Progress M-53 was launched by a Soyuz-U carrier rocket from Site 1/5 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Launch occurred at 23:09:34 GMT on 16 June 2005. The spacecraft docked with the Aft port of the Zvezda module at 00:41:31 GMT on 19 June. The docking was conducted using the backup TORU system, under the control of cosmonaut Sergei Krikalyov, due to a power failure at one of the spacecraft's ground control stations. It remained docked for three months before undocking at 10:25:57 GMT on 7 September 2005 to make way for Progress M-54. It was deorbited at 13:26:00 GMT on 7 September 2005. The spacecraft burned up in the atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean, with any remaining debris landing in the ocean at around 14:12:40 GMT.
Progress M-53 carried supplies to the International Space Station, including food, water and oxygen for the crew and equipment for conducting scientific research.
Payloads are separated by bullets ( · ), launches by pipes ( | ). Manned flights are indicated in bold text. Uncatalogued launch failures are listed in italics. Payloads deployed from other spacecraft are denoted in brackets.