Progress M-55 was launched by a Soyuz-U carrier rocket from Site 1/5 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Launch occurred at 18:38:20 GMT on 21 December 2005. The spacecraft docked with the Pirs module at 19:46:18 GMT on 23 December. It remained docked for almost six months before undocking at 14:06:01 GMT on 19 June 2006 to make way for Progress M-57. It was deorbited at 17:06:01 GMT on 19 June 2006. The spacecraft burned up in the atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean, with any remaining debris landing in the ocean at around 17:53:14 GMT.
Progress M-55 carried supplies to the International Space Station, including food, water and oxygen for the crew and equipment for conducting scientific research.
Payloads are separated by bullets ( · ), launches by pipes ( | ). Manned flights are indicated in bold text. Uncatalogued launch failures are listed in italics. Payloads deployed from other spacecraft are denoted in brackets.