The mission was of Investigation of residual radiation from the Big Bang and gamma flares in deep space, and solar corpuscular and electromagnetic radiation plasma flows and magnetic fields in circumterrestrial space to determine the effects of solar activity on the interplanetary medium and the earth's magnetosphere. In addition to Soviet scientific apparatus, carried instruments built in Czechoslovakia and France.
Payloads are separated by bullets ( · ), launches by pipes ( | ). Manned flights are indicated in bold text. Uncatalogued launch failures are listed in italics. Payloads deployed from other spacecraft are denoted in (brackets).