Principality of Dalmatian Croatia
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|Principality of Dalmatian Croatia
The Croatian Principality c. 850. Savia was probably under direct Frankish rule
|Religion||Christian, later Roman Catholic|
|-||803-821||Borna (first) de jure|
|-||Establishment||c. 8th century|
|-||Tomislav crowned as king||925|
|Today part of|| Croatia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Dalmatian Croatia (Croatian: Dalmatinska Hrvatska), also Littoral Croatia (Primorska Hrvatska),[note 1] is a name for a region of what used to be a medieval Croatian principality which was established in the former Roman province of Dalmatia. Throughout its time, the Principality had several capital cities, namely Klis, Solin, Biograd, Knin, Biaći and Nin, comprised the littoral, or coastal part of today's Croatia and included a big part of the mountainous hinterland. The Principality had the House of Trpimirović as the ruling dynasty, with interruptions by the House of Domagojević (864-878 and 879-892).
Within the defined Littoral Croatia, various tribal groupings, which were called sclaviniae by the Byzantines, were settled along the Adriatic coast. The nearest one, the land of the Narentines, which stretched from the rivers Cetina to Neretva, had the islands of Brač, Hvar, Korčula, Mljet, Vis and Lastovo in its possession. In the southern part of Dalmatia, there was Zahumlje (Zachumlia), Travunia and Dioclea (today Montenegro). The central part of the Littoral state consisted partially of Bosnia. North of the state there was the Principality of Pannonian Croatia.
|“||From that point on, they were independent, and demanded to be baptised from the bishop of Rome, and was sent to them to be baptised in the time of their duke Porga. Their land was divided in eleven županija, which are: Hlebiana, Tzenzena, Emota, Pleba, Pesenta, Parathalassia, Brebere, Nona, Tnena, Sidraga, Nina, and their ban (boanos) has Kribasan, Litzan, Goutzeska||”|
In the 9th century, Croatia emerged as a political entity with a duke (also knez, translated as duke or prince) as a head of state, territorially in the basins of the rivers Cetina, Krka and Zrmanja. It was administered in 11 župa (Županije).
The Croatian noble tribes that had a right to choose Croatian duke were from Dalmatia: Karinjani and Lapčani, Polečići, Tugomirići, Kukari, Snačići, Gusići, Šubići (from which later developed very powerful noble family Zrinski), Mogorovići, Lačničići, Jamometići and Kačići.
Trpimir I 
Duke Mislav was succeeded around 845 by Trpimir I, who continued the formal legacy of being the vassal of the Frankish king Lothair (840–855), although he managed to strengthen his personal rule in Croatia. Arabian campaigns thoroughly weakened the Byzantine Empire and Venice, which was used in the advance of the Croatian prince in 846 and 848. Between 854 and 860, he successfully defended his land from the Bulgarian invasion, and defeated them finally in eastern Bosnia.
In a Latin charter preserved in a rewrite from 1568, that dates, according to newer research, to about 840), Trpimir refers to himself as dux Croatorum iuvatus munere divino (leader of the Croats with the help of God); his land, called regnum Croatorum, "Kingdom of the Croats", can simply be interpreted as the land of the Croats, since the theory of an early kingdom is largely disputed. This charter also documents his ownership of castle Klis, from where his rule was centered. He is more expressly remembered as the founder of the House of Trpimirović, which was the first and the only native dynasty throughout the history of the Croats.
See also 
|Part of a series on the|
|History of Croatia|
- The term "Littoral Croatia" (Primorska Hrvatska), has been used by older Croatian historians to describe this entity in a manner that emphasizes its Croatian nature, but contemporary sources did not actually use the Croatian name as such until the latter half of the 9th century, rendering the name anachronistic before then.
- Rudolf Horvat, Povijest Hrvatske I. (od najstarijeg doba do g. 1657.), Zagreb 1924.
- Nada Klaić, Povijest Hrvata u ranom srednjem vijeku, Zagreb 1975.
- Goldstein, Ivo (May 1985). "Ponovno o Srbima u Hrvatskoj u 9. stoljeću". Historijski zbornik (in Croatian) (Savez povijesnih društava Hrvatske, Faculty of Philosophy, Zagreb). XXXVII (1). Retrieved 2012-07-27.
- Croatia — an independent principality (Richard C. Frucht: Eastern Europe, Edition 2005 /Santa Barbara, California, USA/)
- Prince Branimir put the Principality of Croatia "permanently beneath the wing of the Roman Church and Western Christian civilization (879)" (Richard Barrie Dobson: Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, Edition 2000 /Cambridge, England, UK/)