The Principality of Vitebsk was a Ruthenian principality centered on the city of Vitebsk in modern Belarus, that existed from its founding in 1101 until it was inherited into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1320, and only nominally until 1508.
Sviatoslav's son Vasilko Sviatoslavich, after having likely served as commander under emperor John II Komnenos, returned from his exile in Constantinople in either 1131 or 1132 to claim his inheritance as Prince of Vitebsk. In 1132, the residents of Polotsk unhappy with the rule of Svyatopolk Mstislavich, invited Vasilko to claim the Principality of Polotsk. Vasilko accepted the offer and gave the title of Vitebsk over to his son Vseslav Vasilkovich. Under the reign of Vseslav, the other exiled Polotsk princes were allowed to return in 1139 and the princes of Vitebsk, Minsk and Drutsk began to quarrel over the control of Polotsk after Vseslav claimed Polotsk in 1162. In 1165-1167 due to the feudal strife, the principality of Vitebsk was shortly acquired by the princes of Smolensk. However this submission was short lived, and Vitebsk soon regained independence and given to Briachislav Vasilkovich, another son of Vasilko. During this time period, the principality had strong trade connections to Riga.
In 1186, the principality of Vitebsk again fell under the influence of Smolensk which angered the princes of Polotsk and Chernigov whom in 1195 marched against the prince of Smolensk. As a result of this campaign, Vitebsk again fell under the rule of Polotsk. In the beginning of the thirteenth century, Vitebsk had close relationships with the princes of Vladimir-Suzdal but due to the swift diplomatic maneuvering of Lithuanian princes, the principality fell under the influence of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. It is not known who succeeded after the death of the second Briachislav Vasilkovich in 1232. However, in 1254, the nephew of Mindaugas, Tautvilas was given Polotsk, and he placed his son Constantine as ruler of Vitebsk in 1262. The last prince of Vitebsk was Jaroslav Vasilkovich, whose daughter Mary was married to a Lithuanian prince. Jaroslav died in 1320 without heirs and Vitebsk was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.