Probainognathia

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Probainognathia
Temporal range: early Middle Triassic - Late Jurassic (non-mammalian)
Belesodon magnificus.JPG
Fossil of the probainognathian Chiniquodon theotonicus in the Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Synapsida
Order: Therapsida
Suborder: Cynodontia
Clade: Epicynodontia
Infraorder: Eucynodontia
Clade: Probainognathia
Subgroups

The Probainognathians are members of one of the two major clades of the infraorder Eucynodontia, the other being Cynognathians. They were mostly carnivorous, though some species may have evolved omnivorous traits. The Probainognathia are split into four groups: Probainognathidae, Chiniquodontidae, Tritheledontidae, and Mammaliaformes. The earliest and most basal Probainognathian is Lumkuia, from South Africa. Non-mammalian probainognathians lived from the Triassic to the Jurassic, making this clade one of the longest lived therapsid family.

Classification[edit]

Taxonomy[edit]

Partial skeleton of an unidentified probainognathian from Madagascar in the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago

Phylogeny[edit]

Below is a cladogram from Ruta, Botha-Brink, Mitchell and Benton (2013) showing one hypothesis of cynodont relationships:[1]

Cynodontia 

Charassognathus





Dvinia



Procynosuchus



Epicynodontia

Cynosaurus





Galesaurus



Progalesaurus






Nanictosaurus



Thrinaxodon





Platycraniellus


Eucynodontia

Cynognathia


Probainognathia

Lumkuia




Ecteninion





Aleodon



Chiniquodon





Probainognathus




Trucidocynodon




Therioherpeton



Tritheledontidae

Riograndia





Chaliminia



Elliotherium





Diarthrognathus



Pachygenelus






Brasilodontidae

Brasilitherium



Brasilodon




Tritylodontidae

Oligokyphus




Kayentatherium




Tritylodon



Beinotherium





Mammaliaformes

Sinoconodon



Morganucodon



















See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ruta, M.; Botha-Brink, J.; Mitchell, S. A.; Benton, M. J. (2013). "The radiation of cynodonts and the ground plan of mammalian morphological diversity". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 280 (1769): 20131865. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.1865.  edit