Prison Ship Martyrs' Monument

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Coordinates: 40°41′30″N 73°58′32″W / 40.6918°N 73.9756°W / 40.6918; -73.9756

Prison Ship Martyrs' Monument (2013)
Adolf Weinman's brazier at the top
Program for the dedication ceremonies, November 14, 1908

The Prison Ship Martyrs' Monument in Fort Greene Park, in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, is a memorial to the more than 11,500 American prisoners of war who died in captivity aboard sixteen British prison ships during the American Revolutionary War.[1] The remains of a small fraction of those who died on the ships are interred in a crypt beneath its base. The ships included the HMS Jersey, the Scorpion, the Hope, the Falmouth, the Stromboli, Hunter, and others.[2][3]

Their remains were first gathered and interred in 1808. In 1867 landscape architects Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux, designers of Central Park and Prospect Park, were engaged to prepare a new design for Washington Park as well as a new crypt for the remains of the prison ship martyrs.[4] In 1873, after urban growth hemmed in that site near the Brooklyn Navy Yard, the remains were moved and re-interred in a crypt beneath a small monument. Funds were raised for a larger monument, which was designed by noted architect Stanford White. Constructed of granite, its single Doric column 149 feet (45 m) in height sits over the crypt at the top of a 100-foot (30 m)-wide 33 step staircase. At the top of the column is an eight-ton bronze brazier, a funeral urn, by sculptor Adolf Weinman. President-elect William Howard Taft delivered the principal address when the monument was dedicated in 1908.

Context[edit]

Remains of deceased prisoners[edit]

During the Revolutionary War, the British maintained a series of prison ships in the New York Harbor and jails on the shore for captured prisoners of war.[5][6] Due to brutal conditions, more Americans died in British jails[7] and prison ships in New York Harbor than in all the battles of the American Revolutionary War.[8][9]The British quickly disposed of the bodies of the dead from the jails and ships by quick interment or throwing the bodies overboard. Following the end of the American Revolutionary War in 1783, the remains of those who died on the 16 prison ships[10] were neglected, left to lie along the Brooklyn shore on Wallabout Bay, a rural area little visited by New Yorkers.[11] On January 21, 1877, the New York Times reported that the dead came from all parts of the nation and "every state of the Union was represented among them."[12]

Officials of the local Dutch Reformed Church met with resistance from the property owner when they sought to remove the bones to their churchyard.[13] Nathaniel Scudder Prime reported that the "skulls and feet, arms and legs [were] sticking out of the crumbling bank in the wildest disorder".[14] Edwin G. Burrows described the skulls on the coast "as thick as pumpkins in an autumn cornfield".[15][16] During construction at the Naval Yards, workers were not sure what to do with the bones, and they started to fill casks and boxes. They were reburied on the grounds of the nearby John Jackson estate.[17]

Eventually, "near twenty hogsheads full of bones were collected by the indefatigable industry of John Jackson esq, the committee of Tammany Society, and other citizens, to be interred in the vault."[18] The monument's dedication plaque estimates that 11,500 prisoners of war died in the prison ships, but others estimate the number to be as high as 18,000 people.[19]

Political resolve[edit]

The movement to commemorate the dead only took off when political differences between Federalists and Republicans deepened in the last years of the eighteenth century and the Republicans took up the question of a memorial in response to the Federalist erection of a statue of George Washington in 1803.[20] The Tammany Society, headed by Benjamin Romaine[21][22] was created and grew into a Republican organization. On February 10, 1803 Republican Congressman Samuel L. Mitchill asked the federal government to erect a monument to the fallen, but had no success[18][23] They then turned their efforts to a grand ceremonial re-interment of the prisoners' remains, emphasizing less the construction of a monument than something more suited to the common man. Tammany formed the Wallabout Committee in January 1808. Their efforts took strength from renewed anti-British feeling stemming from British incidents in 1806 & 1807. Finally, when President Thomas Jefferson enacted the Embargo Act of 1808, Tammany and the Republicans used their plans for a re-interment as part of their campaign to bolster anti-British sentiment.

Precursor vaults and monuments[edit]

First vault and monument[edit]

On April 13, 1808, they held a ceremony to lay the cornerstone of a planned vault and a grand ceremony of re-interment followed on May 26, 1808.[24] A small square building stood above the 1808 vault with an eagle mounted at the point of the roof. It was located on a triangular plot of land near the Brooklyn Navy Yard waterfront (Wallabout Bay) in what is now called Vinegar Hill.[25] A wooden fence with thirteen posts and bars painted with the names of the original thirteen states was erected in front. At the entrance through the fence, an inscription said: "Portal to the tomb of 11,500 patriot prisoners, who died in dungeons and prison-ships, in and about the City of New York, during the Revolution."[26] The remains were put in long coffins made of bluestone. Extra space was provided in case more bones were discovered during continuing renovations in the Brooklyn Navy Yard.[27] Little was done to repair or upkeep the vault and eventually, the original monument was in a state of disrepair and neglect.[25] In 1839, Benjamin Romaine purchases the land where the Martyrs were buried, in a tax sale from Henry Reed Stiles for $291.08.[28] Later that year on 4 July 1839, Benjamin Romaine made an appeal for support (governmental or civic) to build a monument. In this appeal, Romaine talked about the monument and his intention to use his Revolutionary War pension for the monument.[29] On 31 January 1844, Benjamin Romaine died and was also interred in the crypt as he was also one of the men who had been a prisoner of war on the ships.

Second vault and monument[edit]

Later in the nineteenth century, the idea of erecting of a monument on the vault site attracted only occasional interest until 1873 when an appropriation of $6,500[30] was established for a new mausoleum. The new 25 by 11 foot brick mausoleum in Fort Greene Park, then known as Washington Park, was constructed.[3][31] The new mausoleum was constructed of Portland granite embellished with pillars and fret work of polished Aberdeen stone. The front of the tomb had the following inscription: "SACRED TO THE MEMORY, OF OUR SAILORS, SOLDIERS AND CITIZENS, WHO SUFFERED AND DIED ON BOARD BRITISH PRISON SHIPS IN THE WALLABOUT DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION".[30] On June 18, 1873, the first tomb was emptied of bones and they were moved to this tomb.[28] The bones remained here until interest was again built and a new monument could be constructed.

Third monument[edit]

History[edit]

Planning and construction[edit]

The Fort Greene Chapter of the DAR was formed in 1896 in Brooklyn to foster the construction of a "suitable memorial to the memory of martyrs, civilian, military and naval, who perished in the noisome prison ships anchored in the Wallabout Bay during the Revolutionary War". The group quickly partnered with the Old Brooklynites to increase focus on the memorial.[32]

Following the discovery of additional bones in the Brooklyn Naval Yard in 1899, interest in establishing a significant monument was again renewed.[33][34] On June 16, 1900, the bones found during additional excavations in the Brooklyn Navy Yard were interred in the crypt with full military honors. The boxes were reported to be oak, 5 feet long and two feet wide.[35] On June 19, 1900, the Brooklyn Eagle reported that a committee had been appointed to build a larger memorial to replace the current one. Due to the work of this committee, funds for a new monument were finally considered and raised.

Funding for a larger monument came from all levels of government. On June 28, 1902, a joint resolution of the House and Senate appropriated $100,000 for the memorial construction under the provision that an additional $100,000 be raised from other sources.[36][37] In the following months, New York State provided $25,000, and New York City $50,000, while private contributions provided another $25,000.[38][39] Following funds being established, the Prison Ship Martyrs Association was incorporated in Albany on May 9, 1903[40] to oversee the work and the renowned architect Stanford White (1853–1906) of the architectural firm of McKim, Mead & White was commissioned to design it. The contract for construction of the monument was awarded to Carlin Construction Company under the project supervision of Lieut. Col. W. L. Marshall.[41] In 1776, Fort Greene Park was the site of Fort Putnam, on of a series of defenses built on the high land in Brooklyn. The construction was supervised by Colonel Rufus Putnam and the purpose was to protect New York from the British.[32]

Dedication ceremony[edit]

The dedication ceremony on November 15, 1908, included a parade with 15,000 participants, including military and National Guard units, veterans, and civic organizations, including representatives of Tammany Hall Society in their first parade since the Civil War. President-elect William Howard Taft, Secretary of War Luke E. Wright, New York Governor Charles Evans Hughes, New Jersey Governor Franklin Fort, and Delaware Governor Preston Lea watched along with approximately twenty thousand spectators as "the enormous flag draping the Prison Ship Martyrs' Monument on the highest point of Fort Greene Park, Brooklyn, was allowed to slide slowly to the ground from its heighth [sic] of 198 feet in the air".[42] The ceremony was opened with a prayer delivered by Rev. S. Parkes Cadman and the principal address was delivered by Taft.[43] He set out in detail the treatment of American prisoners and of the dead he said: "They died because of the cruelty of their immediate custodians and the neglect of those who, in higher authority, were responsible for their detention."[citation needed] He carefully described British culpability:

I do not wish to be understood as charging that these conditions were due to the premeditations of the English commanders in chief or to the set purposes of anyone in authority having to do with the fate of the unfortunate men whose bravery and self-sacrifice this monument records. Such a charge would make the British commanders human monsters. The conditions were the result of neglect, not design.

He discussed the treatment of prisoners of war throughout history and praised the recent Hague Convention on the rights of prisoners of war and the recent Sino-Japanese War in which "both parties exceeded, in the tenderness and the care which they gave to the prisoners of the other, the requirements of the Hague Convention".[42]

Following the initial dedication, the Society of Old Brooklynites has hosted an annual memorial for the martyrs every year since President Taft dedicated the monument in 1908.[1]

Repeated neglect and restoration[edit]

In February 1914, one of the eagles was stolen. The thieves attempted to sell it as scrap metal for $24.[44] The thieves broke the eagle from the granite base, rolled it down the slope and loaded it on a three-wheeled push cart. Leaving tracks which the police were able to follow. When police found it at a recycling yard, the wings of the eagle had already been removed and partially melted.[44][45]

One of four bronze eagles by Adolph Weinman at the restored monument site.

By 1921, the beacon was out. The twin helix stairways to the top of the monument, which visitors once paid a dime to climb,[46] were closed. Until then, visitors could go to the top to get impressive views of Manhattan. In 1923, the bronze door to the crypt was "battered from its hinges" by vandals and the crypt was exposed. The New York Times report of the incident described how the monument provided a play area for neighborhood children: "[A] score of children, white and black, who live in the neighborhood were using the granite coping of the walls leading to the crypt as a sort of 'chute the chutes.' The color line was sharply drawn. The slope of one side was used by the negro children while the slope of the other side amused the whites. The children of neither hue were concerned with the crime. They realized vaguely that something unusual had taken place, but it was not important enough to them to stop their daily sport."[47] However, neglect and damage to the park required it to be renovated. The memorial had become so scarred by vandals and unkempt from lack of proper maintenance as to present a dilapidated appearance. Work was done to clean and preserve the site. A staircase and elevator were installed inside the large column, and it was reopened in 1937 by Park Commissioner Robert Moses.[48] Again, the park was neglected and restoration work was required. It began in 1948 to "keep the shrine from falling apart".[49] The staircase and elevator, however, were both removed in 1949.[1][4]

In the ensuing years, however, the park slowly decayed again and, by the 1970s, graffiti covered much of the base of the monument and vandalism was taking its toll.[50] After being vandalized repeatedly, the four eagles were removed for repairs in 1966 and restored when $251,000 was spent to repair the monument about 1974,[51] part of a larger $780,000 restoration of Fort Greene Park.[52] They were again removed in 1981 and two of them are on display at the Central Park Arsenal, the administrative headquarters of the New York City Parks Department.[4] They presently flank the third floor entrance.[53]

In 1995, an examination of the vault reported it held bone fragments in 20 slate boxes, each two feet by two feet by seven feet.[1] During the park system's inspection in 1995, graffiti was noted to be on the crypt's interior walls. The graffiti is questionably dated to go bacl 1973, 1908, and as one tag was scribbled, 1776 — which is anachronistic considering that this was before the tomb was even built, in 1908.[1]

During a site review on January 7, 2000, Park System workers raised the lid of the stone coffin of Benjamin Romaine. The interior of the coffin appeared to have contained a partially collapsed wooden coffin.[54] By then, the monument was missing plaques, the plaza was potholed,[46] the crypt had a plywood door, and the eternal flame had long been extinguished.

Archaeological excavation of original site[edit]

In December 2003, a dig was done on the original site of the Martyrs' Monument. The site dig was funded by a grant of $2,500 from the J. M. Kaplan Fund.[55] It was supervised by Dr. Joan H. Geismar an archaeological consultant. The original site (block 44, lot 14 Brooklyn) is located on 89 Hudson Ave (formerly Jackson Street: named after an early donor of the property for the Monument in 1808).[56] The goals of the dig were to review if any more human remains could be found on the site and if evidence of the original crypt remained. The site was scheduled for housing development to begin on the site. The Crypt location was specifically identified from an 1855 Perris insurance atlas as well as a mid-19th century manuscript map found in the National Archives. The work determined that the site at one time contained a deep void, but no foundations were found. They did find a massive stone side wall as well as the likely original post holes for the rail fence. The site development was allowed with a recommendation of a plaque when work was done.[28] The redevelopment of the site was completed and eventually the property changed owners. The status of the plaque is not known and currently there is no plaque on the site.

Renovation and re-dedication ceremony[edit]

The city launched the renovation of the Prison Ship Monument with a $3.5 million budget in 2004.[57] The scheduled repairs were plagued by cost overruns and the initial electrical contractor was fired by New York City and needed to be replaced.[58] Additionally, a new spiral staircase was built inside the memorial.[59] A budgetary study was conducted from March 6, 2006 to September 5, 2008 on electrical improvements and the cost estimated to about $341,000.

The restored monument was unveiled on November 15, 2008, a centennial celebration, at a rededication ceremony commissioned by the Fort Greene Park Conservancy to celebrate the centennial and re-dedication of the Fort Greene Park Prison Ship Martyrs' Monument. More than 500 people gathered to take part in the relighting of the flame to mark the 100th anniversary.[60] That night, the column and urn were lit by a spectacular lighting scheme.[61] The overall restoration cost for the monument from 2006 to 2008 was an estimated $5,100,000.[57] However, in November 2009, it was noted that the light was again not working. The parks department worked to restore the lights and noted that though the lights were working finely, there was a programming issue with the light timer.[60]

Description[edit]

The plaque at the base of the monument
One of the four Adolf Weinman eagles that stood at the base of the large column until 1966

Details[edit]

  • The column: Constructed of granite, its single Doric column 149 feet (45 m) in height sits over the crypt at the top of a 100-foot (30 m)-wide 99 stairs staircase. When it was built, it was the world's tallest Doric column.[27] The column carries the inscription: "1776 THE PRISON SHIP MARTYRS MONUMENT 1908". The monument's column contained a staircase accessed by a bronze door.[62] The stone for the monument came from Lacasse quarry, about 4 miles east of Newport, Vermont.[63] The grand staircase of 100 80-feet-wide granite steps rises in three stages. At the foot of the staircase, the entrance to the vault was covered by a slab of brown sandstone, now in storage,[4] that bears the names of the 1808 monument committee and builders, as well as this inscription:[62]

    In the name of the spirits of the departed free
    sacred to the memory of that portion of American seamen, soldiers and citizens who perished in the cause of liberty & their country on board the prison ships of the British (during the Revolutionary War) at the Wall-about.
    This is the corner stone of the vault which contains their relics.
    Erected by the Tammany Society or Columbian Order of the City of New York.
    The ground for which was bestowed by John Jackson Nassau Island,
    season of blossoms
    year of discovery, the 316th
    of the institution the 19th
    and of American Independence the 32nd
    April the 6th, 1808.

  • Urn: At the top of the column are uprights two feet in diameter which are the shape of lion's heads. Each head weighs more than 100 pounds. These hold up the urn.[64] At the top of the column is an eight-ton bronze brazier or a funeral urn.[4] The urn, which is 22.5 feet tall and weighs 7.5 tons, was cast by the Whale Creek Iron Works in Greepoint from designs of Manhattan sculptor Adolph Alexander Weinman.[65] The top of the urn is glazed with extra heavy plate glass. The inside of the urn contains the mechanics for the lighting. The top had a light, the "eternal flame". It went out in 1921 and was never relit until 1997 when a new solar-powered eternal beacon was turned on as part of a ceremony.[66] The solar powered beacon or "eternal flame", now consists of solar powered lights reflected from a mirror. It is lit daily during the hours of darkness. Around the urn is a bronze railing also cast at Whale Creek Iron Works.
  • Eagles: Four 3-foot-high open-winged 300-pound eagles stood at the corners of the 200-foot square terrace at the column's base, each on its own 2-foot pedestal in front of a 7-foot Doric column. They were designed by Adolf Weinman, who also designed the 6-ton brazier that sits upon the Monument's principal column.[51]
  • Vault: The crypt is in a vault at the base of the stairs. Inside the vault the floor is made of concrete and the walls and ceiling are a bisque-colored brick. One enters the crypt through a copper-clad door. When entering it is three steps down and then a short passageway into the hill and at the end of the passage is the brick-lined crypt. The crypt is approximately 15–20 feet square. There are a series of slate coffins inserted into a double-set of shelves on the right and left.[54] Various bones are said to be sorted by type into different coffins, presumably because individual bodies could not be identified and re-assembled for burial.[30]

Monument additions[edit]

A plaque was added in 1960 located across from the front label on the monument. The plaque reads:[10]

In memory of the 11,500 patriotic American sailors and soldiers who endured untold suffering and died on the prison British ships anchored in Wallabout Bay during the Revolutionary War 1776- 1782. Their remains lie buried in the crypt at the base of this monument which was dedicated on November 14, 1908. This plaque was afforded by The Society of Old Brooklynites on June 1, 1960. Farelly Crane M.D. President.

During the Bicentennial Year – 1976, King Juan Carlos of Spain dedicated a plaque honoring 700 Spaniards who died on the prison ships.[1]

Currently surrounding the monument are secured exhibits explaining the history of the prison ships, the Battle of Brooklyn and a list of the 8,000 known martyrs.[10] It is not documented when these exhibits were added.

Near the monument, a small building designed to coordinate with the work of McKim, Mead, and White once provided restroom facilities but was re-purposed as a visitors' center for the park.[67] The visitors center has pictorial exhibits plus displays of Revolutionary War weapons and uniform buttons that have been uncovered in the park over the years. It also houses a list of the 8,000 known prison ship martyrs copied from the records in the British War Department.[68][69]

Current designation and responsibility[edit]

In the first half of the 20th century efforts were made to seek a national designation. However, the United States Department of the Interior declined at the time and noted that the prisoners didn't die at the site itself.[10] Currently, the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation is responsible for the preservation and supervision of the monument. A budgetary study was conducted from March 6, 2006, to September 5, 2008, on electrical improvements and the cost estimated at $341,000. The overall restoration cost for the monument from 2006 to 2008 was estimated at $5,100,000.[57]

On April 11, 2013, U.S. Congressman Hakeem Jeffries – representing parts of Queens and Brooklyn, including Fort Greene – introduced the "Prison Ship Martyrs' Monument Preservation Act" to the United States House of Representatives. The bill directs the Secretary of the Interior to study the suitability and feasibility of designating the Prison Ship Martyr's Monument as a unit of the National Park System.[70] The study would look at what it would cost to run the park and how its proposed designation as a National Park would affect the surrounding area.[71] The House voted on April 28, 2014 to pass the bill in a voice vote.[72] The legislation would authorize a $150,000 study to determine if turning the memorial into a national monument would be feasible.[73]

In culture[edit]

In 1986, the monument can be seen in the film, "She's Gotta Have It."

Alvin Singleton's "Brooklyn Bones" was a eulogy for the people who died in the prison ships. It was performed at Carnegie Hall on April 26, 2008, by choral group Cantori New York and orchestra, tenor Cameron Smith, and conducted by Mark Shapiro.[74]

In 2009, the HBO series "Bored to Death" shot scenes at the Prison Ship Monument. This location was where the character Jonathan Ames met a Russian character.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f Martin, Douglas. "Resurrecting Patriots, and Their Park; Shrine to Revolution's Martyrs Is Part of Fort Greene Renewal" New York Times (September 23, 1995). Accessed January 17, 2012
  2. ^ Cray, "Commemorating the Prison Ship Dead", pp.568–9
  3. ^ a b Wilson, James Grant. The memorial History of the City of New-York, From its First Settlement to the Year 1892, vol. IV New York:New-York History Company, 1893, pp.8–9. Accessed: January 22, 2012
  4. ^ a b c d e "Fort Greene Park: Prison Ship Martyrs Monument: History" on the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation website
  5. ^ Andros, Thomas. "The old Jersey captive: Or, A narrative of the captivity of Thomas Andros...on board the old Jersey prison ship at New York, 1781. In a series of letters to a friend." W. Peirce. 1833.
  6. ^ Lang, Patrick J.. "The horrors of the English prison ships, 1776 to 1783, and the barbarous treatment of the American patriots imprisoned on them." Society of the Friendly Sons of Saint Patrick, 1939.
  7. ^ New York Tribune December 7, 1903 On December 7, 1903 workman found the remains of two men at the site of the Old hall of Records at City Hall Park in New York City; it had been used as a prison during the American Revolution
  8. ^ Banks, James Lenox. "Prison ships in the Revolution: New facts in regard to their management." 1903
  9. ^ Hanford, William H. "Incidents of the Revolution: Recollections of the Old Sugar House Prison" New York Times (January 15, 1852). Accessed=February 11, 2011
  10. ^ a b c d McDonnell, Sharon. "Revolutionary Martyrs" American Spirit (March/April 2007)
  11. ^ Cray, "Commemorating the Prison Ship Dead", p.573
  12. ^ "The Prison-Ship Martyrs" New York Times (January 21, 1877)
  13. ^ Cray, "Commemorating the Prison Ship Dead", p.574
  14. ^ A History of Long Island: From Its First Settlement by Europeans to the Year 1845. 
  15. ^ Burrows, Edwin G. (2008). Forgotten Patriots: The Untold Story of American Prisoners During the Revolutionary War. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0786727047. 
  16. ^ Giddens, Elizabeth (Sep 2, 2011). "Memorials and the Forgotten". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 February 2013. 
  17. ^ "Memorial to martyred mariners rededicated". 
  18. ^ a b De Witt, Benjamin (1808). An Historical Account of the Interment of the Remains of the American Martyrs at the Wallabout. Frank, White, and Co. p. 85. Retrieved January 13, 2013. 
  19. ^ Burrows, Edwin G. (2011). "The Prisoners of New York". Long Island History Journal 22 (2). 
  20. ^ Cray, "Commemorating the Prison Ship Dead", pp.575–8
  21. ^ "Benjamin Romaine" on the New York Society Library website
  22. ^ "Timeline of the Burial of the Prison Ship Martyrs and Benjamin Romaine" on the RootsWeb website
  23. ^ Cray, "Commemorating the Prison Ship Dead", pp.578–9
  24. ^ Cray, "Commemorating the Prison Ship Dead", pp.584–5
  25. ^ a b "The Prison Ship Martyrs Monument" on the Fort Greene Park Conservancy website
  26. ^ McCulloch, J. R. A Dictionary, Geographical, Statistical, and Historical of the Countries, Places, and Principal Natural Objects in the World. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1852, vol. 1, p.474. Accessed January 17, 2012
  27. ^ a b Hinds, Kate (May 31, 2010). "Fort Greene Park's Prison Ships Martyrs Monument". WNYC. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  28. ^ a b c "Martyr's Monument/Monument Lot Memo Report on Archeological Investigations". December 19, 2003. p. 1. Retrieved January 13, 2013. [dead link]
  29. ^ Childs, C.C. & Childs, E., Jr. "The tomb of the martyrs". Benjamin Romaine's Review (July 4, 1839)
  30. ^ a b c "Revolutionary Martyrs" Brooklyn Daily Eagle (January 18, 1873) and (January 8, 1888)
  31. ^ Cray, "Commemorating the Prison Ship Dead", p.588
  32. ^ a b http://www.abbyw.com/fortgreenepark.org/pages/ASP_0307_PrisonShips.pdf
  33. ^ "Fort Greene Historic District Designation Report"
  34. ^ C.B.B. "The Prison Ship Martyrs" (letter to the editor) New York Times (May 23, 1903)
  35. ^ "Prison Ship Martyrs Buried in Fort Greene New York Times (June 17, 1900)
  36. ^ "For Monument toPrison Ship Martyrs" New York Times (June 28, 1902)
  37. ^ "To Prison Ship Martyrs" New York Times (June 17, 1902)
  38. ^ Cray, "Commemorating the Prison Ship Dead," 589
  39. ^ "Gleanings from American Art Centers," Brush and Pencil, vol. 12, no. 4 (July 1903), 291–2
  40. ^ "For Prison Ship Martyrs" New York Times (May 10, 1903)
  41. ^ "Monument Contract Let. Carlin Construction Company to Build Prison Ship Martyrs' Monument" New York Times (March 12, 1907)
  42. ^ a b "Taft and Hughes at Martyrs' Shaft". New York Times. 1908-11-15. Retrieved 2012-01-17. 
  43. ^ "Martyrs' Monument Day in Brooklyn". New York Times. 1908-11-14. Retrieved 2014-11-08. 
  44. ^ a b "Huge Bronze Eagle Stolen from Park". New York Times. February 2, 1914. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  45. ^ "Documents of the Assembly of the State of New York". 
  46. ^ a b "Memorial to Revolutionary War patriots shines anew in Brooklyn" New York Daily News (November 14, 2008)
  47. ^ "Smash Bronze Door to Martyrs' Tomb". New York Times. May 12, 1923. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  48. ^ "Historic Fort Greene Park is Reopened; Ceremony Marks Restoration of Area". New York Times. June 30, 1937. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  49. ^ "Shaft of Martyrs Saved in Brooklyn". New York Times. July 10, 1949. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  50. ^ "The Monument" on the Prison Ship Martyrs Association website
  51. ^ a b Gordon, David. "Fort Greene Park to Get Lost Eagles" New York Times (March 10, 1974). Accessed: January 17, 2012
  52. ^ Lockwood, Charles. "Restoration of Fort Greene Park to Begin" New York Times (June 10, 1973). Accessed: January 17, 2012
  53. ^ "The Arsenal" on the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation website
  54. ^ a b "Prison Ship Martyrs Monument, Fort Greene, Brooklyn" on the RootsWeb website
  55. ^ O'Grady, Jim. "What Remains of the Day; In Vinegar Hill, a Last Look at a Revolutionary War Grave Site" New York Times (December 13, 2003)
  56. ^ 87 Hudson Avenue on Google Maps Street View
  57. ^ a b c "Fort Greene Park: Capital Projects" on the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation website. Accessed January 16, 2012
  58. ^ "AAR Prison Ship Martyrs Monument 8/23/08". Gathering of Eagles: NY. 
  59. ^ "Renovation of Prison Ship Martyrs Memorial Will Light Up Fort Greene Park". 
  60. ^ a b "It’s lights out at Prison Ships memorial". The Brooklyn Paper. 
  61. ^ "Restored Prison Ship Martyrs Monument At Fort Greene Unveiled On Its Centennial Celebration". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. November 15, 2008. 
  62. ^ a b New York Art Commission, Catalogue of the Works of Art Belonging to the City of New York (1920), Vol. II, pp.27–8. Accessed: January 17, 2012
  63. ^ Dale, T. Nelson. The Commercial Gtanites of New England Washington D.C: United States Department of the Interior/United States Geological Survey, 1923. p.120
  64. ^ "Architects' and Builders' Magazine". 
  65. ^ "Fort Greene Historic District Designation Report", p.11
  66. ^ Franz, Bill. "Memorial to martyred mariners rededicated" (excerpts) Newark Star-Ledger (August 26, 1997)
  67. ^ "Prison Ship Martyrs Monument". PlaceMatters. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  68. ^ List of 8,000 POWs
  69. ^ Find a grave memorial for the Prison Ships lists 286 names + 1 {Benjamin Romaine}
  70. ^ "H.R. 1501 – Summary". United States Congress. Retrieved 1 May 2014. 
  71. ^ Leviner, Emily (28 April 2014). "Legislative Digest on H.R. 1501". House Republicans. Retrieved 1 May 2014. 
  72. ^ "H.R. 1501 – All Actions". United States Congress. Retrieved 1 May 2014. 
  73. ^ "Prison Ship Martyrs bill passes House". NY Daily News. 
  74. ^ http://www.operaprojects.org/shrevesingleton2010.html[dead link]

Bibliography

External links[edit]