Procyon

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This article is about the star. For the genus, see Procyon (genus). For the mountain range, see Procyon Peaks. For the US Navy's ships, see USS Procyon.
Procyon A/B
Position Alpha Cmi.png
The position of Procyon
Observation data
Epoch J2000      Equinox J2000
Constellation Canis Minor
Pronunciation /ˈprsi.ɒn/
Right ascension 07h 39m 18.11950s[1][2]
Declination +05° 13′ 29.9552″[1][2]
Apparent magnitude (V) 0.34[3] (A) / 10.7 (B)
Characteristics
Spectral type F5 IV–V[3]/DQZ[4]
U−B color index −0.01
B−V color index 0.40/0.0
Astrometry
Radial velocity (Rv) −3.2 km/s
Proper motion (μ) RA: −714.590[1][2] mas/yr
Dec.: −1036.80[1][2] mas/yr
Parallax (π) 284.56 ± 1.26[1][2] mas
Distance 11.46 ± 0.05 ly
(3.51 ± 0.02 pc)
Absolute magnitude (MV) 2.65/13.04
Details
Procyon A
Mass 1.42 ± 0.04[3] M
Radius 2.048 ± 0.025[3] R
Luminosity 6.93[3] L
Surface gravity (log g) 3.96[3] cgs
Temperature 6,530 ± 50[3] K
Metallicity [Fe/H] -0.05 ± 0.03[3] dex
Rotation 23 days[5]
Rotational velocity (v sin i) 3.16 ± 0.50[3] km/s
Age 3[4] Gyr
Procyon B
Mass 0.602 ± 0.015[4] M
Radius 0.01234 ± 0.00032[4] R
Luminosity 0.00049[6] L
Surface gravity (log g) 8.0[4] cgs
Temperature 7,740 ± 50[4] K
Age 1.37[6] Gyr
Orbit[7]
Companion Procyon B
Period (P) 40.82 yr
Semi-major axis (a) 4.3"
Eccentricity (e) 0.407
Inclination (i) 31.1°
Longitude of the node (Ω) 97.3°
Periastron epoch (T) 1967.97
Argument of periastron (ω)
(secondary)
92.2°
Other designations
Elgomaisa, Algomeysa, Antecanis, α Canis Minoris, 10 Canis Minoris, GCTP 1805.00, HR 2943, BD+05°1739, HD 61421, LHS 233, GJ 280, HIP 37279, SAO 115756.[8]
Database references
SIMBAD data

Procyon (α CMi, α Canis Minoris, Alpha Canis Minoris; Br. pronunciation /ˈprsi.ɒn/[9]) is the brightest star in the constellation Canis Minor. To the naked eye, it appears to be a single star, the eighth brightest in the night sky with a visual apparent magnitude of 0.34.[3] It is actually a binary star system, consisting of a white main-sequence star of spectral type F5 IV–V, named Procyon A, and a faint white dwarf companion of spectral type DQZ,[4] named Procyon B. The reason for its brightness is not its intrinsic luminosity but its relative closeness to the Sun; as determined by the European Space Agency Hipparcos astrometry satellite,[1][10] it lies at a distance of just 11.46 light-years (3.51 parsecs),[2] and is therefore one of our nearest stellar neighbours. Its closest neighbour is Luyten's Star, about 1.12 ly (0.34 pc) away, and the latter would appear as a visual magnitude 2.7 star in the night sky of a hypothetical planet orbiting Procyon.[11]

Visibility[edit]

Procyon forms one of the three vertices of the Winter Triangle, along with Sirius and Betelgeuse.[12]

Its color index is 0.42, and its hue has been described as having a faint yellow tinge to it.[12]

System[edit]

Procyon A has a stellar classification of F5IV–V. The effective surface temperature of the star is an estimated 6,530 K,[3] giving it a white hue. It is 1.4 times the mass, twice the radius, and 6.9 times more luminous than the Sun.[3][13] Procyon A is bright for its spectral class, suggesting that it is a subgiant that has nearly fused its core hydrogen into helium, after which it will expand as "burning" moves outside the core.[3] As it continues to expand, the star will eventually swell to about 80 to 150 times its current diameter and become a red or orange color. This will probably happen within 10 to 100 million years.[14]

Like Sirius B, Procyon's companion is a white dwarf that was inferred from astrometric data long before it was observed. Its existence had been postulated by Friedrich Bessel as early as 1844, and although its orbital elements had been calculated by Arthur Auwers in 1862 as part of his thesis,[15] Procyon B was not visually confirmed until 1896 when John Martin Schaeberle observed it at the predicted position using the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.[16] It is more difficult to observe from Earth than Sirius B, due to a greater apparent magnitude difference and smaller angular separation from its primary. The average separation of the two components is 15.0 AUs, a little less than the distance between Uranus and the Sun, though the eccentric orbit carries them as close as 8.9 AUs and as far as 21.0 AU.[17]

At 0.6 solar mass, Procyon B is considerably less massive than Sirius B; however, the peculiarities of degenerate matter ensure that it is larger than its more famous neighbor, with an estimated radius of 8,600 km, versus 5,800 km for Sirius B.[4][18] With a surface temperature of 7,740 K, it is also much cooler than Sirius B; this is a testament to its lesser mass and greater age. The mass of the progenitor star for Procyon B was about 2.5 solar masses and it came to the end of its life some 1.7 ± 0.1 Gyr ago,[3] after a main-sequence lifetime of 400–600 Myr. For this reason, the age of Procyon A is expected to be at least 2 Gyr.[19]

Oscillations controversy[edit]

In late June 2004, Canada's orbital MOST satellite telescope carried out a 32-day survey of Procyon A. The continuous optical monitoring was intended to confirm solar-like oscillations in its brightness observed from Earth and to permit asteroseismology. No oscillations were detected and the authors concluded that the theory of stellar oscillations may need to be reconsidered.[20] However, others argued that the non-detection was consistent with published ground-based radial velocity observations of solar-like oscillations.[21][22]

Photometric measurements from the NASA Wide Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) satellite from 1999 and 2000 showed evidence of granulation (convection near the surface of the star) and solar-like oscillations.[23] Unlike the MOST result, the variation seen in the WIRE photometry was in agreement with radial velocity measurements from the ground.

Possibility of life[edit]

Life is unlikely around Procyon, because the habitable zone around 2.7 AU from the primary may not contain stable orbits, due to the white dwarf companion with a periastron of 8.9 AU. Also the white dwarf companion to Procyon would have stressed life severely during its red-giant phase. Procyon emits more of its light in the ultraviolet spectrum, which may be damaging to life. Still, life cannot be ruled out for other stars of the spectral type of Procyon but such life would have a relatively short time to evolve and would face heavy bombardment from comets and meteorites as happened in the first few million years of the Earth’s existence. Shortly after the phase of heavy bombardment has ended for a planet orbiting a star like Procyon the star is likely to leave the main sequence preventing further development of life.[24]

X-ray source[edit]

Attempts to detect X-ray emission from Procyon with nonimaging, soft X-ray sensitive detectors prior to 1975 failed.[25][25] Extensive observations of Procyon were carried out with the Copernicus and TD-1A satellites in the late 1970s.[26] The X-ray source associated with Procyon A/B was observed on April 1, 1979, with the Einstein Observatory high-resolution imager (HRI).[27] The HRI X-ray pointlike source location is ~4" south of Procyon A, on the edge of the 90% confidence error circle, indicating identification with Procyon A rather than Procyon B which was located about 5" north of Procyon A (about 9" from the X-ray source location).[26]

Etymology and cultural significance[edit]

Its name comes from the Greek προκύον (prokyon), meaning "before the dog", since it precedes the "Dog Star" Sirius as it travels across the sky due to Earth's rotation. (Although Procyon has a greater right ascension, it also has a more northerly declination, which means it will rise above the horizon earlier than Sirius from most northerly latitudes.) In Greek mythology, Procyon is associated with Maera, a hound belonging to Erigone, daughter of Icarius of Athens.[28]

These two dog stars are referred to in the most ancient literature and were venerated by the Babylonians and the Egyptians: in Babylonian mythology Procyon was known as Nangar the Carpenter, an aspect of Marduk, involved in constructing and organising the celestial sky.[29]

The constellations in Macedonian folklore represented agricultural items and animals, reflecting their village way of life. To them, Procyon and Sirius were Volci "the wolves", circling hungrily around Orion which depicted a plough with oxen.[30]

Rarer names are the Latin translation of Procyon, Antecanis, and the Arabic-derived names Al Shira and Elgomaisa. Medieval astrolabes of England and Western Europe used a variant of this, Algomeiza/Algomeyza.[31] Al Shira derives from الشعرى الشامية aš-ši‘ra aš-šamiyah, "the Syrian sign" (the other sign being Sirius; "Syria" is supposedly a reference to its northern location relative to Sirius); Elgomaisa. derives from الغميصاء al-ghumaisa’ "the bleary-eyed (woman)", in contrast to العبور "the teary-eyed (woman)", which is Sirius. (See Gomeisa.) The modern Arabic name for Procyon is غموص ghumūṣ. It is known as 南河三 (Mandarin nánhésān, the Third Star in the Southern River) in Chinese.

The Hawaiians saw Procyon as part of an asterism Ke ka o Makali'i ("The canoe bailer of Makali'i") that helped them navigate at sea. Called Puana "blossom", it formed this asterism with Capella, Sirius, Castor and Pollux.[32] In Tahitian lore, Procyon was one of the pillars propping up the sky, known as Anâ-tahu'a-vahine-o-toa-te-manava ("star-the-priestess-of-brave-heart"), the pillar for elocution.[33] The Maori knew the star as Puangahori.[34]

Procyon appears on the flag of Brazil, symbolising the state of Amazonas.[35]

The Kalapalo people of Mato Grosso state in Brazil called Procyon and Canopus Kofongo "Duck", with Castor and Pollux representing his hands. The asterism's appearance signified the coming of the rainy season and increase in food staple manioc, used at feasts to feed guests.[36]

Known as Sikuliarsiujuittuq to the Inuit, Procyon was quite significant in their astronomy and mythology. Its eponymous name means "the one who never goes onto the newly formed sea-ice", and refers to a man who stole food from his village's hunters because he was too obese to hunt on ice. He was killed by the other hunters who convinced him to go on the sea ice. Procyon received this designation because it typically appears red (though sometimes slightly greenish) as it rises during the Arctic winter; this red color was associated with Sikuliarsiujuittuq's bloody end.[37]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Perryman, M. A. C.; Lindegren, L.; Kovalevsky, J.; et al. (July 1997), "The Hipparcos Catalogue", Astronomy and Astrophysics 323: L49–L52, Bibcode:1997A&A...323L..49P 
  2. ^ a b c d e f van Leeuwen, F. (November 2007), "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction", Astronomy and Astrophysics 474 (2): 653–664, arXiv:0708.1752, Bibcode:2007A&A...474..653V, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Kervella, P. et al. (January 2004), "The diameter and evolutionary state of Procyon A. Multi-technique modeling using asteroseismic and interferometric constraints", Astronomy and Astrophysics 413 (1): 251–256, arXiv:astro-ph/0309148, Bibcode:2004A&A...413..251K, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20031527 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Provencal, J. L. (2002), "Procyon B: Outside the Iron Box", The Astrophysical Journal 568 (1): 324–334, Bibcode:2002ApJ...568..324P, doi:10.1086/338769 
  5. ^ Koncewicz, R.; Jordan (January 2007), "OI line emission in cool stars: calculations using partial redistribution", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 374 (1): 220–231, Bibcode:2007MNRAS.374..220K, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2006.11130.x 
  6. ^ a b Giammichele, N.; Bergeron, P.; Dufour, P. (April 2012), "Know Your Neighborhood: A Detailed Model Atmosphere Analysis of Nearby White Dwarfs", The Astrophysical Journal Supplement 199 (2): 29, arXiv:1202.5581, Bibcode:2012ApJS..199...29G, doi:10.1088/0067-0049/199/2/29.  Age is for the white dwarf stage.
  7. ^ Girard, T. M. et al. (May 2000), "A Redetermination of the Mass of Procyon", The Astronomical Journal 119 (5): 2428–2436, Bibcode:2000AJ....119.2428G, doi:10.1086/301353 
  8. ^ "PROCYON AB -- Spectroscopic binary", SIMBAD (Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg), retrieved 2011-11-23 
  9. ^ "Procyon". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. 
  10. ^ Perryman, Michael (2010), The Making of History's Greatest Star Map, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-11602-5 
  11. ^ "Annotations on LHS 33 object", SIMBAD (Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg), retrieved 2010-04-21 
  12. ^ a b Schaaf 2008, p. 166.
  13. ^ Gatewood, G.; Han, I. (February 2006), "An Astrometric Study of Procyon", Astronomical Journal 131 (2): 1015–1021, Bibcode:2006AJ....131.1015G, doi:10.1086/498894 
  14. ^ Schaaf 2008, p. 168.
  15. ^ Auwers, Arthur (1868), Untersuchungen uber veranderliche eigenbewegungen (in German), Leipzig: W. Engelmann, Bibcode:1868QB1.A68........ 
  16. ^ Burnham Jr., Robert (1978), Burnham's Celestial Handbook 1, New York: Dover Publications Inc., p. 450, ISBN 0-486-23567-X 
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  18. ^ Holberg, J. B. et al. (1998-04-20), "Sirius B: A New, More Accurate View", The Astrophysical Journal 497 (2): 935–942, Bibcode:1998ApJ...497..935H, doi:10.1086/305489 
  19. ^ Provost, J.; Berthomieu, G.; Martić, M.; Morel, P. (December 2006), "Asteroseismology and evolutionary status of Procyon A", Astronomy and Astrophysics 460 (3): 759–767, Bibcode:2006A&A...460..759P, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20065251 
  20. ^ Matthews, Jaymie M. et al. (2004), "No stellar p-mode oscillations in space-based photometry of Procyon", Nature 430 (921): 51–3, Bibcode:2004Natur.430...51M, doi:10.1038/nature02671, PMID 15229593 
  21. ^ Bouchy, François et al. (2004), "Brief Communications Arising: Oscillations on the star Procyon", Nature 432 (7015), arXiv:astro-ph/0510303, Bibcode:2004Natur.432....2B, doi:10.1038/nature03165 
  22. ^ Bedding, T. R. et al. (2005), "The non-detection of oscillations in Procyon by MOST: Is it really a surprise?", Astronomy and Astrophysics 432 (2): L43, arXiv:astro-ph/0501662, Bibcode:2005A&A...432L..43B, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200500019 
  23. ^ Bruntt, H. et al. (2005), "Evidence for Granulation and Oscillations in Procyon from Photometry with the WIRE Satellite", The Astrophysical Journal 633 (1): 440, arXiv:astro-ph/0504469, Bibcode:2005ApJ...633..440B, doi:10.1086/462401 
  24. ^ Kuhlmann, Christoph; Requejo, Xavier Dalmau, "Spectral Type F - Procyon", exoplaneten.de, retrieved 2010-05-01 
  25. ^ a b Mewe, R. et al. (December 1, 1975), "Detection of X-ray emission from stellar coronae with ANS", Astrophysical Journal, pt. 2 202: L67–L71, Bibcode:1975ApJ...202L..67M, doi:10.1086/181983 
  26. ^ a b Schmitt, J. H. M. M. et al. (January 15, 1985), "The X-ray corona of Procyon", Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 288: 751–755, Bibcode:1985ApJ...288..751S, doi:10.1086/162843 
  27. ^ Giacconi, R. et al. (1979), "The Einstein /HEAO 2/ X-ray Observatory", Astrophysical Journal 230: 540–550, Bibcode:1979ApJ...230..540G, doi:10.1086/157110 
  28. ^ Wendy Doniger, ed. (1999), "Erigone", Merriam-Webster's encyclopedia of world religions, Merriam-Webster, p. 333, ISBN 0-87779-044-2 
  29. ^ Kelley, David H.; Milone, Eugene F.; Aveni, A.F. (2011). Exploring Ancient Skies: A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy. New York, New York: Springer. p. 217. ISBN 144197623X. 
  30. ^ Cenev, Gjore. "Macedonian Folk Constellations". Publications of the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade 85: 97–109. 
  31. ^ Gingerich, O. (1987). "Zoomorphic Astrolabes and the Introduction of Arabic Star Names into Europe". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 500: 89–104. Bibcode:1987NYASA.500...89G. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1987.tb37197.x. 
  32. ^ Brosch, Noah (2008). Sirius Matters. Springer. p. 46. ISBN 1-4020-8318-1. 
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  34. ^ Best, Elsdon (1922). Astronomical Knowledge of the Maori: Genuine and Empirical. Wellington, New Zealand: Dominion Museum. p. 33. 
  35. ^ MacDonald, Ian (August 9, 2009), Astronomy of the Brazilian Flag, FOTW Flags Of The World website, retrieved 2011-11-23 
  36. ^ Basso, Ellen B. (1987). In Favor of Deceit: A Study of Tricksters in an Amazonian Society. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press. p. 360. ISBN 0816510229. 
  37. ^ MacDonald, John (1998). The Arctic sky: Inuit astronomy, star lore, and legend. Toronto, Ontario/Iqaluit, NWT: Royal Ontario Museum/Nunavut Research Institute. pp. 72, 231–33. ISBN 9780888544278. 

Cited texts[edit]

  • Schaaf, Fred (2008). The Brightest Stars: Discovering the Universe through the Sky's Most Brilliant Stars. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-70410-2. 

Coordinates: Sky map 07h 39m 18.1s, +05° 13′ 29″