Prince of Persia (1989 video game)
|Prince of Persia|
Cover art used for Amiga, Amstrad CPC, Atari ST and MS-DOS versions
|Artist(s)||Riverhillsoft (updated character design)|
Prince of Persia is a fantasy platform game, originally developed by Jordan Mechner and released in 1989 for the Apple II, that represented a great leap forward in the quality of animation seen in video games.
After the original release on the Apple II, it was ported to a wide range of platforms. The game influenced a sub-genre known as the cinematic platformer, which imitated the sprawling non-scrolling levels, fluid animation, and control style.
The game is set in ancient Persia. While the sultan is fighting a war in a foreign land, his vizier Jaffar, a wizard, seizes power. His only obstacle to the throne is the Sultan's daughter (although the game never specifically mentions how). Jaffar locks her in a tower and orders her, under threat of execution to become his wife. The game's nameless protagonist, whom the Princess loves, is thrown into the palace dungeons. The player must lead him out of the dungeons and to the palace tower, defeating Jaffar and freeing the Princess in under 60 minutes. In addition to guards, various traps and dungeons, the protagonist is further hindered by his own doppelgänger, an apparition of his own self that is conjured out of a magic mirror.
The main objective of the player is to complete the game within one hour. The player must lead the game protagonist out of a dungeon and into a tower. Doing so requires bypassing traps and fighting hostile swordsmen. The game consists of twelve stages (or levels). To complete a game, all twelve stages must be completed in one session. A game session may be saved and resumed at a later time only after level 3.
The player has a health indicator that consists of a series of small red triangles. The player starts with three. Each time he is damaged (cut by sword, fallen from two floors of heights or hit by a falling rock), the player loses one of these indicators. There are small jars of red potion scattered throughout the game that restore one health indicator. There are also large jars of red potion that increase the maximum number of health indicators by one. If the player's health is reduced to zero, the protagonist dies. Subsequently, the game is restarted from the beginning of the stage in which the protagonist died but the timer will not reset to that point, effectively constituting a time penalty. There is no counter for the number of lives but dying too many times will eventually leave the player with very little time to complete the game.
There are three types of traps that the player must bypass: Spike traps, deep pits (three or more levels deep) and guillotines. Getting caught or falling into each results in the instant death of the protagonist. In addition, there are gates that can be raised for a short period of time by having the protagonist stand on the activation trigger. The player must pass through the gates while they are open, avoiding locking triggers. Sometimes, there are various traps between an unlock trigger and a gate.
Hostile swordsmen (Jaffar and his guards) are yet another obstacle. The player obtains a sword in the first stage, which he can use to fight these adversaries. The protagonist's sword maneuvers are limited: He can advance, back off, slash or parry. Enemy swordsmen also have a health indicator similar to that of the protagonist. Killing them involves slashing them until their health indicator is depleted.
A unique trap encountered in stage four, which serves as a plot device, is a magic mirror, whose appearance is followed by an ominous musical tone. The protagonist is forced to jump through this mirror upon which his doppelganger emerges from the other side. This apparition later hinders the protagonist by throwing him into a dungeon. The protagonist cannot kill this apparition as they share lives; any damage inflicted upon one also hurts the other. Therefore, the protagonist must merge with his doppelganger.
Mechner used an animation technique called rotoscoping, in which he traced video footage of his younger brother running and jumping in white clothes. Some of the game's sword fighting sprites are from the 1938 film The Adventures of Robin Hood. Also unusual was the method of combat: protagonist and enemies fought with swords, not projectile weapons, as was the case in most contemporary games. Mechner has said that when he started programming, the first ten minutes of the film Raiders of the Lost Ark had been one of the main inspirations for the character's acrobatic responses in a dangerous environment.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2011)|
|Sharp X68000||April 30, 1991|
|TurboGrafx-CD||November 8, 1991|
|Sega Master System||1992||Domark|
|Sega Game Gear||1992|
|Game Boy||January 1992||Virgin Games|
|FM Towns||June 1992||Riverhillsoft|
|SNES||July 3, 1992
November 1, 1992 (US, EU)
Konami (US, EU)
|NES||November 2, 1992||Virgin Games |
|Game Boy Color||April 15, 1999||Ed Magnin and Associates ||Red Orb Entertainment |
|iOS (Actually "Retro", replaced by "Classic" version on 2011)||May 28, 2010||Ubisoft|
|iOS (Actually "Classic")||December 19, 2011|
|Nintendo DS||January 19, 2012|
|Wii||January 19, 2012|
|ZX Spectrum||1996||Nicodim ||Magic Soft |
|Commodore Plus 4||2007||GFW & ACW |
|Commodore 64||2011||Andreas Varga |
|This section requires expansion. (February 2011)|
Computer Gaming World stated that the game package's claim that it "breaks new ground with animation so uncannily human it must be seen to be believed" was true. It concluded that Prince of Persia "captures the feel of those great old adventure films ... a tremendous achievement", and compared its impact on gaming to Star Wars on film. The New York Times described the Macintosh version as having "brilliant graphics and excellent sound ... Sure, you could do all this years ago on a Commodore 64 or Atari 400. But those games never looked or sounded like this". Reviewing the Genesis version, GamePro praised the "extremely fluid" animation of the player character and commented that the controls are difficult to master but nonetheless very effective. Comparing it to the SNES version, they summarized that "the Genesis version has better graphics, and the SNES has better music. Otherwise, the two are identical in almost every way ..."
Despite critical acclaim, the game was initially a commercial failure in North America, where it had sold only 7,000 units each on the Apple II and IBM PC platforms by July 1990. It was when the game was released in Japan and Europe that year that it became a commercial success. In July 1990, the NEC PC-9801 version sold 10,000 units as soon as it was released in Japan. It was then ported to various different home computers and video game consoles, eventually selling 2 million units worldwide by the time its sequel Prince of Persia 2: The Shadow and the Flame (1993) was in production. Prince of Persia would go on to influence cinematic platformers such as Flashback as well as action-adventure games such as Tomb Raider.
Remake and modifications
In 2007, Prince of Persia was remade and ported by Gameloft. The remake, titled Prince of Persia Classic, was released on June 13, 2007 to the Xbox Live Arcade, and on October 23, 2008 on the PlayStation Network. It features the same level design and general premise but contained 3D-rendered graphics, more fluid movements, and Sands of Time aesthetics. The gameplay and controls were slightly adjusted to include a wall-jump move and different swordplay. New game modes were also added, such as "Time Attack" and "Survival". The game has also been released on Android.
Reverse engineering efforts by fans of the original game have resulted in detailed documentation of the file formats of the MS-DOS version. Various level editors have been created that can be used to modify the level files of the DOS version. With these editors and other software, over sixty mods have been created.
Source code release
On April 17, 2012, Jordan Mechner established a GitHub repository containing the long-thought-lost original Apple II source code for Prince of Persia. A technical document describing the operation of this source code is available on Mechner's website.
- Mechner, Jordan (2009-05-03). "Prince of Persia released". jordanmechner.com. Retrieved 2009-12-13.
- Rybicki, Joe (5 May 2008). "Prince of Persia Retrospective". GameTap. Turner Broadcasting System. Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- October 20, 1985 | jordanmechner.com
- Mechner, Jordan (2011). Classic Game Postmortem: PRINCE OF PERSIA (Speech). Game Developers Conference. San Francisco, California. Event occurs at 38:35. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- Gamasutra - Features - Game Design: Theory & Practice Second Edition: 'Interview with Jordan Mechner'
- "Virgin Interactive Games". IGN. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- "Prince of Persia International Releases". Giant Bomb. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- "RELIVE CLASSIC PRINCE OF PERSIA ON WII™ AND 3DS™". MCV. 19 January 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- Tarján, Richárd (21 February 2009). "Prince of Persia - ZX Spectrum version (Nicodim/Magic Soft, 1996)" (DOC). World of Spectrum. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
- "Prince of Persia". Plus 4 World. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
- Lemon, Kim. "Prince of Persia". Lemon. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
- Lesser, Hartley; Lesser, Patricia & Lesser, Kirk (December 1992). "The Role of Computers". Dragon (188): 57–64.
- "Prince of Persia (1989) for PC - GameRankings". Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- "Prince of Persia Review". Jeremiah Kauffman. 19 February 2006. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- Ardai, Charles (December 1989). "Good Knight, Sweet Prince". Computer Gaming World. p. 48.
- Shannon, L. R. (1992-08-11). "Playing at War, Once Removed". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
- "ProReview: Prince of Persia". GamePro (57) (IDG). April 1994. p. 30.
- Kurt Kalata; Derboo (08/12/2011). "Prince of Persia". Hardcore Gaming 101. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
- "All-Time Top 100 Games". Amiga Power magazine (0). Future Publishing. May 1991. p. 6. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- "1UP Classic review". 1UP.
- "Xboxic Classic review". Xboxic.
- "Prince of Persia Classic". Ubisoft Entertainment/Google.
- "Prince of Persia Specifications of File Formats". Princed Development Team. 2008-01-05. Retrieved 2011-05-07.
- "Modding Community; Level Editors". PoPOT.org. Retrieved 2011-05-07.
- "Modding Community; Custom Levels". PoPOT.org. Retrieved 2011-05-07.
- "jmechner/Prince-of-Persia-Apple-II · GitHub". Github.com. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
- Fletcher, JC (2012-04-17). "Prince of Persia source code successfully rescued". joystiq.com. Retrieved 2012-12-23.
- Mastrapa, Gus (2012-04-20). "The Geeks Who Saved Prince of Persia’s Source Code From Digital Death". Wired. Retrieved 2012-12-23.
- Mechner, Jordan (12 October 1989). "Prince of Persia Technical Information" (PDF). Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- Official website
- Prince of Persia at MobyGames
- Prince of Persia at World of Spectrum
- Prince of Persia 1 page at PoPUW.com