Principal part

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the mathematical meaning. For the grammar term (a list of verb forms), see Principal parts.

In mathematics, the principal part has several independent meanings, but usually refers to the negative-power portion of the Laurent series of a function.

Laurent series definition[edit]

The principal part at z=a of a function

f(z) = \sum_{k=-\infty}^\infty a_k (z-a)^k

is the portion of the Laurent series consisting of terms with negative degree. That is,

\sum_{k=-\infty}^{-1} a_k (z-a)^k

is the principal part of f at  a . f(z) has an essential singularity at a, if and only if the principal part is an infinite sum.

Other definitions[edit]

Calculus[edit]

Consider the difference between the function differential and the actual increment:

\frac{\Delta y}{\Delta x}=f'(x)+\varepsilon
 \Delta y=f'(x)\Delta x +\varepsilon \Delta x = dy+\varepsilon \Delta x

The differential dy is sometimes called the principal (linear) part of the function increment Δy.

Distribution theory[edit]

The term principal part is also used for certain kinds of distributions having a singular support at a single point.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]