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A prison escape or prison break is the act of an inmate leaving prison through unofficial or illegal ways. Normally, when this occurs, an effort is made on the part of authorities to recapture them and return them to their original detainers. Escaping from prison is also a criminal offense in some countries e.g. America and Russia, and it is highly likely to result in time being added to the inmate's sentence, as well as the inmate being placed under increased security. Aggravating factors include whether or not violence was used.
In some jurisdictions, such as in the United States, escaping from jail or prison is a criminal offense. In Virginia, for instance, the punishment for escape depends on whether the offender escaped by using force or violence or setting fire to the jail, and the seriousness of the offense for which they were imprisoned. In other jurisdictions[which?], the philosophy of the law holds that it is human nature to want to escape. In Mexico, for instance, escapees who do not break any other laws are not charged for anything and no extra time is added to their sentence; however, officers are allowed to shoot prisoners attempting to escape. In Mexico, an escape is illegal if violence is used against prison personnel or property or if prison inmates or officials aid the escape.
Famous historical escapes 
There have been many famous escapes throughout history:
17th century 
- In 1621 Dutch author Hugo Grotius escaped from Loevestein where he was held captive by hiding himself inside a book coffin. He was then smuggled outside.
18th century 
- Jack Sheppard took to theft and burglary in 1723, and was arrested and imprisoned five times in 1724 but escaped four times, making him a notorious public figure and wildly popular with the poorer classes.
- The Italian author and adventurer Giacomo Casanova escaped from prison in 1757.
19th century 
- The notorious outlaw Billy The Kid managed to escape from prison in 1881, but was captured and shot by Pat Garrett only a few months later.
- German Naval Air Service Kapitänleutnant Gunther Plüschow escaped from the Donington Hall prisoner of war camp in 1915.
- John Dillinger served time at the Indiana State Penitentiary at Michigan City, until 1933, when he was paroled. Within four months, he was back in jail in Lima, Ohio, but his gang sprang him, killing the jailer, Sheriff Jessie Sarber. Most of the gang was captured again by the end of the year in Tucson, Arizona, due to a fire at the Historic Hotel Congress. Dillinger alone was sent to the Lake County jail in Crown Point, Indiana. He was to face trial for the suspected killing of police officer William O'Malley during a bank shootout in East Chicago, Indiana, some time after his escape from jail. During this time on trial, a famous photograph was taken of Dillinger putting his arm on prosecutor Robert Estill's shoulder when suggested to him by reporters.
- On March 3, 1934, Dillinger escaped from the "escape-proof" (as it was dubbed by local authorities at the time) Crown Point, Indiana county jail, which was guarded by many police officers and national guardsmen. Newspapers reported that Dillinger had escaped using a fake gun made from wood blackened with shoe polish.
- Japanese murderer Yoshie Shiratori broke out of prison four times between 1930s and 1940s. A novel and TV-drama Hagoku was based on his true story.
- The Fort San Cristóbal is a fort located on the top of the mount San Cristóbal, which is very close (4 km) to Pamplona, Spain. Built inside the mountain and obsolete since its opening in 1919, due to its weakness against aviation, it served as a prison. On May 22, 1938, during the Spanish Civil War, around 30 prisoners organised a mutiny for a massive prison break. 792 prisoners fled away but only 3 succeeded in getting to the French border; 585 were arrested, 211 died and 14 of the arrested who were considered the leaders were sentenced to death. Most fugitives were intercepted during the following days. In 1988, a sculpture was erected to honour the memory of the Republican people dead there. The fort ceased to be prison in 1945.
- In The Great Escape, 76 Allied POWs (primarily Commonwealth airmen) escaped from Stalag Luft III during World War II. Fifty of the escaped POWs were rounded up and shot by the Gestapo, while only 3 succeeded in reaching neutral territories.
- Colditz Castle was used as an 'escape-proof' prisoner of war camp during World War II; but over the course of 300 escape attempts, 130 prisoners escaped. Thirty escapees eventually managed to reach friendly territory. The men had tunneled, disguised themselves as guards, workmen or women, sneaked away through sewer drains, and even planned to use a glider to get over the wall.
- André Devigny, a French resistance fighter during World War II, escaped Montluc Military Prison in Lyons with his cellmate in April 1943.
- In the Cowra breakout, at least 545 out of approximately 1000 Japanese Prisoners of War escaped from Number 12 Prisoner of War Compound at Cowra on the night of 4 August 1944, of those 231 commit suicide and 108 are wounded.
- French author Henri Charrière tried to escape in vain several times, but eventually was successful in 1943. His story, Papillon was published and filmed under the same name.
- Accused safe cracker Alfie Hinds tried to proclaim his innocence by repeatedly walking out of prison. He became famous for escaping from Nottingham Prison after sneaking through the locked doors and over a 20-foot (6.1 m) prison wall, for which he became known as "Houdini" Hinds. He later escaped from the Law Courts at the Old Bailey. Escorted by two guards, he went to the lavatory, where they removed his handcuffs outside. As the three entered, Hinds locked the two guards inside the lavatory by snapping a padlock, which had been smuggled in to him earlier, onto screw eyes inserted on the door by his unknown accomplices and escaped into the crowd on Fleet Street. Hinds sealed his notoriety by making a third escape from Chelmsford Prison.
In the 1960s, Robert Hughes attempted to break his brother, Donald, out of prison. He was unsuccessful and received 10 years of house arrest and 5 more years of parole.
- Frank Morris, John Anglin and Clarence Anglin escaped from 'inescapable' Alcatraz Island in 1962; although the fate of the escapees is unclear.
- The escape of Lucien Rivard in Canada in 1965. Rivard was consequently named the Canadian Newsmaker of the Year by the Canadian Press.
- Soviet spy George Blake escaped from Wormwood Scrubs on 22 October 1966, assisted by Pat Pottle, Michael Randle and Sean Bourke. Both Blake and Bourke reached the safety of the Soviet Union.
- Before being sentenced to 12 years in the Federal Corrections Institution at Petersburg, Virginia in April 1971, Frank W. Abagnale is said to have escaped from both a British VC-10 airliner, and the Federal Detention Center in Atlanta, Georgia. His autobiography was later adapted to the screen for the 2002 release of Catch Me If You Can, starring Leonardo DiCaprio.
- In 1973, three Provisional Irish Republican Army prisoners escaped in the Mountjoy Prison helicopter escape, when a hijacked helicopter landed in the exercise yard at Mountjoy Prison, Dublin, Republic of Ireland.
- Midnight Express author Billy Hayes escaped from a Turkish prison island where he was serving a 30 year sentence for hashish smuggling, using a fishing boat to make his way to Greece and eventually home to New York City, in 1975.
- Dwight Worker, incarcerated for drug smuggling, walked out of prison in Mexico City in 1975.
- Serial killer Ted Bundy escaped from prison twice in 1977.
- In December 1979, political prisoners Tim Jenkin, Stephen Lee and Alex Moumbaris escaped from South Africa's maximum-security Pretoria Prison. After 18 months of plotting, testing, preparing, and learning how to pick locks and forge keys, the trio escaped the prison the same way they came in: through 10 locked doors.
- In the 1983 Batticaloa Jailbreak on 23 September 1983, 41 Tamil political prisoners and 151 criminal prisoners escaped in eastern Sri Lanka.
- In the Maze Prison escape on 25 September 1983, 38 Provisional Irish Republican Army members escaped from HMP Maze in Northern Ireland, the biggest prison escape in British history.
- In 1984, six death row inmates escaped Mecklenburg Correctional Center, making it the largest mass death row escape in American history. All were recaptured within 18 days, and all six men would eventually be executed. The final execution took place in 1996.
- In Hull Prison, East Yorkshire England a teenager on remand was the first inmate to escape the Category B high security prison without any inside help. 19 year old Tony Thomsen was on remand for breach of bail conditions and during a visit he managed to conceal himself as a visitor remaining unchallenged eventually walking out to his freedom.
- Steven Jay Russell escaped from a number of prisons on multiple occasions. The first was from Harris County jail on May 12, 1992, when he impersonated a guard by using a set of civilian clothes and a walkie-talkie. He was arrested again and escaped by impersonating a judge and lowering his bail to a price he could afford. He was arrested one week later and sent to the Maximum Security Estelle Unit in Huntsville, Texas, and used toilet dye and highlighter pens to dye a prison uniform green to look like doctor's scrubs. He then walked out and was able to hitchhike a ride. He was caught again and escaped by faking his medical records and faking the symptoms of AIDS, and he was then granted a special-parole to be allowed to die in a nursing home. Russell then telephoned the prison, posing as a doctor and AIDS specialist, asking for volunteers for an experimental treatment which he then volunteered for. Later, after an attempt to break out his lover, Phillip Morris, from another prison he was caught and feigned a heart attack, where he was guarded by FBI agents at the hospital. He called the FBI agents and convinced them he was no longer a wanted man. He was later arrested by U.S. Marshals.
- Danny Ray Horning escaped from the Arizona State Prison in Florence, Arizona on May 12, 1992, and a 55-day manhunt ensued as Horning fled the authorities. The pursuit ended on July 5, 1992, near Sedona, Arizona. Horning led authorities hundreds of miles through the Arizona wilderness, and committed numerous kidnappings during the manhunt.
- In September 1994, 6 prisoners, including Paul Magee, used guns to escape Whitemoor Prison. They were later recaptured.
- Trikala, Greece, on May 23, 1995 Albanian inmates staged a daring escape from an old Turkish administration building-turned-prison, using weight dumbbells to break the locks of the gates and bed springs as a ladder to scale the wall. Twenty-nine prisoners escaped, about half of them never recaptured having absconded to Albania. Only Albanian inmates escaped, having kept escape plans secret from prison's international population.
- In 1995 Vellore Fort Jailbreak on 15 August 1995, 43 Tamil Tiger inmates escaped from Vellore Fort prison in India.
- In August 1996, Englishman David McMillan escaped from Thailand’s Klong Prem Central Prison while awaiting trial on drug charges. McMillan cut the bars of his shared cell, scaled four walls before dropping over the electrified outer wall using a bamboo ladder. The break-out is described in his book Escape (published 2007).
- In 1998, the Belgian child molester Marc Dutroux notoriously managed to escape for a few hours. He was caught the same afternoon, but the incident forced two politicians to resign and deepened the loss of faith in the Belgian judicial system. (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/88889.stm)
- Martin Gurule escaped from the Texas Death Row at Ellis Unit in 1998. He was found dead a few days later.
- In 1999, Leslie Dale Martin and three other inmates on Louisiana's death row escaped from their cells at the Louisiana State Penitentiary. They were caught within hours before they even managed to escape prison grounds. The four men had managed the escape with the use of hacksaws that had been smuggled in for them by a bribed corrections officer. Other corrections officers were inattentive to the inmates' two to three week effort at cutting their cell doors and window. After the escape, two corrections officers were fired and two others were demoted. Martin was later overheard by two corrections officers plotting another escape, which included taking hostages and commandeering a vehicle to ram the prison's front gates. Martin was immediately moved to the holding cell outside the Death Chamber, a month before his execution in 2002.
- In March 1999, Lucy Dudko hijacked a helicopter during a joy-flight over Sydney and ordered the pilot to land inside Metropolitan Remand and Reception Centre in Silverwater, New South Wales where her lover, John Killick, was serving 28 years for armed robberies. The helicopter plucked Killick from the prison's exercise yard and avoided a shower of bullets fired by prison guards. The couple then went on the run, eluding police around the country until their luck ran out in a Sydney caravan park six weeks later.
- Ty Conn's escape on May 6, 1999 from inside Kingston Penitentiary was the 26th in the history of facility. Conn employed a ladder and homemade grappling hook to scale the wall and used cayenne pepper to deter dogs following his scent.
- The Texas 7 escaped from John B. Connally Unit on December 13, 2000. Six of them were captured after over a month and a half on the run; the 7th killed himself before being captured.
- In January 2001, 3 inmates escaped from Oklahoma State Penitentiary's H-Unit (Hi-Max). One of them was injured during the escape, and while trying to get back in the prison he got caught in the razor between the fences. The other 2 offenders (one serving a life sentence for murder, the other for rape and kidnapping) were at large for several days before being apprehended in a small town approximately 40 miles (64 km) from the prison.
- In New York, two convicted murderers escaped from Elmira State Penitentiary in July 2003, both recaptured in 2 days.
- Hugo Selenski was the target of a nationwide manhunt and gained national media recognition in USA when he escaped from the jail where he was awaiting trial the week he was charged with murders, on Friday, October 9, 2003. He and another inmate used bedsheets to escape from the Luzerne County Correctional Facility in the county seat of Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. Selenski's partner in the jailbreak, Scott Bolton, was injured and hospitalized during the escape, but Selenski remained free. He turned himself in several days later.
- Brian Nichols on March 11, 2005 escaped from the Fulton County courthouse in Atlanta, by overpowering an officer and taking her pistol. He then murdered a judge, a court reporter, a police officer and U.S. Customs agent. He then held a woman named Ashley Smith hostage for a night in her own home, before he allowed her to leave to visit her daughter. Once she was released, she called the police, and he surrendered peacefully to SWAT officers who arrived on the scene.
- On November 4, 2005, Texas Death Row Inmate Charles Victor Thompson escaped from the Harris County Jail by acquiring a set of street clothes and pretending to be a representative from the State Attorney General's office to fool the corrections officers. He was recaptured two days later in Shreveport, Louisiana, 200 miles (320 km) from where he escaped.
- Ralph "Bucky" Phillips escaped from prison on April 2, 2006, in New York, by cutting through the ceiling in the kitchen with a can opener. On June 10 he was suspected of a shooting which ended with one New York state trooper being severely wounded. Bucky was later caught in Warren County, Pennsylvania, on September 8, 2006, his escape led police on the largest manhunt in New York state history. He was sentenced to life without parole for the shooting death of SWAT officer Longobardo and 40 years to life in both other shootings, which injured one state trooper and one other SWAT officer.
- Richard Lee McNair has escaped from custody three times, including from a federal maximum-security prison in April 2006. He was recaptured by the RCMP on October 25, 2007 in Campbellton, New Brunswick, when he was stopped while driving a stolen vehicle.
- John Parsons (who murdered a Chillicothe, Ohio Police Officer while running away from the police for robbing a gas station) escaped from a jail in Ross County, Ohio on July 29, 2006 using bedsheets, toilet paper, and newspaper. He was later recaptured on October 19, 2006 .As a fugitive, Parsons was twice featured on the Fox television show America's Most Wanted.
- Kelly Allen Frank (who had plotted to kidnap the infant son of talk-show host David Letterman) and William John Willcutt escaped from a Montana prison on June 8, 2007. Both were recaptured on June 13, 2007.
- On December 15, 2007 inmates Jose Espinosa and Otis Blunt escaped from the high-security level of the Union County jail in Elizabeth, New Jersey. Espinosa was awaiting sentencing on an aggravated manslaughter charge, while Blunt was being held in lieu of bond on robbery and weapons charges. They escaped by scraping away the mortar around the cinder blocks making up the cell walls. They then smashed the block, hid the pieces in a footlocker and covered the holes with pin-up pictures. To delay knowledge of the escape, they made dummies out of sheets and pillowcases and left them in their beds. Espinosa was recaptured on Tuesday, January 8, 2008. Blunt was recaptured the following day Wednesday, January 9, 2008 in Mexico City, Mexico.
- Mas Selamat escaped from the Singapore's Whitley Road Detention Centre at 4:05 pm on Wednesday, February 27, 2008. He was eventually recaptured in Johor Bahru, Malaysia on April 1, 2009, over a year after his escape.
- Sarposa Prison attack; a raid on the Kandahar detention facility in Kandahar, Afghanistan by Taliban insurgents on June 13, 2008. One of the largest attacks by Afghan insurgents, the raid freed 400-1000 prisoners.
- Eight inmates charged with violent crimes escaped from the Curry County Adult Detention Center in Clovis, New Mexico on August 24, 2008. The eight men escaped by climbing prison pipes in a narrow space inside a wall, then using homemade instruments to cut a hole in the roof. The jailbreak was featured on a September 6 episode of America's Most Wanted. As of October 2010, convicted murderer Edward Salas was the only inmate still at large. According to News Channel 10 which broadcasts from Amarillo, Texas, Edward Salas was taken into custody by the US Marshals Service on Thursday, October 4, 2012 in Chihuahua City, Mexico, and is currently awaiting extradition to New Mexico.
- Three inmates Lance Battreal, Charles Smith, and Mark Booher escaped from a Michigan City, Indiana prison on July 12, 2009 through underground tunnels under the prison yard. Charles Smith was captured on July 20, 2009 near Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley's vacation home in Grand Beach, Michigan. Lance Battreal was captured on July 21, 2009 at his mother's house in Rockport, Indiana. Mark Booher was captured on July 23, 2009 in a hotel in Indianapolis, Indiana.
- Three inmates at an Arizona State Prison for-profit Management and Training Corporation operated facility on July 30, 2010. Two, Daniel Renwick and Tracy Province were murderers and John McCluskey had been convicted of attempted murders. Renwick was captured in a shootout in Rifle, Colorado on August 1, 2010. Though he still had 32 years on his sentence in Arizona, he was sentenced to 60 years to be served in Colorado. Province, already a lifer, was captured on August 9, 2010 in Meeteese, Wyoming. After being sentenced to 38 1/3 years, he was quickly extradited to face murder charges in New Mexico. McCluskey, who had been doing consecutive 15-year sentences, was captured with Casslyn Welch, his cousin/accomplice in eastern Arizona on August 19 in the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest. He was sentenced to 43 years in an Arizona prison on escape, kidnap, hijacking and robbery charges. Like Province, Welch and McCluskey were soon extradited for the alleged robbery, hijack and murder of two vacationers in New Mexico. The U.S. Attorney in New Mexico had filed death penalty charges against all three.
- Jose Luis Gonzales Franco escapes from Santa Rita Jail in Dublin, California on January 9, 2012. Franco, who was locked up on burglary charges, was wearing blue jail trousers and a brown T-shirt when he somehow escaped over a jail wall. Franco was found riding a bike in Dublin not far from the jail about 7 hours after the escape and returned to custody.
Escapes in popular culture 
- The Great Escape (1963) involves the prisoners of a German prisoner of war camp digging their way to freedom from under a hut. The story was made into a novel and later a movie.
- The Wooden Horse also prisoners of a German prisoner of war camp who dug from underneath a vaulting horse
- Colditz based on the true story, depicts the fate of many imprisoned at Colditz Castle during World War II.
- Le Trou, a 1960 film by Jacques Becker, depicts the attempted escape of five French prisoners from La Santé Prison in 1947.
- Papillon (1973) tells the story of Henri Charrière's escape from Devil's Island in 1943.
- Escape from Alcatraz (1979) depicts the escape of Frank Morris and the Anglin brothers.
- Escape from Sobibor, the true story of a Jewish Partisan and a Soviet POW who together, with a group of other inmates, help 300 Jews escape from Sobibor extermination camp.
- As Far as My Feet Will Carry Me, a 2001 film based on Cornelius Rost's escape from a Siberian prisoner of war camp.
- Breakout, a 2010 National Geographic Channel TV series portrays reenactments of real life prison escapes.
- I Escaped - Real Prison Breaks a British television series, documents famous prison escapes from around the world.
- A Man Escaped, a 1956 French film based on French Resistance prisoner of war André Devigny's escape from Fort Montluc prison during World War II.
- Vanished from Alcatraz, a National Geographic Channel program, portrays a reenactment of the 1962 Alcatraz escape and explores the fate of the escapees.
- I Love You, Phillip Morris, a 2009 film based on the life of con-man, Steven Jay Russell, who escaped from prison multiple times.
- Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption is a novella by Stephen King which revolves around a prison escape, and was made famous by the subsequent film The Shawshank Redemption featuring actors such as Morgan Freeman. The film was nominated for 7 Academy Awards.
- The Count of Monte Cristo depicts protagonist Edmond Dantès's falsified arrest and internment, years of isolation and finally recruitment into an escape from prison to exact revenge on his captors.
- The TV series Prison Break revolves around a complicated escape plan and the subsequent nationwide manhunt. A second escape from a prison in Panama and the subsequent (though brief) manhunt are featured at the end of the series' third season.
- In the third season of the TV series 24 (TV series) the main protagonist Jack Bauer has to break Ramon Salazar, a notorious criminal, out of a Los Angeles prison and return him to his brother in Mexico in order to prevent a biological terrorist attack on the U.S. He uses several methods to do this. Being a government agent allowed Jack Bauer direct contact with Ramon who he was then able to extract partway through the prison before being trapped and consequently forcing an operator of a control room to unlock all of the inmate gates, starting a prison riot.
- In the video game Tom Clancy's Splinter Cell: Double Agent, Sam Fisher escapes prison with JBA member Jamie Washington.
- In Oz inmates Miguel Alvarez and Agamemnon Busmalis escape from the prison. Eventually both are apprehended by authorities.
- In the 1953 movie Stalag 17, attempts to escape the prison fail because of a spy.
- In the movie The Fugitive, as with the television series on which it was based, Dr. Richard Kimble is mistakenly accused of his wife's murder. He escapes along with another inmate when their transport crashes.
- The movie U.S. Marshals (a spin-off of The Fugitive movie featuring Tommy Lee Jones' U.S. Marshal character) revolves around a prison escapee and his mistaken conviction of his crime.
- The Harry Potter novel The Prisoner of Azkaban depicts the manhunt of a wizard who escaped the magical community's version of Alcatraz (Azkaban).
- In the video game Sly 2: Band of Thieves the player has break out his fellow captive team members.
- In Saints Row 2, the player escapes from prison with a fellow inmate named Carlos in the beginning of the game.
- In Dead to Rights, the player is sent to prison after being framed for murder. After a lot of work an escape plan is developed that includes escaping from the electric chair as its used on you and as a bonus, killing the sadistic guard that was to perform the execution by putting him in the electric chair after you escape from it. The player then escapes through sewer tunnels and an old mine shaft. In a later chapter where the player returns to the prison (now shut down due to the escape and severe damage from riots that followed), the escape is referred to as being "now legendary." An interesting note is that during the attempted execution, two of the game's main villains are there to see the execution (one of which was responsible for the character being framed and sent there) and there's a third that presumably represents the third major villain as he's seen later working for him.
- In Con Air, the inmates on the plane attempted to escape in an attempt planned by Cyrus the Virus (John Malkovich).
- Riddick, a fictional character portrayed by Vin Diesel, is notorious for his ability to escape from seemingly any detention facility including those with extreme security measures such as hostile environments or even cryopreservation.
- In both the novel and the film The Silence of the Lambs, serial killer Hannibal Lecter escapes from his specially designed maximum security cell in Memphis, Tennessee by killing his two guards and using the face of one of them to fool the ambulance crew. He later murders the ambulance crew and a tourist and flees Memphis.
- In Cool Hand Luke, Luke becomes notorious for his repeated attempts to escape prison.
- In the British soap opera Coronation Street, murderer Tony Gordon was broken out of prison by his ex-cellmate Robbie in order to get revenge on people who he believes caused him to be sent down.
- The Next Three Days
- In the videogame Call of Duty: Black Ops, the player escapes from the Russian prison Vorkuta in the second mission.
- Breakout Kings
- The Escapist, a (2008 film) revolves around a life serving prisoner who plans an escape with fellow inmates after receiving a letter informing him of his dying daughter from deteriorating health.
- In the videogame Call of Duty: Black Ops II, in a DLC Zombies mode map "Mob of the Dead", four players take control of fictional characters in Alcatraz Prison who attempt to escape the penitentiary using a makeshift plane during the zombie outbreak.
See also 
- § 18.2-477. Prisoner escaping from jail; how punished.
- § 18.2-479. Escape without force or vio to jail.
- § 18.2-480. Escape, etc., by setting fire to jail.
- Mexico Prison Conditions.
- Mexican Jailbirds Get to Fly for Free, Mary Jordan and Kevin Sullivan, Washington Post, November 15, 2002.
- More on the Kaplan Caper, Time Magazine, Sep. 20, 1971.
- "Convicted killer Edward Salas captured in Mexico" "KFDA TV" Retrieved on 2012-10-15
- "3 inmates escape Michigan City prison" WISH-TV Retrieved on 2009-07-23
- "One Henry County killer caught near Chicago mayors home" The Star Press Retrieved on 2009-07-23
- "2nd of 3 Ind. prison escapees captured" WIVB Retrieved on 2009-07-23
- "Last of three prison escapees captured in Indiana" CNN
- "First Inmate Sentenced in Arizona Prison Escape". Retrieved 31 July 2011.
- "Arizona inmate gets 43 years for his escape". Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- Dowswell, Paul (1994). Tales of Real Escape. London, England: Usborne Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-7460-1669-7.
- McMillan, David (2007). Escape. Singapore: Monsoon Books. ISBN 978-981-05-7568-7.