relative of William III, John William Friso of Nassau, who was also descended by female line from William the Silent, was designated the heir to the princes of Orange in the Netherlands by the last will of William III. Several of his descendants became stadtholders. They claim the principality of Orange on the basis of agnatic inheritance, similar to that of William the Silent, inheriting from his cousin René, though not being descendants of the original princes of Orange. They also claim on basis of the testament of Philips William, Maurice and William III. Finally, they claim on the basis that Orange was an independent state, where the sovereign had the right to assign his succession according to his will. France never recognized any of this, nor allowed the Oranje-Nassaus or the Hohenzollerns to obtain anything of the principality itself. The Oranje-Nassaus nevertheless assumed the title and also erected several of their lordships as new principality of Orange.   From that derivation of the title comes the tradition of the house of Nassau-Dietz/Friesland, the later stadtholders of the Netherlands, and the present-day royal family of the Netherlands, of holding this title. They maintain the tradition of William the Silent and the house of Orange-Nassau.
Thus, there are now two  pretender claimants to this title, or claimants, depending on whose claims take precedence:
Bearers of the title 
As Counts of Orange 
House of Orange 
|No||Name||Picture||Birth||Became Count(ess) of Orange||Ceased to be Count(ess)||Death||Other titles||Spouse|
|1.||Pons de Mevouillon||Blismodis|
|2.||Pons II de Mevouillon||Richilde|
|3.||Laugier de Nice||Odile de Provence|
|3.||Rambaud de Nice||Accelena d’Apt|
|4.||Bertrand-Rambaud d'Orange||1. Adélaïde de Cavenez
|6.||Tiburge d'Orange||1. Giraud Adhémar de Monteil
2. Guillaume d'Aumelas
|7.||Raimbaut of Orange||Lord of Aumelas||None|
As sovereign prince of Orange 
Until 1340, it was customary for all sons of the prince of Orange to inherit the title. Only the direct line of descent to Raimond V is shown here.
House of Baux 
The house of Baux succeeded to the principality of Orange when Bertrand of Baux married the heiress of the last native count of Orange, Tiburge, daughter of William of Orange, Omelaz, and Montpellier. Their son was William I of Baux-Orange. Bertrand was the son of Raymond of Baux and Stephanie of Gevaudan. Stephanie was the younger daughter to the heiress of the counts of Provence. For a genealogical table, see the reference cited:
|No||Name||Picture||Birth||Created Prince of Orange||Ceased to be Prince of Orange||Death||Other titles while Prince of Orange||Princess
|1.||Prince Bertrand I||1110/1115||1173
After the death of his brother-in-law, Raimbaut, Count of Orange, the County of Orange was elevated to a principality in 1163 by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I.
|April/October 1180||Lord of Baux||Tibors de Sarenom|
Bertrand I used as Prince of Orange the coat of arms of the House of Baux: a 16-pointed white star placed on a field of gules. Later on, the Princes of Orange quartered the legendary bugle-horn as a heraldic figure into their coat of arms.
House of Baux-Orange 
|No||Name||Arms||Birth||Became Prince of Orange||Ceased to be Prince of Orange||Death||Other titles while Prince of Orange||Princess
|2.||Prince William I||1155||31 October 1180||bef. 30 July 1218||Co-Prince (with brothers); Lord of Baux||1. Ermengarde of Mévouillon
|3.||Prince William II||-||31 October 1180||bef. 1 November 1239||Co-Prince (with brothers); Lord of Baux||Précieuse|
|4.||Prince Raymond I||-||bef. 30 July 1218||1282||Lord of Baux||Malberjone of Aix|
|5.||Prince Bertrand II||-||1282||aft. 21 July 1314||Lord of Baux||Eleanore of Geneva|
|6.||Prince Raymond II||-||aft. 21 July 1314||1340, aft. 9 September||Lord of Baux and Condorcet||Anne of Viennois|
|7.||Prince Raymond III||-||aft. 9 September 1340||10 February 1393||Lord of Baux||1. Constance of Trian
2. Jeanne of Geneva
|8.||Princess Mary||-||10 February 1393||October 1417||Lady of Arlay, Cuiseaux, and Vitteaux||Prince John I|
House of Châlon-Arlay (also House of Ivrea of Anscarid dynasty) 
|No||Name||Picture||Arms||Birth||Became Prince of Orange||Ceased to be Prince of Orange||Death||Other titles while Prince of Orange||Princess
|9.||Prince John I||none||-||10 February 1393||October 1417||2 September 1418||Lord of Arlay, Cuiseaux and Vitteaux||Princess Mary|
|10.||Prince Louis I||none||1390||October 1417||3 December 1463||Lord of Arlay, Arguel, Orbe, and Echelens||1. Jeanne of Montbéliard
2. Eleanor d'Armagnac
3. Blanche of Gamaches
|11.||Prince William II||none||-||3 December 1463||27 September 1475||Lord of Arlay and Arguel||Catherine of Brittany|
|12.||Prince John II||none||1443||27 September 1475||15 April 1502||Count of Tonnerre; Lord of Arlay, Arguel and Montfaucon; Admiral of Guyenne||1. Jeanne de Bourbon
2. Philiberte of Luxembourg
|13.||Prince Philibert||18 March 1502||15 April 1502||3 August 1530||Viceroy of Naples; Prince of Melfi; Duke of Gravina; Count of Tonnerre, Charny, Penthièvre; Viscount of Besançon; Lord of Arlay, Nozeroy, Rougemont[disambiguation needed], Orgelet and Montfaucon, Lieutenant-General in the Imperial army.||no wife|
House of Châlon-Orange 
Rene inherited the principality of Orange from his uncle Philbert on the condition that he bear the name and arms of the house of Châlon-Orange. Therefore, he is usually counted as one of the Châlon-Orange and history knows him as Rene of Châlon, rather than "of Nassau".
|No||Name||Picture||Arms||Birth||Became Prince of Orange||Ceased to be Prince of Orange||Death||Other titles while Prince of Orange||Princess
|14.||Prince René||5 February 1519||3 August 1530||15 July 1544||Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht and Guelders; Count of Nassau, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Breda, Diest, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Lord of Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon.||Anna of Lorraine|
House of Orange-Nassau (first creation) 
William of Nassau inherited the principality of Orange from his cousin Rene when Rene willed it to him, along with his other lordships. Although William had no blood from the previous princes, this was deemed to be "legal" as Orange was a sovereign principality (in modern parlance, independent state), and the sovereign prince (Rene) had the right to leave his sovereignty to whomever he pleased. This began the Dutch Royal House of Orange-Nassau.
As a personal title or as heir apparent 
House of Orange-Nassau (second creation) 
As personal title of nobility 
As royal title for the heir apparent 
|No||Name||Picture||Arms||Heir of||Birth||Became Heir to the Crown||Created Prince(ess) of Orange||Ceased to be Prince(ess) of Orange||Death||Other titles while Prince(ess) of Orange||Spouse|
later William II
|William I||6 December 1792||16 March 1815
father's accession as King
|7 October 1840
|17 March 1849||Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau||Grand Duchess Anna Pavlovna of Russia|
later William III
|William II||19 February 1817||7 October 1840
father's accession as King
|17 March 1849
|23 November 1890||Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau||Princess Sophie of Württemberg|
|27.||Prince William||William III||4 September 1840||17 March 1849
father's accession as King
|11 June 1879||Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau||none|
|28.||Prince Alexander||25 August 1851||11 June 1879
|21 June 1884||Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau||none|
|29.||Prince Willem-Alexander later Willem-Alexander
|Beatrix||27 April 1967||30 April 1980
mother's accession as Queen regnant
|30 April 2013
|–||Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau, Jonkheer van Amsberg||Princess Máxima of the Netherlands|
|Willem-Alexander||7 December 2003||30 April 2013
father's accession as King
|Incumbent||–||Princess of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau||–|
House of Hohenzollern 
- Frederick I of Prussia (1702–1713), a senior descendant in female line from William the Silent, who ceded his claims to the lands of Orange to France in 1713, and his descendants, currently Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia, Prinz von Oranje (1976-)
House of Mailly 
- Louis de Mailly, Marquis de Nesle et de Mailly, appointed by the French king, and his descendants, currently Guy, Marquis de Nesle et de Mailly, Prince d'Orange.
House of Bourbon 
- Louis Armand II, Prince of Conti, appointed by the French king, and his descendants
The Princes of Orange of the House of Orange-Nassau 
Historical background 
William the Silent (Willem I) was the first stadtholder of the Dutch Republic and the most significant representative of the House of Orange in the Netherlands. He was count of a small German county, part of the Duchy of Nassau and heir to some of his father's fiefs in Holland. William obtained more extensive lands in the Netherlands (the lordship of Breda and several other dependencies) as an inheritance from his cousin René, Prince of Orange, when William was only 11 years old. After William's assassination in 1584, the title passed to his son Philip William (who had been held hostage in Spain until 1596), and after his death in 1618, to his second son Maurice, and finally to his youngest son, Frederick Henry.
The title of Prince of Orange became synonymous with the stadtholder of the Netherlands.
William and Mary had no legitimate children. After his death in 1702, the Dutch contender to his title was his heir in the Netherlands, John William Friso of Nassau-Diez, who assumed the title. William's testament designated Friso to inherit the title. The other contender was the King in Prussia, who based his claim to the title on the will of Frederick Henry, William III's grandfather. Eventually, a compromise was reached by which both families were entitled to bear the title of Prince of Orange. By then, it was no more than a title because the principality had been annexed by Louis XIV of France.
Friso's line held it as their principal title during the 18th century. The French army drove them away from the Netherlands in 1795, but on their return, the Prince of Orange became the first sovereign of the Netherlands in 1813.
After the establishment of the current Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815, the title was partly reconstitutionalized in a bill and granted to the eldest son of King William I of the Netherlands, Prince William, who later became William II of the Netherlands. Since 1983, the heir to the Dutch throne, whether male or female bears the title Prince or Princess of Orange. The first-born child of the heir to the Dutch throne bears the title Hereditary Prince(ss) of Orange. When her father Willem-Alexander became King of the Netherlands following the abdication of Queen Beatrix, Princess Catharina-Amalia became the Princess of Orange.
The Prince(ss) of Orange is styled His/Her Royal Highness the Prince(ss) of Orange (Dutch: Zijne/Hare Koninklijke Hoogheid de Prins(es) van Oranje).
During the 15th, 16th and 17th Centuries, The Prince(ss) of Orange was styled His/Her Highness the Prince(ss) of Orange (Dutch: Zijne/Hare Hoogheid de Prins(es) van Oranje), except for William III, who rated the "Royal/Koninklijke" as his mother was the Princess Royal of England.
The princes of Orange in the 16th and 17th century used the following sets of arms. On becoming prince of Orange, William placed the Châlon-Arlay arms in the center ("as an inescutcheon") of his father's arms. He used these arms until 1582 when he purchased the marquisate of Veere and Vlissingen. He then used the arms attributed to Frederick Henry, etc. with the arms of the marquisate in the top center, and the arms of the county of Buren in the bottom center. Their growing complexity shows how arms are used to reflect the growing political position and royal aspirations of the house of Orange-Nassau.
The Counts of Orange of the First House of Orange 
The first house of Orange is somewhat of a conjecture given the fragmentary nature of documentation in the early medieval era. The French Wikipedia page for the first House of Orange has presented what is known with references. Their chart is reproduced here.
Descendants of Pons de Mevouillon (the arms of the counts d'Orange is a reference point. Arms did not exist until the late 12th century. :
Pons de Mevouillon x Blismodis | | --> Humbert évêque de Vaison, jusqu’en 1005 | | --> Garnier, évêque d’Avignon (976-991) | | --> Ison | | --> Pons II de Mevouillon (ca 920-986) x Richilde, originaire de l’Uzège | | --> Féraud de Nice évêque de Gap | | --> Pierre de Mirabel évêque de Vaison | | --> Pons III de Mevouillon | | ... --> Descendance Mevouillon... | | --> Arnoul de Theys | | ... --> Descendance Theys... | | --> Gérard | | --> Rambaud | | --> Raoul | | --> Laugier de Nice (ca 1050-1032) x Odile de Provence (976-1032), fille de fr:Guillaume Ier de Provence:Guillaume Ier de Provence | | --> Rostan de Gréolières | | ... --> Descendance Gréolières... | | --> Pierre de Nice, évêque de Sisteron (1043–1059) | | --> Jauccara de Nice | x Amic de Vence-Avignon | | --> Gerberge de Nice | x fr:Bérenger d’Avignon:Bérenger d’Avignon. | | --> Rambaud de Nice (1006–1073) x 1032 Accelena d’Apt | | --> Laugier d’Apt x Amancia de Lacoste-Castellane | | --> Odila de Nice x Boniface de Reillanne | | --> Gisla de Nice x Rostang d'Agoult | | --> Laugier d'Agout, évêque d'Apt, croisé | | --> Pierre II de Nice évêque de Sisteron, puis évêque de Vaison | | --> Rostan de Fréjus x Accelena de Marignane | | --> Rambaud de Nice, seigneur de Gréolières (+ jeune) | x Bélieldis de Marseille | | --> Amic | | --> Guillaume | x avant 1045 Azalaïs de Reillanne, veuve de Guilhem d'Agoult | | --> Bertrand-Rambaud d’Orange x 1068 Adélaïde de Cavenez, veuve de Guillaume V Bertrand de Provence | | --> Léger ou Laugerus, évêque d’Avignon(1124 ou 1126-1142) | | --> Jausserand Laugier, seigneur de Gréolières | x 1064 Gerberge, fille de Foulques Bertrand de Provence | | --> Pierre | | --> Rambaud II d'Orange, the crusader or English Wiki | | --> Thiburge d'Orange x 1104 Giraud Adhémar de Monteil | x 1129 Guillaume d'Aumelas | | --> Raimbaut d'Orange, the famous troubadour. or English Wiki | | --> Thiburge II d'Orange | x 1171 Bertrand des Baux | | --> Hughes IV | | --> Bertrand II | | --> Thiburge | | --> Guillaume des Baux or English Wiki x Ermengarde de Mévouillon | | --> Guillaume II des Baux or English Wiki
See also 
- Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (1861). Armorial général, contenant la description des armoiries des familles nobles et patriciennes de l'Europe: précédé d'un dictionnaire des termes du blason. G.B. van Goor. p. 746.
- "Histoire de la ville d'Orange". Retrieved May 5, 2011.
- Grew, Marion Ethel (1947). The House of Orange. 36 Essex Street, Strand, London W.C.2: Methuen & Co. Ltd.
- Geneviève Hasenohr and Michel Zink, ed. (1992). Dictionnaire des lettres françaises: Le Moyen Age. Paris: Fayard. ISBN 2-253-05662-6. Unknown parameter
- Rowen, Herbert H. (1988). The princes of Orange: the stadholders in the Dutch Republic. Cambridge University Press. p. 11. ISBN 0-8063-4811-9.
- van Prinsterer, et. al., F.Groen (1835-1915). Archives ou correspondance inedite de la Maison d'Orange-Nassau. 1 1. Leiden and Utrecht. p. 232.
- Pontbriant, A. de (1891, Copyright : domaine public). Histoire de la principauté d'Orange ; suivie de lettres inédites des princes d'Orange, des rois de France, du Cte de Grignan, etc., etc (in French). Avignon: Bibliothèque nationale de France. p. 262. http://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb341253894. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- Pontbriant, A. de (1891, Copyright : domaine public). Histoire de la principauté d'Orange ; suivie de lettres inédites des princes d'Orange, des rois de France, du Cte de Grignan, etc., etc (in French). Avignon: Bibliothèque nationale de France. p. 262 & following, 273 & following. http://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb341253894. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- Vast, , Henri (1847-1921). Éditeur scientifique (11 April 1713). Treaty ceding the Principality to Louis XIV "Traité de paix d'Utrecht entre Louis XIV et Frédéric-Guillaume, roi de Prusse". Les grands traités du règne de Louis XIV ([Reprod.]) publ. par Henri Vast (in French). IDC (Leiden). p. 125 (article X.). Retrieved 16 May 2011.
- Vast, , Henri (1847-1921). Éditeur scientifique (11 April 1713). "Traité de paix d'Utrecht entre Louis XIV et Frédéric-Guillaume, roi de Prusse" [Peace treaty of Utrecht between Louis XIV and Frédéric-Guillaume, King of Prussia]. Les grands traités du règne de Louis XIV ([Reprod.]) publ. par Henri Vast (in French). IDC (Leiden). p. 126 (article X.). Retrieved 16 May 2011.
- >The New American Cyclopædia. 16 volumes complete. article on Principality of Orange: D. Appleton And Company. 1873.
- Velde, François (The Treaty was ratified by Prussia on May 30, by Orange-Nassau on 30 June 1732.). "Treaty between Prussia and Orange-Nassau, Berlin, 1732". Preussens Staatsvertraege aus der Regierungzzeit König Friedrich Wilhelms I. (in French). 33 CTS 487. p. 404. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
- Dumont, Jean, Baron de Carlscroon ( continued after Dumonts death by J. Rousset) (The Treaty was ratified by Prussia on May 30, by Orange-Nassau on 30 June 1732.). "Treaty between Prussia and Orange-Nassau, Berlin, 1732". Corps universel diplomatique du droit des gens, contenant un recueil des traités de paix, d'alliance, &c., faits en Europe, depuis Charlemagne jusqu'à present, Supplement (in French) (Amsterdam) II: 335. Retrieved 16 May 2011. Unknown parameter
- Blok, Petrus Johannes (1970). The History of the People of the Netherlands. 5, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. New York, NY: AMS Press. p. 60.
- Pontbriant, A. de (1891, Copyright : domaine public). Histoire de la principauté d'Orange ; suivie de lettres inédites des princes d'Orange, des rois de France, du Cte de Grignan, etc., etc (in French). Avignon: Bibliothèque nationale de France. p. 262 & following. http://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb341253894. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- [Kelley L. Ph.D.]. "Princes of Orange, 1171-1584 AD". Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- Rowen, Herbert H. (1988). The princes of Orange: the stadholders in the Dutch Republic. Cambridge University Press. p. 29. ISBN 0-8063-4811-9.
- "The Official Website of the Dutch Royal House in English, see tour of Noordeinde Palace, Royal Archives, Front Entrance Hall". Retrieved 1 June 2011.
- Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (1861). Armorial général, contenant la description des armoiries des familles nobles et patriciennes de l'Europe: précédé d'un dictionnaire des termes du blason. G.B. van Goor. p. 746. "Philip William used his father's original arms"
- Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (1861). Armorial général, contenant la description des armoiries des familles nobles et patriciennes de l'Europe: précédé d'un dictionnaire des termes du blason. G.B. van Goor. p. 746. "a la exception de celebre prince Maurice qui portai les armes ..."
- Haley, K(enneth) H(arold) D(obson) (1972). The Dutch in the Seventeenth Century. Thames and Hudson. p. 78. ISBN 0-15-518473-3.
- Anonymous. "Wapenbord van Prins Maurits met het devies van de Engelse orde van de Kouseband". Exhibit of a painted woodcut of Maurice's Arms encircled by the Order of the Garter in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- ""Coat of Arms as depicted on the "Familiegraf van de Oranje-Nassau's in de Grote of Jacobijnerkerk te Leeuwarden"". Familiegraf van de Oranje-Nassau's in de Grote of Jacobijnerkerk te Leeuwarden. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
- Website Dutch Royal House on Willem-Alexander
- Website Dutch Royal House on Catharina-Amalia
- "De Prins van Oranje". Rijksvoorlichtingsdienst (RVD). 23 August 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2012. "Sinds de inhuldiging van de Koningin op 30 april 1980 heeft Prins Willem-Alexander de titel Prins van Oranje. Deze titel is voorbehouden aan de troonopvolger van de Koning(in)." In english: "Since the inauguration of the Queen on 30 April 1980, Prince Willem-Alexander the title of Prince of Orange. This title is reserved to the heir to the throne of the King (Queen)."
- "Prinses Catharina-Amalia". Rijksvoorlichtingsdienst (RVD). 23 August 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2012. "Prinses Catharina-Amalia is de tweede in de lijn van troonopvolging. Als haar vader Koning wordt, krijgt zij als vermoedelijke troonopvolger de titel 'Prinses van Oranje'." In English: "Princess Catharina-Amalia is the second in line of succession to the throne. When her father is King, she gets as heir apparent the title 'Princess of Orange'."
- Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (2003). Armorial general. vol.2. Genealogical Publishing Co. p. 297. ISBN 0-8063-4811-9.
- Post, Pieter (1651). "Coat of Arms as depicted in "Begraeffenisse van syne hoogheyt Frederick Hendrick"". engraving, in the collection of. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
- Herbert H. Rowen, The princes of Orange: the stadholders in the Dutch Republic. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
- John Lothrop Motley, "History of the United Netherlands from the Death of William the Silent to the Synod of Dort". London: John Murray, 1860.
- John Lothrop Motley, "The Life and Death of John of Barenvelt". New York & London: Harper and Brothers Publishing, 1900.
- Petrus Johannes Blok, "History of the people of the Netherlands". New York: G. P. Putnam's sons, 1898.
- Reina van Ditzhuyzen, Het Huis van Oranje: prinsen, stadhouders, koningen en koninginnen. Haarlem : De Haan, .