Privileged partnership

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This article deals with cooperation between the European Union and non-member states. For the use of the term to describe Franco-German cooperation at and since the Treaty of Maastricht, see France–Germany relations

Privileged partnership is a generic term for cooperation between the European Union and a non-EU country to advance common goals[1] without using EU membership.[2][3][4]

History[edit]

The term is usually used to describe an alternative to EU membership for Turkey that was first floated in November 2002 by Heinrich August Winkler in Die Zeit[5] and later formally proposed in 2004,[6][7] although the term was used previously in 2003 to describe a proposed relationship with Russia[8] and was also used in 2004 for a proposed relationship with Israel.[9]

Since that time, the term has been used for alternatives for EU membership for Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro and Kosovo,[10] has since been used retrospectively to characterise relationships with the countries[11][12][13] considered in 2004 for the European Neighbourhood Policy that were first proposed in the Commission Communication of March 2003,[14] and is also used for the EU's bilateral relationship with Tunisia[15][16][17] and with Russia.[18]

Ultimately the term dates back to 1957 when it was used to characterise Morocco's relationship with the European Economic Community.[19]

By country[edit]

Albania[edit]

The term was used for a proposed alternative to EU membership for Albania.[10]

Algeria[edit]

The term has been used for the proposed relationship with the countries considered in 2004 for the European Neighbourhood Policy, including Algeria.[13]

Armenia[edit]

The term has been used for the proposed relationship with the countries considered in 2004 for the European Neighbourhood Policy, including Armenia.[13]

Azerbaijan[edit]

The term has been used for the proposed relationship with the countries considered in 2004 for the European Neighbourhood Policy, including Azerbaijan.[13]

Belarus[edit]

The term has been used for the proposed relationship with the countries considered in 2004 for the European Neighbourhood Policy, including Belarus.[13]

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

The term was used for a proposed alternative to EU membership for Bosnia and Herzegovina.[10]

Croatia[edit]

The term was used for a proposed alternative to EU membership for Croatia.[10]

Egypt[edit]

The term has been used for the proposed relationship with the countries considered in 2004 for the European Neighbourhood Policy, including Egypt.[13]

Macedonia[edit]

The term was used for a proposed alternative to EU membership for Macedonia.[10]

Georgia[edit]

The term has been used for the proposed relationship with the countries considered in 2004 for the European Neighbourhood Policy, including Georgia.[13]

Israel[edit]

The term was used by Spanish foreign minister Miguel Ángel Moratinos, who spoke out for a "privileged partnership, offering all the benefits of EU membership, without participation in the institutions" for Israel.[9] It was also used for the proposed relationship with the countries considered in 2004 for the European Neighbourhood Policy, including Israel.[13]

Jordan[edit]

The term has been used for the proposed relationship with the countries considered in 2004 for the European Neighbourhood Policy, including Jordan.[13]

Kosovo[edit]

The term was used for a proposed alternative to EU membership for Kosovo.[10]

Lebanon[edit]

The term has been used for the proposed relationship with the countries considered in 2004 for the European Neighbourhood Policy, including Lebanon.[13]

Libya[edit]

The term has been used for the proposed relationship with the countries considered in 2004 for the European Neighbourhood Policy, including Libya.[13]

Moldova[edit]

The term has been used for the proposed relationship with the countries considered in 2004 for the European Neighbourhood Policy, including Moldova.[13]

Morocco[edit]

The term has been used for the proposed relationship with the countries considered in 2004 for the European Neighbourhood Policy, including Morocco.[13]

Palestine[edit]

The term has been used for the proposed relationship with the countries considered in 2004 for the European Neighbourhood Policy, including the Palestinian Authority.[13]

Russia[edit]

French President Jacques Chirac used the term for a proposed Russia-EU relationship at the Russia-EU summit in 2003.[8]

Serbia and Montenegro[edit]

The term was used for a proposed alternative to EU membership for Serbia and Montenegro.[10]

Syria[edit]

The term has been used for the proposed relationship with the countries considered in 2004 for the European Neighbourhood Policy, including Syria.[13]

Tunisia[edit]

The term has been used for the proposed relationship with the countries considered in 2004 for the European Neighbourhood Policy, including Tunisia.[13]

Turkey[edit]

Privileged partnership (Turkish: İmtiyazlı ortaklık) was the term used by Angela Merkel in February 2004[6] to describe a future relationship between Turkey and the European Union which fell short of full membership. The proposal was advanced by CDU/CSU members.[7]

Ukraine[edit]

The term has been used for the proposed relationship with the countries considered in 2004 for the European Neighbourhood Policy, including Ukraine.[13]

United Kingdom[edit]

The term was used by Jacques Delors for a proposed relationship between the European Union and the United Kingdom should it exit the EU.[20][21]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wilhelm Knelangen, "A Neighbourhood of Freedom, Security and Justice?", see here
  2. ^ Claus Leggewie "Privileged partnership, less democracy?", www.eurozine.com 2008-07-08, see here
  3. ^ "BORDERING AND ORDERING THE EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD: A CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE ON EU TERRITORIALITY AND GEOPOLITICS", James Wesley Scott, University of Joensuu, TRAMES, 2009, 13(63/58), 3, 232–247, see here
  4. ^ "THE EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY: THE EUROPEAN UNION'S NEW ENGAGEMENT TOWARDS WIDER EUROPE", by Sevilay KAHRAMAN, see here
  5. ^ Heinrich August Winkler: Wir erweitern uns zu Tode Die Zeit Nr. 46, 7. November 2002
  6. ^ a b "WHAT IS PRIVILEGED PARTNERSHIP FOR?", Diplomatic Observer, 16 July 2009, see here
  7. ^ a b "Preserving Europe : Offer Turkey a privileged partnership instead" By Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg, Wednesday, 15 December 2004, see here
  8. ^ a b "French president speaks for Russia-EU privileged partnership", 31.05.2003, Pravda.ru, see here
  9. ^ a b "Spanish foreign minister backs virtual membership for Israel", 03.12.04 @ 09:55 EUObserver, see here
  10. ^ a b c d e f g "Merkel moots privileged partnership for Balkans" 17.03.06 @ 13:49 EUObserver, see here
  11. ^ "COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION, European Neighbourhood Policy STRATEGY PAPER, Brussels, 12.5.2004 COM(2004) 373 final see here
  12. ^ "The Eastern Dimension of the European Neighbourhood Policy: A Romanian approach" Iulian Chifu, Conflict Prevention and Early Warning Centre, Bucharest see here
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Foreign Ministry, Foreign Policy, Europe, Neighbourhood Policy, from the Austrian Federal Ministry for European and International Affairs, see here
  14. ^ "COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL AND THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT: Wider Europe — Neighbourhood: A New Framework for Relations with our Eastern and Southern Neighbours" Brussels, 11.3.2003 COM(2003) 104 final, see here
  15. ^ "EU-Tunisia: privileged partnership in November, Barroso says: Fule and Bettaieb sign financial aid plans for health, justice" 02 OCTOBER, 19:13, ANSAMed, see here
  16. ^ "Tunisia to become Privileged Partner to European Union", Hend Hassassi, 29 October 2012, see here
  17. ^ "Tunisia’s Privileged Partnership With the European Union", Nadya B’Chir. Translated from Business News (Tunisia), November 2012 see here
  18. ^ "The Economic Rationale of the European Neighborhood Policy", Susanne Milcher, Ben Slay, Mark Collins, United Nations’ Development Programme 2006, see here
  19. ^ "Neighborhood and Enlargement Policy: Comparing the Democratization Impact of the European Union in Morocco and Turkey", Martina Warning, WP 4/2006, CIRES (Italian Research Centre for European Studies), see here
  20. ^ "Britain could leave EU, says Jacques Delors", 28/12/2012, from France 24, see here
  21. ^ "Britain could quit the EU", by Jason Groves and Peter Allen, 10:42, 29 December 2012, Daily Mail, see here

See also[edit]