Probability mass function
In probability theory and statistics, a probability mass function (pmf) is a function that gives the probability that a discrete random variable is exactly equal to some value. The probability mass function is often the primary means of defining a discrete probability distribution, and such functions exist for either scalar or multivariate random variables whose domain is discrete.
A probability mass function differs from a probability density function (p.d.f.) in that the latter is associated with continuous rather than discrete random variables; the values of the latter are not probabilities as such: a p.d.f. must be integrated over an interval to yield a probability.
Formal definition 
Thinking of probability as mass helps avoiding mistakes since the physical mass is conserved as is the total probability for all hypothetical outcomes x:
When there is a natural order among the hypotheses x, it may be convenient to assign numerical values to them (or n-tuples in case of a discrete multivariate random variable) and to consider also values not in the image of X. That is, fX may be defined for all real numbers and fX(x) = 0 for all x X(S) as shown in the figure.
Since the image of X is countable, the probability mass function fX(x) is zero for all but a countable number of values of x. The discontinuity of probability mass functions is related to the fact that the cumulative distribution function of a discrete random variable is also discontinuous. Where it is differentiable, the derivative is zero, just as the probability mass function is zero at all such points.
Suppose that S is the sample space of all outcomes of a single toss of a fair coin, and X is the random variable defined on S assigning 0 to "tails" and 1 to "heads". Since the coin is fair, the probability mass function is
This is a special case of the binomial distribution.
An example of a multivariate discrete distribution, and of its probability mass function, is provided by the multinomial distribution.
||This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2012)|
- Stewart, William J. (2011). Probability, Markov Chains, Queues, and Simulation: The Mathematical Basis of Performance Modeling. Princeton University Press. p. 105. ISBN 978-1-4008-3281-1.
- Probability Function at Mathworld
- Kumar, Dinesh (2006). Reliability & Six Sigma. Birkhäuser. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-387-30255-3.
- Rao, S.S. (1996). Engineering optimization: theory and practice. John Wiley & Sons. p. 717. ISBN 978-0-471-55034-1.
Further reading 
- Johnson, N.L., Kotz, S., Kemp A. (1993) Univariate Discrete Distributions (2nd Edition). Wiley. ISBN 0-471-54897-9 (p 36)