Princess Augusta of Great Britain
|Augusta of Great Britain|
|Tenure||26 March 1780 – 10 November 1806|
|Spouse||Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick|
|Augusta, Hereditary Princess of Württemberg
Caroline, Queen of the United Kingdom
Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
|House||House of Hanover
House of Brunswick-Bevern
|Father||Frederick, Prince of Wales|
|Mother||Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha|
31 July 1737|
St James's Palace, London
|Died||23 March 1813
Hanover Square, London
|Burial||31 March 1813
St George's Chapel, Windsor
Princess Augusta Frederica of Great Britain (31 July 1737 – 23 March 1813) was a granddaughter of George II and only elder sibling of George III. She later married into the ducal house of Brunswick, of which she was already a member. Her daughter Caroline was the wife of George IV.
Princess Augusta Frederica was born at St. James's Palace, London. Her father was Frederick, Prince of Wales, the eldest son of King George II and Queen Caroline of Ansbach and her mother was the Princess of Wales, Augusta of Saxe-Gotha.
Fifty days later, she was christened at St. James's Palace by the Archbishop of Canterbury. Her godparents were her paternal grandfather, the King (represented by his Lord Chamberlain, the Duke of Grafton), and her grandmothers, Queen Caroline and the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Gotha (both represented by proxies).
She was born second in the line of succession. Augusta was given a careful education and the negotiations about her marriage began in 1761.
Life in Brunswick
Augusta regarded the residence in Brunswick as too simple. She returned to Great Britain in 1764 to give birth to her first child and took a long time to return to Brunswick after the birth. A new palace was built for her in Zuckerberg south of Brunswick to answer more to her taste, constructed by Carl Christoph Wilhelm Fleischer, and called Schloss Richmond, to remind her of England. When the palace was finished in 1768, Augusta moved there permanently.
The marriage was purely an arranged political marriage and Augusta and Charles regarded each other with mutual indifference. Augusta was indifferent to Charles's affairs with Maria Antonia Branconi and Louise Hertefeld. Her indifference was sometimes seen as arrogance, and it gave rise to rumours and slander. Augusta's popularity was severely damaged by the fact that her eldest sons were born with handicaps.
Augusta rarely appeared at the court of Braunschweig because of the dominance of her mother-in-law. When Charles became regent in 1773, her mother-in-law left the court and Augusta filled the position of first lady in the court ceremonies of Brunswick, although she often took short holidays to her personal palace Richmond. In 1780, Charles, already regent for his father, became sovereign duke, and Augusta became duchess consort.
The Swedish Princess Hedwig Elizabeth Charlotte described her, as well as her family, at the time of her visit in August, 1799:
Our cousin the Duke arrived immediately the next morning. He has won many victorys as a notable military man, are witty, litteral and a pleasant aquaitance but ceremonial beyond description. He is said to be quite strict, but a good father of the nation who attends to the needs of his people. After he left us, I visited the Dowager Duchess, the aunt of my consort. She is an agreable, highly educated and well respected lady, but now so old that she has almost lost her memory. From her I continued to the Duchess, sister to the King of England and a typical English woman. She looked very simple, like a vicar's wife, has I am sure many admirable qualities and are very respectable, but completely lacks manners. She makes the stranges questions without considering how difficult and unpleasant they can be. Both the hereditary princess as well as princess Augusta - sister of the sovereign Duke - came to her while I was there. The former are delightful, mild, loveable, witty and clever, not a beauty but still very pretty. In addition, she is said to be admirably kind to her boring consort. The princess Augusta are full of wit and energy and very amusing. (....) The Duchess and the Princesses followed me to Richmond, the country villa of the Duchess a bit outside of the town. It was small and pretty with a beautiful little park, all after an English pattern. As she had the residence constructed herself, it amuses her to show it to others. (....)The sons of the Ducal couple are somewhat peculiar. The hereditary prince, chubby and fat, almost blind, strange and odd - if not to say an imbecill - attempts to imitate his father but only makes himself artificial and unpleasant. He talks contiunously, does not know what he says and is in all aspects unbearable. He is accommodating but a poor thing, loves his consort to the point of worship and is completely governed by her. The other son, Prince Georg, is the most ridiculous person imaginable, and so silly that he can never be left alone but is always accompanied by a courtier. The third son is also described as an original. I never saw him, as he served with his regiment. The fourth is the only normal one, but also torments his parents by his imoral behaviour.
In 1806, when Prussia declared war on France, the Duke of Brunswick, 71 at the time, was appointed commander-in-chief of the Prussian army. On 14 October of that year, at the Battle of Jena, Napoleon defeated the Prussian army, and, on the same day, at the battle of Auerstadt, the Duke of Brunswick was seriously wounded, dying a few days later. The Duchess of Brunswick, with two of her sons, and a widowed daughter-in-law, fled her ruined palace for Altona, where she was present with her daughter-in-law Marie of Baden at her dying husband's side. Her other daughter-in-law, Louise of Orange-Nassau, left for Switzerland with her mother. Due to the advancing French army, Augusta and Marie were advised by the British ambassador to flee, and they left shortly before her husband's death. They were invited to Sweden by Marie's brother-in-law King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden. Marie accepted to offer and left for Sweden, but Augusta left for Augustenborg, a small town east of Jutland. The Duchess of Brunswick remained here, with her niece, Princess Louise Augusta, daughter of her sister Queen Caroline Mathilde of Denmark, until her brother, George III finally relented, in September 1807, and allowed her to move to London. She moved to Montague House, Blackheath, in Greenwich, with her daughter, the Princess of Wales, but soon fell out with her daughter, and purchased the house next door, Brunswick House, as she renamed it. The Duchess of Brunswick lived out her days in Blackheath and died, in 1813, aged 75.
Titles, styles, honour and arms
Titles and styles
- 31 August 1737 – 16 January 1764: Her Royal Highness Princess Augusta
- 16 January 1764 – 26 March 1780: Her Royal Highness The Hereditary Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg
- 26 March 1780 – 10 November 1806: Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg
- 10 November 1806 – 23 March 1813: Her Royal Highness The Dowager Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Augusta was granted use of the arms of the kingdom, differenced by a label argent of five points, the centre bearing a cross gules, the other points each bearing a rose gules.
Together the couple had 7 children:
|Auguste Caroline Friederike Luise||3 December 1764||27 September 1788||married 1780, Friedrich III, Duke of Württemberg; had issue|
|Karl Georg August||8 February 1766||20 September 1806||married 1790, Frederika Luise Wilhelmine, Princess of Orange-Nassau; no issue|
|Caroline Amalie Elisabeth||17 May 1768||7 August 1821||married 1795, George IV of the United Kingdom; had issue|
|Georg Wilhelm Christian||27 June 1769||16 September 1811||Declared an invalid; Excluded from line of succession|
|August||18 August 1770||18 December 1822||Declared an invalid; Excluded from line of succession|
|Friedrich Wilhelm||9 October 1771||16 June 1815||married 1802, Marie Elisabeth Wilhelmine, Princess of Baden; had issue|
|Amelie Karoline Dorothea Luise||22 November 1772||2 April 1773|
- Beckett, William A.: Universal Biography. London: Isaac, 1836.
- Kwan, Elisabeth E.; Röhrig, Anna E.: Frauen vom Hof der Welfen. Göttingen: MatrixMedia 2006, ISBN 3-932313-17-8, p. 115−126.
- The Peerage – Charles I, Duke of Brunswick
- Yvonne's Royalty Home Page: Royal Christenings
- Cecilia af Klercker (1927). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok VI 1797-1799 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte VI 1797-1799) (in Swedish). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag Stockholm. pp. 219–220. ISBN 270693 Check
- Cecilia af Klercker (1936). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok VII 1800-1806 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte VIII 1800-1806) (in Swedish). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag Stockholm. p. 471. ISBN 362103 Check
- Cecilia af Klercker (1936). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok VII 1800-1806 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte VIII 1800-1806) (in Swedish). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag Stockholm. p. 458. ISBN 362103 Check
- The London Gazette, 17 January 1764
- Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family
Philippine Charlotte of Prussia
|Duchess consort of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Title next held byMarie of Baden