Princess Royal

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Princess Royal[1] is a style customarily (but not automatically) awarded by a British monarch to his or her eldest daughter. The style is held for life, so a princess cannot be given the style during the lifetime of another Princess Royal. In particular, Queen Elizabeth II never held the title as her aunt, Princess Mary, was in possession of the title.

There have been seven Princesses Royal.[2] Princess Anne is the current Princess Royal.

The title Princess Royal came into existence when Queen Henrietta Maria (1609–1669), daughter of Henry IV, King of France, and wife of King Charles I (1600–1649), wanted to imitate the way the eldest daughter of the King of France was styled "Madame Royale". The style is granted by Royal Warrant.

Princess Mary (later Queen Mary II) (1662–1694), eldest daughter of King James II & VII, and Princess Sophia Dorothea (1687–1757), only daughter of King George I, were eligible for this honour but did not receive it. At the time she became eligible for the title, Princess Mary was already Princess of Orange, while Sophia Dorothea was already Queen in Prussia when she became eligible for the title.

List of Princesses Royal[edit]

The following is a complete list of women formally styled Princess Royal:

Order Name
dates
Portrait Princess Royal
from (date) to (date)
Parent Date married Husband
dates
1 Mary, Princess Royal
1631–1660
Marie Henriette Stuart.jpg 1642–1660 Charles I
1600–1649
1641 William II, Prince of Orange
1626–1650
2 Anne, Princess Royal
1709–1759
Accama Anna van Hannover.jpg 1727–1759 George II
1683–1760
1734 William IV, Prince of Orange
1711–1751
3 Charlotte, Princess Royal
1766–1828
Charlotte Mathilde von England.jpg 1789–1828 George III
1738–1820
1797 King Frederick I of Württemberg
1754–1816
4 Victoria, Princess Royal
1840–1901
Victoria, Princess Royal.jpg 1841–1901 Victoria
1819–1901
1858 Frederick III, German Emperor
1831–1888
5 Louise, Princess Royal
1867–1931
Louise Princess Royal.jpg 1905–1931 Edward VII
1841–1910
1889 Alexander Duff, 1st Duke of Fife
1849–1912
6 Mary, Princess Royal
1897–1965
Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood.jpg 1932–1965 George V
1865–1936
1922 Henry Lascelles, 6th Earl of Harewood
1882–1947
7 Anne, Princess Royal
1950–
Princesa Ana do Reino Unido.jpg 1987–present Elizabeth II
1926–
1973–1992 Mark Phillips
1948-
1992 Sir Timothy Laurence
1955–

Princess Louisa Maria (1692–1712), the last daughter of King James II (d. 1701), born after he lost his crown in the Glorious Revolution, was given the title of Princess Royal during James's exile at Saint-Germain-en-Laye and was so called by Jacobites, even though she was not James's eldest living daughter at any time during her life.

Eldest daughter of the King or Queen[edit]

England[edit]

Even before the title of Princess Royal came into use in England, the eldest daughter of the King or Queen of England had a special status in law. For instance, according to Magna Carta, aids were due from the barons of the realm to finance the first wedding of the king's eldest daughter;[3] and by a statute of the 25th year of King Edward III, sleeping with the king's eldest daughter before her marriage constitutes an act of high treason punishable by death.[4]

The eldest daughters of the reigning monarchs of England were:

Name
dates
Eldest daughter
from (date) to (date)
Father Date married Husband
dates
Notes
Adela of Normandy
1062/7–1137?
1066/1067–1087 William I 1083? Stephen II of Blois
1045–1102
Mother of Stephen.
Empress Matilda
1102–1167
1102–1135 Henry I 1114 Emperor Henry V
1086–1125
Named as her father's heir 1127–1135, briefly (1141) ruler of England; mother of Henry II.
1128 Geoffrey V of Anjou
1113–1151
Marie of Boulogne
1136–1182
1136–1154 Stephen 1160–1170 Matthew of Boulogne
c.1130–1173
Matilda of Saxony
1156–1189
1156–1189 Henry II 1168 Henry the Lion
1129–1195
Joan of England
1210–1238
1210–1216 John 1221 Alexander II of Scotland
1198–1249
Margaret of England
1240-1275
1240–1272 Henry III 1251 Alexander III of Scotland
1241–1286
Eleanor of England
1269–1298
1272–1298 Edward I 1293 Henry III of Bar
1259–1302
Joan of Acre
1272–1307
1298–1307 Edward I 1290 Gilbert de Clare
1243–1295
Became eldest daughter of the king then living when her sister died.
1297 Ralph de Monthermer
c. 1270–1325
Margaret Plantagenet
1275–1333?
Apr.–Jul. 1307 Edward I 1290 John II of Brabant
1275–1312
Very briefly eldest living daughter of the king between her sister's and her father's deaths.
Eleanor of Woodstock
1318–1355
1318–1327 Edward II 1332 Reginald II of Guelders
1295–1343
Isabella de Coucy
1332–1379/82
1332–1377 Edward III 1365 Enguerrand VII de Coucy
1340–1397
Blanche of England
1392–1409
1399–1409 Henry IV 1402 Louis III of Germany
(son of King Rupert)
1378–1436
Philippa of England
1394–1430
1409–1413 Henry IV 1406 Eric of Pomerania
King of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden
1382–1459
Eldest living daughter of the king after her sister's death.
Elizabeth of York
1466–1503
1466–1483 Edward IV 1486 Henry VII of England
1457–1509
Heiress presumptive 1466–1470/Mother of Henry VIII
Margaret Tudor
1489–1541
1489–1509 Henry VII 1503 James IV of Scotland
1473–1513
Heiress presumptive 1509–1511, 1511–1516. Great-grandmother of James I.
Mary I of England
1516–1558
1516–1547
declared illegitimate 1533
Henry VIII 1554 Philip II of Spain
1527–1598
Heiress presumptive 1516–1534 and 1547–1553; Queen of England and Ireland 1553–1558.
Elizabeth of Bohemia
1596–1662
1603–1625 James I 1613 Frederick V, Elector Palatine
1596–1632
Heiress presumptive 1625–1630. Maternal grandmother of George I of Great Britain.
Mary, Princess Royal 1631–1649 See above.
Mary II of England
1662–1694
1685–1689 James II 1677 William III of England
1650–1702
Heiress presumptive 1685–88, Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland 1689–1694.

Scotland[edit]

The eldest daughters of the reigning monarchs of Scotland were:

Name
dates
Eldest daughter
from (date) to (date)
Father Date married Husband
dates
Notes
Edith of England
1080–1118
1080–1093 Malcolm III 1100 Henry I of England
1068/69–1135
Bethoc of Tyndale
?–?
1093–1094 Donald III 1085 Uctred, Lord of Tyndale
?–?
? Radulf of Nithsdale
?–?
Claricia of Scotland
1115–1130
1124–1130 David I unmarried
Hodierna of Scotland
1117–1140
1130–1140 David I unmarried Eldest living daughter of the king after her sister's death
Margaret of Kent
1193–1259
1193–1214 William I 1221 Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent
bef. 1180–bef. 1243
Heiress presumptive 1193–98, 1214–41, 1249–59;
Margaret of Norway
1261–1283
1261–1283 Alexander III 1281 Eric II of Norway
1268–1299
Heiress presumptive 1261–64; mother of Margaret, Maid of Norway.
Marjorie Bruce
1296–1316
1306–1316 Robert I 1315 Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland
1293–1326
Heiress presumptive 1306–16; mother of Robert II.
Margaret Bruce
?–1346/1347?
1316–1329 Robert I 1345 William de Moravia, 5th Earl of Sutherland
?–1370
Eldest living daughter of the king after her sister's death
Margaret Stewart
?–?
1371–? Robert II 1350 John of Islay, Lord of the Isles
?–1386
Elizabeth Stewart
?–bef. 1411
1390–1406 Robert III bef. 1387 James Douglas, 1st Baron Dalkeith
1356–bef. 1441
Margaret of France
1424–1445
1424–1437 James I 1436 Louis, Dauphin of France
1423–1483
Heiress presumptive 1437–45;
Mary of Arran
1453–1488
1453–1460 James II 1436 Thomas Boyd, 1st Earl of Arran
?–1473
1474 James Hamilton, 1st Lord Hamilton
1415–1479
Mary I of Scotland
1542–1587
1542 James V 1548 Francis II of France
1544–1560
Heiress presumptive 1542; Queen of Scots 1542–67.
1565 Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
1545–1567
1567 James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell
1534–1578
Elizabeth of Bohemia
1596–1662
1596–1625 James VI 1613 Frederick V, Elector Palatine
1596–1632
Heiress presumptive 1625–30. Grandmother of George I.
Mary, Princess Royal 1631–1649 See above.
Mary II of Scotland
1662–1694
1685–1689 James VII 1677 William III of England and Ireland,
II of Scotland
1650–1702
Heiress presumptive 1685–88, Queen of Great Britain and Ireland 1689–94.

Britain[edit]

The eldest daughters of the reigning monarch of Great Britain, or the United Kingdom were:

Name
dates
Eldest daughter
from (date) to (date)
Father Date married Husband
dates
Notes
Sophia Dorothea of Hanover
1687–1757
1714–1727 George I 1706 Frederick William I of Prussia
1688–1740
Queen in Prussia prior to her father's accession as King of Great Britain.
Anne, Princess Royal 1727–1759 George II 1734 William IV, Prince of Orange
1711-1751
Became Princess Royal during the lifetime of her aunt, Sophia Dorothea of Prussia. Although the eldest daughter of a British monarch, George I, Sophia Dorothea had already married the King of Prussia eight years before her father's succession.
Charlotte, Princess Royal 1766–1820 See above.
Victoria, Princess Royal 1840–1901 See above.
Louise, Princess Royal 1901–1910 See above.
Mary, Princess Royal 1910–1936 See above.
Elizabeth
1926–present
1936–1952 George VI 1947 Philip of Edinburgh
1921–present
Heiress presumptive 1936–1952; Queen of the United Kingdom 1952–present. Never titled Princess Royal because Mary, Countess of Harewood, held the title for the entire 1936–1952 period.
Anne, Princess Royal 1952–present See above.

In fiction[edit]

  • In the House of M alternate universe of Marvel Comics, Elizabeth Braddock is the elder twin sister of the British King and bears the title Princess Royal.
  • The novel The Lady Royal, by Molly Costain Haycraft, is a fictionalized account of the life of Isabella de Coucy. According to the narrative, Isabella was titled the Princess Royal and then later given the more 'adult' title of the Lady Royal by her parents. This is a fabrication; although Isabella, as the eldest daughter of Edward III, enjoyed the special privileges that came with her rank, she could not have been titled the Princess Royal because the title was not used in England until long after her death. The title of "the Lady Royal" has never existed.

Other uses[edit]

Princess Royal was one of the GWR 3031 Class locomotives that were built for and run on the Great Western Railway between 1891 and 1915. The LMS Class 8P "Princess Royal" 4-6-2 was a type of express passenger locomotive built between 1933 and 1935 by the London Midland & Scottish Railway

Princess Royal is an abandoned town in the Western Australian Goldfields, named for Victoria, Princess Royal, daughter of Queen Victoria.

The Princess Royal - cruise ship, commonly taking routes along Europe and the pacific.

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Royal Family: Royal Titles. "Style and Title of the Princess Royal." - Royal.gov.uk Retrieved 16 June 2008.
  2. ^ ""The Princess Royal, The British Monarchy". Royal.gov.uk. (Retrieved 2010-01-12.)
  3. ^ Nullum scutagium vel auxilium ponatur in regno nostro.... nisi.... ad filiam nostram primogenitam semel maritandam[1]
  4. ^ si home violast la compaigne le roy, ou leigne file le roy nient marie, ou la compaigne leigne fitz et heire le roy.... doit estre ajugge treson a nostre Seigneur le Roi[2]