Private revelation

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Marguerite Marie Alacoque receiving revelations of the Sacred Heart, Tuam Cathedral, Ireland.

Private revelation is, in Christian theology, a message from God, which can come in a variety of types. Throughout the history of Christianity, there have been numerous alleged revelations, from the prophecies of Montanus to the Miracle of the Sun.[1]

Roman Catholic theology[edit]

According to the Catholic Church, there are two types of revelations: divine revelation, which is in the Word of God (the Bible and Sacred Tradition),[2] and in the Word of God incarnate (Jesus Christ),[3] and personal revelation, which is a heavenly message that helps people live by divine revelation.[1]

Other terms for divine revelation include public prophecy, public revelation, fundamental revelation, and definitive revelation,[4][5][6] while other terms for personal revelation include private prophesy, private revelation, dependent revelation, and particular revelation.[4][5][7]

Divine revelation was fulfilled, completed, and perfected in Christ, the fullness and mediator, author and interpreter, purpose and center of public revelation.[8][9][10][11][12][13] Hence, public revelation is the deposit of faith and rule of faith and must be lived by all Catholics.[14] Saint Thomas Aquinas taught that all public revelation ended with the death of Saint John the Apostle.[15] Private revelations cannot surpass, correct, improve, or complete public revelation.[1]

The revelations in the Word of God  – such as the apparition of the three angels to Abraham and the angel who wrestled Jacob; the burning bush; the theophany on Mount Sinai; the pillar of cloud and pillar of fire; the visions and prophecies of the prophets; Elijah's test at the cave, and his assumption; the revelation to St. Peter ("You are the Christ"); the apparitions of the risen Christ to the Apostles, including the exceptional and unique apparition to St. Paul; the various miracles recorded in the Acts of the Apostles and in the Epistles; and the entire Book of Revelation  – are not private revelations but are public revelation.[16][17] The apparition of Our Lady of the Pillar to St. James the Greater is not a private revelation, public revelation, or Catholic dogma; it is an ecclesial tradition.[18][19][20]

Because Christ promised that the Holy Spirit would lead the church into every truth,[21] the Lord leads the church into a deeper understanding of Christ. One of the ways he does this is by private revelation.[22] Because Christ warned that false prophets would come and that the tree must be known by its fruit,[23] the church is skeptical of spiritual experiences.[24]

Types of revelation[edit]

Various types of private revelations have been reported in the Catholic Church.[25]

Private revelations can come to anyone for so long as God pleases. Some address the visionary, while others address more people. For instance, Our Lady of Laus appeared to a young shepherdess for many years, while Our Lady of Kibeho addressed the leaders of the nation of Rwanda .

The appearances of the Blessed Virgin Mary are usually called Marian apparitions. These generally include a vision of the Blessed Virgin, accompanied by brief messages. These are by far the most widely reported form. Well known examples of approved Marian apparitions include Our Lady of Guadalupe, Our Lady of Lourdes and Our Lady of Fatima. These apparitions are considered private revelations from God through the Virgin Mary.[26]

Marian visions do not mean Mary appears as a disembodied spirit, since she has been assumed into heaven.[27] However, it is probable that Mary could appear in bodily form by bilocation.[28] Some theologians, such as Father Reginaldus, believe that, because Jesus does not appear in bodily form, Mary does not appear bodily either.[29]

A number of apparitions of Jesus Christ following his ascension have been reported. Some of these have received approval from the Holy See. For instance, the Vatican biography of Saint Faustina Kowalska quotes some of her conversations with Jesus.[30]

Apparitions of Jesus are not the same as the Eucharist, even if they include Eucharistic adoration, because the sacraments are a part of public revelation.[31] The apparitions are also not the same as the Second Coming, because the church believes Jesus "will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead".[32]

There are also reports of interior locutions in which inner voices are reported, but no vision of divinity is claimed. The Vatican biographies of both Saint Teresa of Avila and Mother Teresa of Calcutta refer to their interior locutions, although Mother Teresa often preferred to remain private about them.[33][34]

Some private revelations produce large amounts of text, while others amount to a few reported sentences. For instance, father Stefano Gobbi produced a book of messages attributed to the Virgin Mary, while sister Mary of the Divine Heart simply wrote two letters to Pope Leo XIII with a message attributed to Jesus Christ, prompting the Pope to consecrate the world to the Sacred Heart of Jesus.

The church does not regard occultism - spiritism, automatic writing, astrology, fortune-telling, psychic powers, magic, divination, conjuring the dead, etc. - as types of private revelations.[35][36]

The church also does not regard private revelations as having authority over the Pope or the bishops in communion with him, because the church, the bishop, and public revelation have divine authority as a matter of faith,[37][38][39][40] while private revelations are not a matter of faith but are believed with human faith.[41] They neither have divine authority nor can be believed with divine and catholic faith,[42][43] and a proof of this is that even saints can make errors about the details of private revelations,[44] since fallen human nature is inclined to sin and error.[45] Hence, Catholics cannot disobey the church in favor of obeying private revelation.[46]

Sources of revelation[edit]

Private revelations come from God. False revelations come either from human or demonic sources. Just as in exorcism, the Catholic Church is careful to distinguish between supernatural events, mental illness, drug abuse, deception, and demonic activity. The church gathers a team of scientists, theologians, and other experts to test the spirit of the alleged visionary to see if he is genuine, psychotic or manipulative, influenced by drugs, deceptive or deceived, or possessed by demons.[47][48]

Revelations from God are an extraordinary grace which confirms Catholic doctrine and dogma. The most famous example is Our Lady of Lourdes, who declared Mary to be the Immaculate Conception four years after the dogma of the Immaculate Conception was proclaimed.[49] Because they are extraordinary, revelations are not to be confused with holiness.[50] Because they are a grace, no one can rightfully desire to receive revelations.[51] Because they remind the faithful of what is already contained in public revelation, private revelations can sometimes occur in unexpected ways, such as the stigmata, which reminds Catholics of the Paschal Mystery; weeping statues, which remind of sin and Mercy; and the mystical ring of St. Catherine of Siena, which reminds of mystical marriage.

A common human source of false revelations is pareidolia, where people see visions or hear voices where there are none. Because private revelations are miracles, apparitions and visions cannot be photographed and messages and locutions cannot be recorded.[52] Despite this, some people believe in the apparitions of Zeitoun; the church, however, has never judged the alleged apparitions.

Another human source of false revelations is misattribution, where people put words into saints' and other persons' mouths, such as the "three days of darkness" prophesy attributed to St. Padre Pio,[53] the "end-times" prophesy attributed to Our Lady of Laus,[54] and the Medjugorje sayings attributed to Pope John Paul II.[55]

A common demonic source of false revelations is demonic possession. Satan can appear like an angel of light and rebuke people for their sins,[56] and mimic the miracles and revelations of God. The most famous case is Magdalena de la Cruz, through whom Satan uttered false prophecies and fabricated miracles, including uncreated light, stigmata, levitation, ecstasy, and extraordinary fasting (she allegedly survived solely on the Eucharist).[57]

It is a misconception that the church is quick to accept mental illness or drug abuse, such as schizophrenia or hallucinogens, for private revelation and demonic activity. The church is skeptical, and only accepts private revelation after discernment, because it is "the pillar and bulwark of the truth"[58] and because it has a long history of dealing with fraudulent visionaries.[59]

Discernment of revelation[edit]

Just as with all charisms, the charisms of prophecy, speaking in tongues, and miracles are subject to discernment.[60]

The Catholic Church uses the 1987 Normae Congregationis to discern and judge private revelations. After an alleged private revelation has been judged by the local Catholic bishop to be worthy of belief, the private revelation is said to contain nothing contrary to Catholic faith or morals, the faithful are authorized to prudently believe in the private revelation (without obligation), and it is legal to publish the private revelation.[61] In addition, the bishop approves of the titles - such as "Our Lady" - given to a Marian apparition.[62]

Judgment on private revelations falls under a bishop's ordinary magisterium, which is authoritative but noninfallible and requires religious submission of intellect and will. A bishop or his successor could overturn a prior judgment, such as happened in the case of the apparitions of the Lady of all Nations.[63]

A bishop can judge an alleged private revelation to be either worthy of belief (constat de supernaturalitate) or not worthy of belief (constat de non supernaturalitate). A private revelation that is worthy of belief can receive full approval if it is approved by the Pope, such as happened with the revelations to St. Margaret Mary.[64] A private revelation that is not worthy of belief can either be more fully investigated or, if bad fruits are found, condemned. A condemned revelation may not be followed, believed, or published by the faithful.[65][66]

A bishop can judge an alleged private revelation before it ends, such as was the case with the prophecies of Montanus.[67] Fraudulent visionaries sometimes counter the negative judgments of their bishops by saying the bishops didn't do a thorough investigation, such as interviewing the visionaries.[68]

Not all reports of private revelation are approved, even if they have good fruits (conversions, miracles, popular piety, etc.).[69][70] For instance, reports of Our Lady of Surbiton claiming that the Virgin Mary appeared every day under a pine tree in England were flatly rejected by the Vatican as a fraud.[71]

It is permissible, with the bishop's permission, to make a shrine in honor of an approved revelation.[72] However, no one is obligated to honor a private revelation, since it is not public revelation;[73] just as no one is obligated to practice popular piety, since it is not the liturgy.[74] Only public revelation and the liturgy are obligatory, for they are necessary for salvation.[75][76] Despite this, some Catholics, such as the Fatima Crusaders,[77] believe the rosary is necessary for world peace because Our Lady of Fatima said "Pray the Rosary every day, in order to obtain peace for the world, and the end of the war."[78]

Publication of revelation[edit]

On October 23, 1995 the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith clarified about private revelations:

With regard to the spreading of texts of presumed personal revelations, the Congregation makes it clear that:

1. The interpretation by some people of a decision approved by Paul VI on October 14, 1966, and promulgated on November 15 of the same year, by virtue of which writings and messages coming from presumed revelations might be freely spread within the Church is absolutely not valid. This decision actually referred to the 'Abolition of the Index of Banned Books,' and said that - once relative censures were lifted - the moral obligation in any case not to spread or read those writings which endangered faith and morals still remained.

2. A reminder, therefore, that for the diffusion of texts of presumed private revelations, the norm of the Code in force, Canon 823, para 1, which gives pastors the right 'to demand that the writings of the faithful which touch faith or morals be submitted to their own judgment before publication', remains valid.

3. Presumed supernatural revelations and writings which regard them are in the first instance subject to the judgment of the diocesan bishop and, in particular cases, to that of the episcopal conference and the Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith.[79]

It is a misconception that the faithful do not need permission to publish alleged private revelations since the abolition of Canon 1399 and 2318 of the former Canonical Code by Pope Paul VI in AAS 58 (1966) on October 14, 1966. The truth is that Pope Paul VI only abolished the Index Librorum Prohibitorum,[80] and that Canon 823 and 824 of the current 1983 Code of Canon Law define the right and duty of the bishop to censor all material concerning faith or morals.[81]

The canonization of a mystic or an imprimatur given to a book of revelations do not mean a private revelation is authentic, because the church does not pronounce on alleged revelations when it pronounces on the holiness of an individual[82] and because the Imprimatur only guarantees that a book is free from all doctrinal and moral errors.[81]


Certain private revelations have been the subject of conspiracy theories. The theories include church coverups,[83] church officials siding with the local government to destroy apparitions,[84] visionaries' doubles,[85] and church corruption.[86] It is sometimes claimed that private revelations prove conspiracy theories. For instance, some UFO conspiracy theorists claim that the Miracle of the Sun was a UFO.[87]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c The Vatican on private revelations
  2. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church  – The Transmission of Divine Revelation". 1950-11-01. Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  3. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church - The Revelation of God". Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  4. ^ a b Prophesy for Today, Edward Connor. Pg. 2-4
  5. ^ a b Understanding Tradition “the definitive revelation of God communicated through Christ and his apostles can be appropriately called ‘foundational’ revelation. The present revelation that we receive now can be called ‘dependent’ revelation, inasmuch as it depends on the foundational figures of Christ and his apostles.”
  6. ^ Catechism, 66 "The Christian economy, therefore, since it is the new and definitive Covenant, will never pass away; and no new public revelation is to be expected before the glorious manifestation of our Lord Jesus Christ."
  7. ^ Introduction to Mariology Since the distinction between "public" and "private" does not appear to be very useful in respect to apparitions that have an incisive message for the entire Church (such as Guadalupe, Lourdes and Fatima), more recently a distinction has been proposed "between foundational revelation and particular revelation, which continue according to the diversity of times and places."
  8. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church - The summary of the whole Gospel". Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  9. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church - The Revelation of God". Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  10. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church - Sacred Scripture". Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  11. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church - Sacred Scripture". Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  12. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church - The seven petitions". Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  13. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church - Sacred Scripture". Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  14. ^ Dei Verbum, 5. "The obedience of faith" (Rom. 13:26; see 1:5; 2 Cor 10:5-6) "is to be given to God who reveals, an obedience by which man commits his whole self freely to God, offering the full submission of intellect and will to God who reveals," and freely assenting to the truth revealed by Him.
  15. ^ Question 174 John, too, wrote a prophetic book about the end of the Church; and at all times there have not been lacking persons having the spirit of prophecy, not indeed for the declaration of any new doctrine of faith, but for the direction of human acts.
  16. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church - The Revelation of God". Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  17. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church - IntraText". Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  18. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Nuestra Senora Del Pilar". 1911-06-01. Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  19. ^ Dogma The Church's Magisterium exercises the authority it holds from Christ to the fullest extent when it defines dogmas, that is, when it proposes, in a form obliging the Christian people to an irrevocable adherence of faith, truths contained in divine Revelation or also when it proposes, in a definitive way, truths having a necessary connection with these...The mutual connections between dogmas, and their coherence, can be found in the whole of the Revelation of the mystery of Christ. "In Catholic doctrine there exists an order or hierarchy of truths, since they vary in their relation to the foundation of the Christian faith.
  20. ^ Apostolic Tradition and ecclesial traditions Tradition is to be distinguished from the various theological, disciplinary, liturgical or devotional traditions, born in the local churches over time. These are the particular forms, adapted to different places and times, in which the great Tradition is expressed. In the light of Tradition, these traditions can be retained, modified or even abandoned under the guidance of the Church's Magisterium.
  21. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church - I believe in the Holy Spirit". Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  22. ^ Message of Fatima The way in which the Church is bound to both the uniqueness of [public revelation] and progress in understanding it is very well illustrated in the farewell discourse of the Lord when, taking leave of his disciples, he says: "I have yet many things to say to you, but you cannot bear them now. When the Spirit of truth comes, he will guide you into all the truth; for he will not speak on his own authority... He will glorify me, for he will take what is mine and declare it to you."
  23. ^ The Bible and Morality, 2 The texts concerning judgement are themselves warnings about the destructive effects of evil conduct. More particularly the reader is presented, by means of a series of metaphors, with a choice between two alternatives: the wide or the narrow gate, the broad or narrow path, true or false prophets, good or bad tree, wise or foolish house-builders
  24. ^ Theology Today, 92 On the other hand, the proper exercise of theology’s task of giving a scientific understanding of faith enables the authenticity of spiritual experience to be verified. That is why St Teresa of Avila wanted her nuns to seek the counsel of theologians: ‘The more the Lord gives you graces in prayer, the more it is necessary that your prayer and all your works rest on a solid foundation.’ With the help of theologians, it is ultimately the task of the magisterium to determine whether any spiritual claim is authentically Christian.
  25. ^ Michael Freze, 1993, Voices, Visions, and Apparitions, OSV Publishing ISBN 0-87973-454-X
  26. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church - The Church - People of God, Body of Christ, Temple of the Holy Spirit". Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  27. ^ "Apostolic Constitution defining the Dogma of the Assumption - Munificentissimus Deus". Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  28. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Visions and Apparitions". 1912-10-01. Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  29. ^ "Where was Mary assumed to? | The New Theological Movement". 2010-08-14. Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  30. ^ "Mary Faustina Kowalska". Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  31. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church - The sacramental economy". Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  32. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church - "From thence He will come again to judge the living and the dead"". Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  33. ^ "General Audience of Pope Benedict XVI, 2 February 2011". 2011-02-02. Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  34. ^ "Mother Teresa of Calcutta (1910-1997), biography". Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  35. ^
  36. ^
  37. ^ Jesus Christ the Divine Lawgiver That the power claimed by Christ over the law implies divine authority is shown by the fact that he did not create another law by abolishing the old one.
  38. ^ Divino Afflante Spiritu ...divine authority is claimed for the "entire books with all their parts" as to secure freedom from any error whatsoever,...
  39. ^ Diuturnum ...the divine authority of the Church...
  40. ^ Ad Beatissimi Apostolorum ...that the authority of those whom "the Holy Spirit hath placed as Bishops to rule the Church of God" (Acts xx. 28) is a divine authority.
  41. ^ Message of Fatima Faith in God and in his word is different from any other human faith, trust or opinion. The certainty that it is God who is speaking gives me the assurance that I am in touch with truth itself. It gives me a certitude which is beyond verification by any human way of knowing. It is the certitude upon which I build my life and to which I entrust myself in dying.
  42. ^ Message of Fatima The authority of private revelations is essentially different from that of the definitive public Revelation. The latter demands faith; in it in fact God himself speaks to us through human words and the mediation of the living community of the Church.
  43. ^ Message of Fatima In this regard, Cardinal Prospero Lambertini, the future Pope Benedict XIV, says in his classic treatise, which later became normative for beatifications and canonizations: "An assent of Catholic faith is not due to revelations approved in this way; it is not even possible. These revelations seek rather an assent of human faith in keeping with the requirements of prudence, which puts them before us as probable and credible to piety."
  44. ^ Co-Patronesses of Europe Even the experiences of the great Saints are not free of those limitations which always accompany the human reception of God's voice.
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  51. ^ St. John of the Cross In giving us his Son, his only Word (for he possesses no other), he spoke everything to us at once in this sole Word - and he has no more to say. . . because what he spoke before to the prophets in parts, he has now spoken all at once by giving us the All Who is His Son. Any person questioning God or desiring some vision or revelation would be guilty not only of foolish behavior but also of offending him, by not fixing his eyes entirely upon Christ and by living with the desire for some other novelty.
  52. ^ Ad Catholici Sacerdotii 62 In the natural order, divine miracles suspend for a moment the effect of physical laws, but do not revoke them.
  53. ^ The 3 Days of Darkness Padre Pio and other Catholics eminent for sanctity, have for centuries prophesied the dreadful coming chastisement of the Three Days of Darkness; where at least half to three quarters of the world's population will be killed by God's Just Wrath.
  54. ^ Apparition Approved (Signal of the End of Times?) ...along with the account of the apparitions of Notre Dame Du Laus, there is also a prediction which states that the extraordinary events and message of Laus would be forgotten and ignored by the world for a very long time. However, word of Laus would re-surface, the prediction states, at a point in time when the End Times were close at hand...
  55. ^ Sr. Emmanuel; Nolan, Denis, Međugorje: What Does the Church Say?, Queenship Publishing (2000) p. 19.
  56. ^ St. Eusebius, Church History, Book V, 16:9 But others imagining themselves possessed of the Holy Spirit and of a prophetic gift, were elated and not a little puffed up;...But sometimes he rebuked them openly in a wise and faithful manner, that he might seem to be a reprover.
  57. ^ Imposters Amongst the most famous of these was Magdalena de la Cruz (1487-1560), a Franciscan nun of Cordova, who for many years was honoured as a saint. She was believed to have the stigmata and to take no other food than the Holy Eucharist. The Blessed Sacrament was said to fly to her tongue from the hand of the priest who was giving Holy Communion, and it seemed at such moments that she was raised from the ground. The same miraculous levitation took place during her ecstasies at which time also she was radiant with supernatural light. So universal was the popular veneration, that ladies of the highest rank, when about to be confined, sent to her the cradles or garments prepared for the expected child, that she might bless them. This was done by the Empress Isabel, in 1527, before the birth of Philip II. On the other hand St. Ignatius Loyola had always regarded her with suspicion. Falling dangerously ill in 1543, Magdalena confessed to a long career of hypocrisy, ascribing most of the marvels to the action of demons by which she was possessed, but maintaining their reality. She was sentenced by the Inquisition, in an auto-da-fé at Cordova, in 1546, to perpetual imprisonment in a convent of her order, and there she is believed to have ended her days most piously amid marks of the sincerest repentance (see Görres, "Mystik", V, 168-174; Lea, "Chapters from Relig. Hist. of Spain", 330-335).
  58. ^
  59. ^
  60. ^
  61. ^ Verbum Domini. Ecclesiastical approval of a private revelation essentially means that its message contains nothing contrary to faith and morals; it is licit to make it public and the faithful are authorized to give to it their prudent adhesion.
  62. ^ Visit to the Marian Shrine of Our Lady of Bandra Here, too, We hail Our Lady as Mother of the Church, the beautiful title which We had the honour of recognizing to her in the recent session of the Vatican Ecumenical Council.
  63. ^
  64. ^ Miserentissimus Redemptor 3 It is no wonder, therefore, that Our Predecessors have constantly defended this most approved form of devotion from the censures of calumniators, and have extolled it with high praise and promoted it very zealously, as the needs of time and circumstance demanded.
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  66. ^
  67. ^ Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History, Book V, Chapter 16 For the faithful in Asia met often in many places throughout Asia to consider this matter, and examined the novel utterances and pronounced them profane, and rejected the heresy, and thus these persons were expelled from the Church and debarred from communion.
  68. ^ Complaints by SMWA on Diocecean Investigation
  69. ^ Tribus Circiter Relying on an alleged mandate from God, they set themselves to promote without discrimination and of their own initiative among the people frequent exercises of piety (highly commendable when rightly carried out,) especially the adoration of the Most Holy Sacrament and the practice of frequent communion...
  70. ^ Archbishop enters row over Knock 'sun miracle' Dozens argue they witnessed the sun dancing in the sky after they flocked to see an apparition of the Virgin Mary. They insist they saw the sun shimmer on October 11 outside the old parish church -- the scene of the reported 1879 apparition. But yesterday the Archbishop of Tuam discredited this notion, arguing the event could risk "misleading God's people and undermining faith".
  71. ^ Vatican rejects Our Lady of Surbiton
  72. ^
  73. ^ Verbum Domini 14 The value of private revelations is essentially different from that of the one public revelation: the latter demands faith; in it God himself speaks to us through human words and the mediation of the living community of the Church.
  74. ^ Directory on Popular Piety and the Liturgy No such obligation, however, has obtained with regard to pious exercises, notwithstanding their worthiness or their widespread diffusion. Such, however, may be assumed as obligations by a community or by individual members of the faithful.
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  77. ^ Fatima Crusader
  78. ^
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  80. ^ Pope Paul VI, Integrae Servandae That which was hitherto called the Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office will become the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, whose duty it is to safeguard doctrine on faith and morals in the whole Catholic world...It carefully examines books that have been reported and, if necessary, condemns them, after, however, having heard the author, to whom is given the faculty to defend himself, also in writing, and not without having notified the Ordinary, as was already established in the Constitution Sollicita ac Provida by Our Predecessor of happy memory Benedict XIV.
  81. ^ a b
  82. ^ Co-Patronesses of Europe Yet there is no doubt that the Church, which recognized Bridget's holiness without ever pronouncing on her individual revelations, has accepted the overall authenticity of her interior experience.
  83. ^ Bertone, Tarcisio (May 6, 2008). The Last Secret of Fatima. Doubleday Religion. pp. 65–66. ISBN 0-385-52582-6. 
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 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company.