Savant syndrome

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Savant syndrome is a condition in which a person demonstrates profound and prodigious capacities or abilities far in excess of what would be considered normal.[1][2][3] People with savant syndrome may have neurodevelopmental disorders, notably autism spectrum disorders, or brain injuries. The most dramatic examples of savant syndrome occur in individuals who score very low on IQ tests, while demonstrating exceptional skills or brilliance in specific areas, such as rapid calculation, art, memory, or musical ability.[4][5][6][7] In spite of the name "syndrome", it is not recognized as a mental disorder nor as part of mental disorder in medical manuals such as the ICD-10[8] or the DSM-V.[9]

Characteristics[edit]

Savant skills (islands of ability) are usually found in one or more of five major areas: art, musical abilities, calendar calculation, mathematics, and spatial skills.[1] The most common kind of autistic savants are the calendrical savants,[10][11] "human calendars" who can calculate the day of the week with speed and usually with accuracy. Memory feats are the second most common savant skill in a survey.[10]

50% of savants are autistic; the other 50% often have some form of central nervous system injury or disease.[1] Among those with autism, it is estimated that 10% have some form of savant abilities.[1][12][13]

Mechanism[edit]

Psychological[edit]

No widely accepted cognitive theory explains savants' combination of talent and deficit.[14] It has been suggested that individuals with autism are biased towards detail-focused processing and that this cognitive style predisposes individuals either with or without autism to savant talents.[15] Another hypothesis is that savants hyper-systemize, thereby giving an impression of talent. Hyper-systemizing is an extreme state in the empathizing–systemizing theory that classifies people based on their skills in empathizing with others versus systemizing facts about the external world.[16] Also, the attention to detail of savants is a consequence of enhanced perception or sensory hypersensitivity in these unique individuals.[16][17] It has also been confirmed that some savants operate by directly accessing low-level, less-processed information that exists in all human brains that is not normally available to conscious awareness.[18]

Neurological[edit]

Savant syndrome results from damage to the left anterior temporal lobe, an area of the brain key in processing sensory input, recognizing objects and forming visual memories.[citation needed] Savant syndrome has been artificially replicated using transcranial magnetic stimulation to temporarily disable this area of the brain. [19]

Epidemiology[edit]

There is no agreement about how many people have savant skills. The estimates range from "exceedingly rare"[20] to one in ten people with autism having savant skills in varying degrees.[1] A 2009 British study of 137 parents of autistic children found that 28% believe their children met the criteria for a savant skill, defined as a skill or power "at a level that would be unusual even for 'normal' people".[21] As many as 50 cases of sudden or acquired savant syndrome have been reported.[22]

Males with savant syndrome outnumber females by roughly 6:1,[23] slightly higher than the sex ratio disparity for autism spectrum disorders of 4.3:1.[24]

History[edit]

The term idiot savant (French for "learned idiot" or "knowledgeable idiot") was first used to describe the condition in 1887 by John Langdon Down, who is known for his description of Down syndrome. The term idiot savant was later described as a misnomer because not all reported cases fit the definition of idiot, originally used for a person with a very severe intellectual disability. The term autistic savant was also used as a description for the disorder. Like idiot savant, the term came to be considered a misnomer because only half of those who were diagnosed with savant syndrome were autistic. Upon realization of the need for accuracy of diagnosis and dignity towards the individual, the term savant syndrome became widely accepted terminology.[1][20]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Treffert, D. A. (2009). "The savant syndrome: An extraordinary condition. A synopsis: Past, present, future". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364 (1522): 1351–7. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0326. PMC 2677584. PMID 19528017. 
  2. ^ Miller, LK (1999). "The savant syndrome: Intellectual impairment and exceptional skill". Psychological Bulletin 125 (1): 31–46. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.125.1.31. PMID 9990844. 
  3. ^ Bolte, S (2004). "Comparing the intelligence profiles of savant and nonsavant individuals with autistic disorder". Intelligence 32 (2): 121. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2003.11.002. 
  4. ^ Psychology in Action Eighth Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2007), p. 314. Retrieved 2013-02-12.
  5. ^ Bonnel A., Mottron L., Peretz I., Trudel M., Gallun E., Bonnel A-M. (2003). "Enhanced pitch sensitivity in individuals with autism: A signal detection analysis" (PDF). Cognitive Neuroscience 5 (2): 226–235. 
  6. ^ McMahon J. A. (2002). "An explanation for normal and anomalous drawing ability and some implications for research on perception and imagery". Visual Arts Research 28 (55): 38–52. 
  7. ^ Pring L., Hermelin B. (2002). "Numbers and letters: Exploring an autistic savant's unpractised ability". Neurocase 8 (4): 330–337. doi:10.1093/neucas/8.4.330. 
  8. ^ http://priory.com/psych/ICD.htm
  9. ^ "APA Diagnostic Classification DSM-V-TR". BehaveNet. BehaveNet Inc. Retrieved 13 October 2012. 
  10. ^ a b Saloviita, T.; Ruusila, L.; Ruusila, U. (Aug 2000). "Incidence of Savant Syndrome in Finland.". Percept Mot Skills 91 (1): 120–2. doi:10.2466/pms.2000.91.1.120. PMID 11011882. 
  11. ^ Kennedy DP, Squire LR (2007). "An analysis of calendar performance in two autistic calendar savants.". Learn Mem 14 (8): 533–8. doi:10.1101/lm.653607. PMC 1951792. PMID 17686947. 
  12. ^ Darold A. Treffert, MD. "The Autistic Savant". Wisconsin Medical Society. 
  13. ^ "Savant Syndrome Statistics". Health Research Funding. 2014-07-12. 
  14. ^ Pring, Linda (2005). "Savant talent". Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 47 (7): 500. doi:10.1017/S0012162205000976. 
  15. ^ Happe, F.; Vital, P. (2009). "What aspects of autism predispose to talent?". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364 (1522): 1369–1375. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0332. PMC 2677590. PMID 19528019. Lay summaryThe Economist (April 16, 2009). 
  16. ^ a b Baron-Cohen, S.; Ashwin, E.; Ashwin, C.; Tavassoli, T.; Chakrabarti, B. (2009). "Talent in autism: Hyper-systemizing, hyper-attention to detail and sensory hypersensitivity". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364 (1522): 1377–83. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0337. PMC 2677592. PMID 19528020. 
  17. ^ Mottron, L.; Dawson, M.; Soulieres, I. (2009). "Enhanced perception in savant syndrome: Patterns, structure and creativity". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364 (1522): 1385–1391. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0333. PMC 2677591. PMID 19528021. 
  18. ^ Snyder, A. (2009). "Explaining and inducing savant skills: Privileged access to lower level, less-processed information". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364 (1522): 1399–1405. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0290. PMC 2677578. PMID 19528023. Lay summaryThe Economist (April 16, 2009). 
  19. ^ Snyder A (2009). "Explaining and inducing savant skills: privileged access to lower level, less-processed information.". Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 364 (1522): 1399–405. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0290. PMC 2677578. PMID 19528023. 
  20. ^ a b http://www.psy.dmu.ac.uk/drhiles/Savant%20Syndrome.htm[full citation needed]
  21. ^ Howlin, P.; Goode, S.; Hutton, J.; Rutter, M. (2009). "Savant skills in autism: Psychometric approaches and parental reports". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364 (1522): 1359–1367. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0328. PMC 2677586. PMID 19528018. Lay summaryThe Economist (April 16, 2009). 
  22. ^ Yant-Kinney, Monica (2012-08-20). "An artist is born after car crash". The Inquirer (Philadelphia). Retrieved 2012-11-24. 
  23. ^ Treffert, Darold. A Visual Feast
  24. ^ Newschaffer CJ, Croen LA, Daniels J et al. (2007). "The epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders" (PDF). Annu Rev Public Health 28: 235–58. doi:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.28.021406.144007. PMID 17367287.