Progress M-56 was launched by a Soyuz-U carrier rocket from Site 1/5 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Launch occurred at 16:03:25 GMT on 24 April 2006. The spacecraft docked with the Aft port of the Zvezda module at 17:41:31 GMT on 26 April. It remained docked for five months before undocking at 00:28:17 GMT on 19 September 2006 to make way for Soyuz TMA-9. It was deorbited at 03:28 GMT on 19 September 2006. The spacecraft burned up in the atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean, with any remaining debris landing in the ocean at around 04:14:40 GMT.
Progress M-56 carried supplies to the International Space Station, including food, water and oxygen for the crew and equipment for conducting scientific research.
Payloads are separated by bullets ( · ), launches by pipes ( | ). Manned flights are indicated in bold text. Uncatalogued launch failures are listed in italics. Payloads deployed from other spacecraft are denoted in brackets.