Using modified inkjet printers into 3d printers, scientists are producing three-dimensional living biological tissue. The printer cartridges are washed out and filled with a suspension of living cells and a "smart gel". Alternating patterns of the smart gel and living cells are printed using a standard print nozzle. The cells fuse together to form tissue, and tube formation has been demonstrated with ovarian hamster cells. When finished, the gel is cooled and washed away, leaving behind only the live cells.
The gel is heat sensitive - solidifying at 32 degrees celsius and liquifying at 20 degrees.
- Boland T, Mironov V, Gutowska A, Roth EA, Markwald RR (2003). "Cell and organ printing 2: Fusion of cell aggregates in three-dimensional gels". The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology 272A (2): 497–502. doi:10.1002/ar.a.10059. PMID 12740943.
- Jakab K, Neagu A, Mironov V, Markwald RR, Forgacs G (March 2004). "Engineering biological structures of prescribed shape using self-assembling multicellular systems". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 101 (9): 2864–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.0400164101. PMC 365711. PMID 14981244.
- Saunders (PDF)
- Organ printing: Fiction or science?
- Laitman J, Markwald R (2003). "What's hot in anatomy: Of talking heads and drawing organs". The Anatomical Record Part B: the New Anatomist 273B (1): 120–1. doi:10.1002/ar.b.10025.
- Luo Y, Shoichet MS (2004). "A photolabile hydrogel for guided three-dimensional cell growth and migration". Nature Materials 3 (4): 249–53. doi:10.1038/nmat1092. PMID 15034559.
- Vladmir Mironov http://cba.musc.edu/faculty/MironovV.htm
- Thomas Boland http://people.clemson.edu/~tboland/OP/
- Anthony Atala http://www1.wfubmc.edu/oprd/physdetail.htm?PhysicianID=843
- Anna Gutowska (developed the thermo sensitive smartgel)
|This medical treatment–related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|