Prisons in Russia
Prisons in Russia can be categorized under four types of facilities:
- pre-trial institutions;
- educative or juvenile labor colonies;
- corrective labor colonies; and
The corrective colony is the most common, with 760 institutions in 2004 across the administrative divisions of Russia. There were also 8 prisons, 62 juvenile facilities, and 192 pre-trial facilities in 2004.[clarification needed]
Prisons in Russia are administered by the Federal Penitentiary Service (FSIN).
Corrective labor colonies
Corrective colony regimes are categorized as very strict / special, strict, general, and open. The detachment (отря́д or otryad) is the basic unit of the prison. When not in the detachment, prisoners are required to participate in penal labour, which is in the form of work brigades in colony production zones where prisoners earn a wage of which most is paid to the colony for their upkeep.
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The Pussy Riot activist Nadezhda Tolokonnikova wrote a public letter of Russian prisons in 2013 receiving international attention on the Russian prison conditions. According to Ilya Shablinsky, a member of the presidential human-rights council who audited her prison, conditions where close to those of a "slave labour". Auditors found women prisons working 14 hours a day and one day off a month. In 2013 Russia had the world tenth-highest share of prisons of population. In 2010 Dimitri Medvedev brought down the prison population by 17.5 %. Prisons were divided still in 2013 as the "red" run by prison authorities and the "black" administered by inmates. According to the Economist (2013) change would demand a deeper reform of the police and the courts.
List of prisons
- FGU IK-14 is a corrective labor colony in Yavas, Zubovo-Polyansky District, Republic of Mordovia, Russia.
- Roth 2006, p. 231.
- Roth 2006, p. 232.
- Pallot, Judith (23 October 2012). "How will the Pussy Riot band members fare in Russia's 'harshest prisons'?". The Guardian.
- Slave labour and criminal culture The Economist October 19th 2013
- "Russian women's prison camps: An ex-inmate's account". BBC News. 22 October 2012.