Procolophonoidea

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Procolophonoidea
Temporal range: 260.5–199.6Ma
Mid Wuchiapingian - Rhaetian
Hypsognathus BW.jpg
Hypsognathus fenneri
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Procolophonomorpha
Node: Procolophoniformes
Suborder: Procolophonia
Superfamily: Procolophonoidea
Broom, 1939

Procolophonoidea is an extinct superfamily of procolophonian parareptiles. Members were characteristically small, stocky, and lizard-like in appearance. Fossils have been found worldwide from many continents including Antarctica.[1] The first members appeared during the Late Permian in the Karoo Basin of South Africa.[2]

Taxonomy[edit]

Procolophonoidea includes the families Owenettidae and Procolophonidae. Sclerosaurus, which is placed within its own family Sclerosauridae, may be a member of the superfamily as well.

When the superfamily was constructed in 1956, it was thought to be within the anthracosaur suborder Diadectomorpha.[3] Since then it has been placed within the suborder Procolophonia along with the pareiasaurs, a group of large herbivorous Permian parareptiles.[4][5][6][7]

Cladogram of Procolophonoidea, excluding members of Procolophonidae
Procolophonoidea 
 Owenettidae 
void
void

Barasaurus



 void 

Owenetta rubidgei



Saurodektes





 void 

"Owenetta" kitchingorum



Candelaria





void

Coletta



 void 

Sauropareion



Procolophonidae





Cisneros et al. 2004[8]
Cladogram of Procolophonidae
Procolophonidae 
void
void

Contritosaurus




Tichvinskia


void

Procolophon


void

Hypsognathus







Modesto et al. 2001[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Colbert, E. H. and Kitching, J. W. (1975). The Triassic reptile Procolophon in Antarctica. American Museum Novitates 2566:1-23.
  2. ^ Broom, R. (1939). A new type of cotylosaurian, Owenetta rubidgei. Annals of the Transvaal Museum 19:319–321.
  3. ^ Romer, A. S. (1956). Osteology of the Reptiles. University of Chicago Press. 772 pp.
  4. ^ Daly, E. (1973). A Lower Permian vertebrate fauna from southern Oklahoma. Journal of Paleontology 47(3):562-589.
  5. ^ Carroll, R. L. (1988). Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. WH Freeman and Company, New York ISBN 0-7167-1822-7.
  6. ^ Lee, M. S. Y. (1997). Pareisaur phylogeny and the origin of turtles. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 120(3):197-280.
  7. ^ Modesto, S. P. and Damiani, R. (2007). The procolophonoid reptile Sauropareion anoplus from the lowermost Triassic of South Africa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27(2):337-349.
  8. ^ Cisneros, J. C., Damiani, R., Schultz, C., da Rosa, A., Schwanke, C., Neto, L. W. and Aurélio, P. L. P. (2004) A procolophonoid reptile with temporal fenestration from the Middle Triassic of Brazil. Proceedings of the Royal Sociey Series B 271(1547):1541–1546.
  9. ^ Modesto, S. Sues, H.-D. and Damiani, R. (2001). A new Triassic procolophonoid reptile and its implications for procolophonoid survivorship during the Permo-Triassic extinction event. Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B 268(2001):2047–2052.

External links[edit]