Progressive Era

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President Theodore Roosevelt
President William Howard Taft
President Woodrow Wilson
President Theodore Roosevelt, 1901-09 (left), President William Howard Taft, 1909-13 (center), and President Woodrow Wilson, 1913-21 (right) are often referred to as the "Progressive Presidents"; their administrations saw intense social and political change in American society.

The Progressive Era was a period of social activism and political reform in the United States, that flourished from the 1890s to the 1920s.[1] One main goal of the Progressive movement was purification of government through direct democracy, as Progressives tried to eliminate corruption by exposing and undercutting political machines, bosses. Progressives also sought regulation of monopolistic trust corporations through the antitrust laws, which were seen as a means to promote fair competition for the benefit of the consumers.

Many (but not all) Progressives supported prohibition in order to destroy the political power of local bosses based in saloons.[2] At the same time, women's suffrage was promoted to bring a "purer" female vote into the arena.[3] A second theme was building an Efficiency Movement in every sector that could identify old ways that needed modernizing, and bring to bear scientific, medical and engineering solutions; a key part of the efficiency movement was scientific management, or "Taylorism".

Many activists joined efforts to reform local government, public education, medicine, finance, insurance, industry, railroads, churches, and many other areas. Progressives transformed, professionalized and made "scientific" the social sciences, especially history,[4] economics,[5] and political science.[6] In academic fields the day of the amateur author gave way to the research professor who published in the new scholarly journals and presses. The national political leaders included Theodore Roosevelt, Robert M. La Follette, Sr., and Charles Evans Hughes on the Republican side, and William Jennings Bryan, Woodrow Wilson and Al Smith on the Democratic side.

Initially the movement operated chiefly at local levels; later it expanded to state and national levels. Progressives drew support from the middle class, and supporters included many lawyers, teachers, physicians, ministers and business people.[7] The Progressives strongly supported scientific methods as applied to economics, government, industry, finance, medicine, schooling, theology, education, and even the family. They closely followed advances underway at the time in Western Europe[8] and adopted numerous policies, such as a major transformation of the banking system by creating the Federal Reserve System in 1913.[9] Reformers felt that old-fashioned ways meant waste and inefficiency, and eagerly sought out the "one best system".[10][11]

Political reform[edit]

"The Awakening" Suffragists were successful in the West; their torch awakens the women struggling in the East and South in this cartoon by Hy Mayer in Puck Feb. 20, 1915

Disturbed by the waste, inefficiency, stubbornness, corruption and injustices of the Gilded Age, the progressives were committed to changing and reforming every aspect of the state, society and economy. Significant changes enacted at the national levels included the imposition of an income tax with the Sixteenth Amendment, direct election of Senators with the Seventeenth Amendment, Prohibition with the Eighteenth Amendment, and women's suffrage through the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.[12]

Exposing corruption[edit]

Muckrakers were journalists who exposed waste, corruption, and scandal in the highly influential new medium of national magazines, such as McClure's Magazine and TIME magazine. Ray Stannard Baker, George Creel and Brand Whitlock were active at the state and local level, while Lincoln Steffens exposed political corruption in many large cities; Ida Tarbell went after Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company. Samuel Hopkins Adams in 1905 showed the fraud involved in many patent medicines, Upton Sinclair's The Jungle (1906) was a novel that gave a horrid portrayal of how meat was packed, and David Graham Phillips unleashed a blistering indictment of the U.S. Senate in 1906. Roosevelt gave these journalists their nickname when he complained they were not being helpful by raking up all the muck.[13][14]

Modernization[edit]

The progressives were avid modernizers. They believed in science, technology, expertise—and especially education—as the grand solution to society's weaknesses. Characteristics of progressivism included a favorable attitude toward urban-industrial society, belief in mankind's ability to improve the environment and conditions of life, belief in obligation to intervene in economic and social affairs, and a belief in the ability of experts, such as Tom Sawyer, and in efficiency of government intervention.[15][16]

Philanthropy[edit]

The number of rich families climbed exponentially, from 100 or so millionaires in the 1870s, to 4000 in 1892 and 16,000 in 1916. Many paid heed to Andrew Carnegie's Gospel of Wealth that said they owed a duty to society that called for philanthropic giving to colleges, hospitals, medical research, libraries, museums, religion and social betterment.[17]

In the early 20th century, American philanthropy matured, with the development of very large, highly visible private foundations created by Rockefeller, and Carnegie. The largest foundations fostered modern, efficient, business-oriented operations (as opposed to "charity") designed to better society rather than merely enhance the status of the giver. Close ties were built with the local business community, as in the "community chest" movement.[18] The American Red Cross was reorganized and professionalized.[19] Several major foundations aided the blacks in the South, and were typically advised by Booker T. Washington. By contrast, Europe and Asia had few foundations. This allowed both Carnegie and Rockefeller to operate internationally with powerful effect.[20]

Democracy[edit]

Progressives sought to enable the citizenry to rule more directly and circumvent political bosses. Thanks to the efforts of Oregon Populist Party State Representative William S. U'Ren and his Direct Legislation League, voters in Oregon overwhelmingly approved a ballot measure in 1902 that created the initiative and referendum processes for citizens to directly introduce or approve proposed laws or amendments to the state constitution, making Oregon the first state to adopt such a system. U'Ren also helped in the passage of an amendment in 1908 that gave voters power to recall elected officials, and would go on to establish, at the state level, popular election of U.S. Senators and the first presidential primary in the United States. In 1911, California governor Hiram Johnson established the Oregon System of "Initiative, Referendum, and Recall" in his state, viewing them as good influences for citizen participation against the historic influence of large corporations on state lawmakers.[21] These Progressive reforms were soon replicated in other states, including Idaho, Washington, and Wisconsin, and today roughly half of U.S. states have initiative, referendum and recall provisions in their state constitutions.[22]

About 16 states began using primary elections to reduce the power of bosses and machines.[23] The Seventeenth Amendment was ratified in 1913, requiring that all senators be elected by the people (instead of state legislatures). The main motivation was to reduce the power of political bosses, who controlled the Senate seats by virtue of their control of state legislatures. The result, according to political scientist Henry Jones Ford, was that the United States Senate had become a "Diet of party lords, wielding their power without scruple or restraint, in behalf of those particular interests" that put them in office.[24]

Municipal reform[edit]

Many cities set up municipal reference bureaus to study the budgets and administrative structures of local governments. Progressive mayors were important in many cities,[25] such as Cleveland, Ohio (especially Mayor Tom Johnson); Toledo, Ohio;[26] Jersey City, New Jersey;[27] Los Angeles;[28] Memphis, Tennessee;[29] Louisville, Kentucky;[30] and many other cities, especially in the western states. In Illinois, Governor Frank Lowden undertook a major reorganization of state government.[31] In Wisconsin, the stronghold of Robert LaFollette, the Wisconsin Idea used the state university as a major source of ideas and expertise.[32]

Family and food[edit]

Colorado judge Ben Lindsey was a pioneer in the establishment of juvenile court systems.

Progressives believed that the family was the foundation stone of American society, and the government, especially municipal government, must work to enhance the family.[33] Local public assistance programs were reformed to try and keep families together. Inspired by crusading Judge Ben Lindsey of Denver, cities established juvenile courts to deal with disruptive teenagers without sending them to adult prisons.[34] Special emphasis was put on pure milk and water supplies. At the state and national levels new food and drug laws strengthened local efforts to guarantee the safety of the food system. The 1906 federal Pure Food and Drug Act, which was pushed by drug companies and providers of medical services, removed from the market patent medicines that had never been scientifically tested.[35] In addition, with the increase in technology use and creation of standard working hours, families had more leisure time. Many spent this leisure time at movie theaters. Progressives advocated for censorship of motion pictures as it was believed that patrons (especially children) viewing movies in dark, unclean, potentially unsafe theaters, might be negatively influenced in witnessing actors portraying crimes, violence, and sexually suggestive situations. Progressives across the country influenced municipal governments of large urban cities, to build numerous parks where it was believed that leisure time for children and families could be spent in a healthy, wholesome environment, thereby fostering good morals and citizenship.[36]

Eugenics[edit]

Some progressives, especially among economists, sponsored eugenics as a collectivist solution to excessively large or underperforming families, hoping that birth control would enable parents to focus their resources on fewer, better children.[37] However, there were no major national, state or local programs that practiced or endorsed eugenics. Progressive leaders like Herbert Croly and Walter Lippmann indicated their classically liberal concern over the danger posed to the individual by collectivism and statism.[38] The Catholics, although favoring collectivism, strongly opposed birth control proposals such as eugenics .[39]

Constitutional change[edit]

The Progressives tried to permanently fix their reforms into law through constitutional amendments 16-19. The 16th amendment made an income tax legal (this required an amendment due to previous Supreme Court rulings). The Progressives also made strides in attempts to reduce political corruption through the 17th amendment and the direct election of U.S. Senators. The most radical and controversial amendment came during the anti-German craze of World War I that helped the Progressives push through their plan for prohibition through the 18th amendment (once the Progressives fell out of power the 21st amendment repealed the 18th in 1933). The final progressive amendment came with the passage of the 19th amendment and women's suffrage.[40]

Prohibition[edit]

Prohibition was the outlawing of the manufacture, sale and transport of alcohol. Drinking itself was never prohibited. Throughout the Progressive Era, it remained one of the main causes at the local, state and national level. It pitted the minority urban Catholic population against the larger rural Protestant element. It achieved national success with the passage of the 18th Amendment by Congress in late 1917, and the ratification by three-fourths of the states in 1919. Prohibition was essentially a religious movement backed by the Methodists, Baptists, Congregationalists, Scandinavian Lutherans and other evangelical churches. Activists were mobilized by the highly effective Anti-Saloon League.[41] Timberlake (1963) argues the dries sought to break the liquor trust, weaken the saloon base of big-city machines, enhance industrial efficiency, and reduce the level of wife beating, child abuse, and poverty caused by alcoholism.[42]

Agitation for prohibition began during the Second Great Awakening in the 1840s when Crusades against drinking originated from evangelical Protestants.[43] Evangelicals precipitated the second wave of prohibition legislation during the 1880s, which had as its aim local and state prohibition. During the 1880s, referendums were held at the state level to enact prohibition amendments. Two important groups were formed during this period. The Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) was formed in 1874.[44] The Anti-Saloon League was formed in 1893, uniting activists from different religious groups.[45]

The third wave of prohibition legislation, of which national prohibition was the grand climax, began in 1907, when Georgia passed a state-wide prohibition law. By 1917, two thirds of the states had some form of prohibition laws and roughly three quarters of the population lived in dry areas. In 1913, the Anti-Saloon League first publicly appealed for a prohibition amendment. They preferred a constitutional amendment over a federal statute because although harder to achieve, they felt it would be harder to change. In 1913, Congress passed the Webb-Kenyon Act, which forbade the transport of liquor into dry states. As the United States entered World War I, the Conscription Act banned the sale of liquor near military bases.[46] In August 1917, the Lever Food and Fuel Control Act banned production of distilled spirits for the duration of the war. The War Prohibition Act, November, 1918, forbade the manufacture and sale of intoxicating beverages (more than 2.75% alcohol content) until the end of demobilization.

The drys worked energetically to secure two-third majority of both houses of Congress and the support of three quarters of the states needed for an amendment to the federal constitution. Thirty-six states were needed, and organizations were set up at all 48 states to seek ratification. In late 1917, Congress passed the Eighteenth Amendment; it was ratified in 1919 and took effect in January 1920. It prohibited the manufacturing, sale or transport of intoxicating beverages within the United States, as well as import and export. The Volstead Act, 1919, defined intoxicating as having alcohol content greater than 0.5% and established the procedures for federal enforcement of the Act. The states were at liberty to enforce prohibition or not, and most did not try.[47]

Consumer demand, however, led to a variety of illegal sources for alcohol, especially illegal distilleries and smuggling from Canada and other countries. It is difficult to determine the level of compliance, and although the media at the time portrayed the law as highly ineffective, even if it did not eradicate the use of alcohol, it certainly decreased alcohol consumption during the period. The Eighteenth Amendment was repealed in 1933, with the passage of the Twenty-First Amendment, thanks to a well organized repeal campaign led by Catholics (who stressed personal liberty) and businessmen (who stressed the lost tax revenue).[47]

Education[edit]

The Progressives worked hard to reform and modernize the schools at the local level. The era was notable for a dramatic expansion in the number of schools and students served, especially in the fast-growing metropolitan cities. After 1910 the smaller cities began building high schools. By 1940, 50% of young adults had earned a high school diploma. The result was the rapid growth of the educated middle class, who typically were the grass roots supporters of progressive measures.[48] During the Progressive Era, many states began passing compulsory schooling laws.[49] An emphasis on hygiene and health was made in education, with physical and health education becoming more important and widespread.[50]

Medicine and law[edit]

The "Flexner Report" of 1910, sponsored by the Carnegie Foundation, professionalized American medicine by discarding the scores of local small medical schools and focusing national funds, resources, and prestige on larger, professionalized medical schools associated with universities.[51][52] Prominent leaders included the Mayo Brothers whose Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, became world famous for innovative surgery.[53]

In the legal profession, the American Bar Association set up in 1900 the Association of American Law Schools (AALS). It established national standards for law schools, which led to the replacement of the old system of young men studying law privately with established lawyers by the new system of accredited law schools associated with universities.[54]

Social sciences[edit]

Progressive scholars, based at the emerging research universities such as Harvard, Columbia, Johns Hopkins, Chicago, Michigan, Wisconsin and California, worked to modernize their disciplines. The heyday of the amateur expert gave way to the research professor who published in the new scholarly journals and presses. Their explicit goal was to professionalize and make "scientific" the social sciences, especially as history,[4] economics,[5] and political science.[6] Professionalization meant creating new career tracks in the universities, with hiring and promotion dependent on meeting international models of scholarship.

Economic policy[edit]

President Wilson uses tariff, currency, and anti-trust laws to prime the pump and get the economy working.

The Progressive Era was one of general prosperity after the Panic of 1893—a severe depression—ended in 1897. The Panic of 1907 was short and mostly affected financiers. However, Campbell (2005) stresses the weak points of the economy in 1907–1914, linking them to public demands for more Progressive interventions. The Panic of 1907 was followed by a small decline in real wages and increased unemployment, with both trends continuing until World War I. Campbell emphasizes the resulting stress on public finance and the impact on the Wilson administration's policies. The weakened economy and persistent federal deficits led to changes in fiscal policy, including the imposition of federal income taxes on businesses and individuals and the creation of the Federal Reserve System.[55] Government agencies were also transformed in an effort to improve administrative efficiency.[56]

In the Gilded Age (late 19th century) the parties were reluctant to involve the federal government too heavily in the private sector, except in the area of railroads and tariffs. In general, they accepted the concept of laissez-faire, a doctrine opposing government interference in the economy except to maintain law and order. This attitude started to change during the depression of the 1890s when small business, farm, and labor movements began asking the government to intercede on their behalf.[56]

By the start of the 20th century, a middle class had developed that was leery of both the business elite and the radical political movements of farmers and laborers in the Midwest and West. The progressives argued the need for government regulation of business practices to ensure competition and free enterprise. Congress enacted a law regulating railroads in 1887 (the Interstate Commerce Act), and one preventing large firms from controlling a single industry in 1890 (the Sherman Antitrust Act). These laws were not rigorously enforced, however, until the years between 1900 and 1920, when Republican President Theodore Roosevelt (1901–1909), Democratic President Woodrow Wilson (1913–1921), and others sympathetic to the views of the Progressives came to power. Many of today's U.S. regulatory agencies were created during these years, including the Interstate Commerce Commission and the Federal Trade Commission. Muckrakers were journalists who encouraged readers to demand more regulation of business. Upton Sinclair's The Jungle (1906) was influential and persuaded America about the supposed horrors of the Chicago Union Stock Yards (though Sinclair himself never visited the site), a giant complex of meat processing that developed in the 1870s. The federal government responded to Sinclair's book and The Neill-Reynolds Report with the new regulatory Food and Drug Administration. Ida M. Tarbell wrote a series of articles against Standard Oil, which was perceived to be a monopoly. This affected both the government and the public reformers. Attacks by Tarbell and others helped pave the way for public acceptance of the breakup of the company by the Supreme Court in 1911.[56]

When Democrat Woodrow Wilson was elected President with a Democratic Congress in 1912 he implemented a series of progressive policies in economics. In 1913, the Sixteenth Amendment was ratified, and a small income tax was imposed on high incomes. The Democrats lowered tariffs with the Underwood Tariff in 1913, though its effects were overwhelmed by the changes in trade caused by the World War that broke out in 1914. Wilson proved especially effective in mobilizing public opinion behind tariff changes by denouncing corporate lobbyists, addressing Congress in person in highly dramatic fashion, and staging an elaborate ceremony when he signed the bill into law.[57] Wilson helped end the long battles over the trusts with the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914. He managed to convince lawmakers on the issues of money and banking by the creation in 1913 of the Federal Reserve System, a complex business-government partnership that to this day dominates the financial world.[58]

In 1913, Henry Ford dramatically increased the efficiency of his factories by large-scale use of the moving assembly line, with each worker doing one simple task in the production of automobiles. Emphasizing efficiency, Ford more than doubled wages (and cut hours from 9 a day to 8), attracting the best workers and sharply reducing labor turnover and absenteeism. His employees could and did buy his cars, and by cutting prices over and over he made the Model T cheap enough for millions of people to buy in the U.S. and in every major country. Ford's profits soared and his company dominated the world's automobile industry. Henry Ford became the world-famous prophet of high wages and high profits.[59]

Labor unions[edit]

Labor unions, especially the American Federation of Labor (AFL) grew rapidly in the early 20th century, and had a progressive agenda as well. After experimenting in the early 20th century with cooperation with business in the National Civic Federation, it turned after 1906 to a working political alliance with the Democratic party. The alliance was especially important in the larger industrial cities. The unions wanted restrictions on judges who intervened in labor disputes, usually on the side of the employer. They finally achieve that goal with the Norris–La Guardia Act of 1932.[60]

Immigration[edit]

The level of immigration grew steadily after 1896, with most new arrivals unskilled workers from eastern and southern Europe, who found jobs working in the steel mills, slaughterhouses and construction crews in the mill towns and industrial cities. The start of World War I in 1914 suddenly stopped most international movement, which only resumed after 1919. Starting in the 1880s, the labor unions aggressively promoted restrictions on immigration, especially restrictions on Chinese and other Asians.[61] The basic fear was that large numbers of unskilled, low-paid workers would defeat the union's efforts to raise wages through collective bargaining.[62] Other groups, such as the prohibitionists, opposed immigration because it was the base of strength of the saloon power, and the West generally. Rural Protestants distrusted the urban Catholics and Jews who comprised most of the immigrants after 1890.[63] On the other hand, the rapid growth of the industry called for large numbers of new workers, so large corporations generally opposed immigration restriction. By the early 1920s the consensus had been reached and that the total influx of immigration had to be restricted, and a series of laws in the 1920s accomplish that purpose.[64] A handful of eugenics advocates were also involved in immigration restriction.[65] Immigration restriction continued to be a national policy until after World War II.

During World War I, the progressives strongly promoted Americanization programs, designed to modernize the recent immigrants and turn them into model American citizens, while diminishing loyalties to the old country.[66] These programs often operated through the public school system, which expanded dramatically.[67]

Decline[edit]

In the 1940s typically historians saw the Progressive Era as a prelude to the New Deal and dated it from 1901 (when Roosevelt became president) to the start of World War I in 1914 or 1917.[68] Historians have moved back in time emphasizing the progressive reformers at the municipal[69] and state[70] levels in the 1890s.

End of the Era?[edit]

Much less settled is the question of when the era ended. Historians on the left who emphasize civil liberties decry their suppression during World War I and do not consider the war progressive.[71] Most historians, however, see the "war to end all wars" as a globalized expression of the American movement, with Wilson's fight for the League of Nations as the climax.[72]

The politics of the 1920s was unfriendly toward the labor unions and liberal crusaders against business, so many if not most historians who emphasize those themes write off the decade. Urban cosmopolitan scholars recoiled at the moralism of prohibition and the intolerance of the nativists of the KKK, and denounced the era. Richard Hofstadter, for example, in 1955 wrote that prohibition, "was a pseudo-reform, a pinched, parochial substitute for reform" that "was carried about America by the rural-evangelical virus".[73] However as Arthur S. Link emphasized, the progressives did not simply roll over and play dead.[74] Link's argument for continuity through the twenties stimulated a historiography that found Progressivism to be a potent force. Palmer, pointing to leaders like George Norris, says, "It is worth noting that progressivism, whilst temporarily losing the political initiative, remained popular in many western states and made its presence felt in Washington during both the Harding and Coolidge presidencies."[75] Gerster and Cords argue that, "Since progressivism was a 'spirit' or an 'enthusiasm' rather than an easily definable force with common goals, it seems more accurate to argue that it produced a climate for reform which lasted well into the 1920s, if not beyond."[76] Even the Klan has been seen in a new light, as numerous social historians reported that Klansmen were "ordinary white Protestants" primarily interested in purification of the system, which had long been a core progressive goal.[77]

While some progressive leaders became reactionaries, that usually happened in the 1930s, not in the 1920s, as shown by William Randolph Hearst,[78] Herbert Hoover, Al Smith and Henry Ford.

Business Progressivism in 1920s[edit]

What historians have identified as "business progressivism", with its emphasis on efficiency and typified by Henry Ford and Herbert Hoover[79] reached an apogee in the 1920s. Wik, for example, argues that Ford's "views on technology and the mechanization of rural America were generally enlightened, progressive, and often far ahead of his times."[80]

Tindall stresses the continuing importance of the Progressive movement in the South in the 1920s involving increased democracy, efficient government, corporate regulation, social justice, and governmental public service.[81][82] William Link finds political progressivism dominant in most of the South in the 1920s.[83] Likewise it was influential in Midwest.[84]

Historians of women and of youth emphasize the strength of the progressive impulse in the 1920s.[85] Women consolidated their gains after the success of the suffrage movement, and moved into causes such as world peace,[86] good government, maternal care (the Sheppard–Towner Act of 1921),[87] and local support for education and public health.[88] The work was not nearly as dramatic as the suffrage crusade, but women voted[89] and operated quietly and effectively. Paul Fass, speaking of youth, says "Progressivism as an angle of vision, as an optimistic approach to social problems, was very much alive."[90] International influences that sparked many reform ideas likewise continued into the 1920s, as American ideas of modernity began to influence Europe.[91]

There is general agreement that that the era was over by 1932, especially since a majority of the remaining progressives opposed the New Deal.[92]

Notable Progressive Leaders[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ John D. Buenker, John C. Burnham, and Robert M. Crunden, Progressivism (1986) pp 3–21
  2. ^ James H. Timberlake, Prohibition and the progressive movement, 1900–1920 (1970) pp 1–7
  3. ^ On purification, see David W. Southern, The Malignant Heritage: Yankee Progressives and the Negro Question, 1900–1915, (1968); Southern, The Progressive Era And Race: Reaction And Reform 1900–1917 (2005); Norman H. Clark, Deliver Us from Evil: An Interpretation of American Prohibition (1976) p 170; and Aileen Kraditor, The Ideas of the Woman Suffrage Movement: 1890–1920 (1967). 134–36
  4. ^ a b Richard Hofstadter, The Progressive Historians: Turner, Beard, Parrington (1968)
  5. ^ a b Joseph Dorfman, The economic mind in American civilization, 1918–1933 vol 3, 1969
  6. ^ a b Barry Karl, Charles E. Merriam and the Study of Politics (1975)
  7. ^ George Mowry, The California Progressives (1963) p 91.
  8. ^ Daniel T. Rodgers, Atlantic Crossings: Social Politics in a Progressive Age (1998)
  9. ^ Michael Kazin et al. (2011). The Concise Princeton Encyclopedia of American Political Turn up History. Princeton University Press. p. 181. ISBN 9781400839469. 
  10. ^ Lewis L. Gould , America in the Progressive Era, 1890–1914 (2000)
  11. ^ David B. Tyack, The One Best System: A History of American Urban Education (Harvard UP, 1974), p. 39
  12. ^ David E. Kyvig, Explicit and authentic acts: amending the U.S. Constitution, 1776–1995 (Kansas UP, 1996) pp 208–14
  13. ^ Robert Miraldi, ed. The Muckrakers: Evangelical Crusaders (Praeger, 2000)
  14. ^ Harry H. Stein, "American Muckrakers and Muckraking: The 50-Year Schol arship," Journalism Quarterly, (1979) 56#1 pp 9–17
  15. ^ John D. Buenker, and Robert M. Crunden. Progressivism (1986); Maureen Flanagan, America Reformed: Progressives and Progressivisms, 1890n s–1920s (2007)
  16. ^ Samuel Haber, Efficiency and Uplift Scientific Management in the Progressive Era 1890–1920 (1964)656
  17. ^ Olivier Zunz, Philanthropy in America: A History (2012) ch 1 excerpt and text search
  18. ^ Nikki Mandell, “Allies or Antagonists? Philanthropic Reformers and Business Reformers in the Progressive Era,” Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era (2012), 11#1 71–117.
  19. ^ Branden Little. "Review of Jones, Marian Moser, The American Red Cross from Clara Barton to the New Deal" H-SHGAPE, H-Net Reviews. August, 2013, online
  20. ^ Zunz, p 42
  21. ^ John M. Allswang, The initiative and referendum in California, 1898–1998, (2000) ch 1
  22. ^ "State Initiative and Referendum Summary". State Initiative & Referendum Institute at USC. Retrieved 27 November 2006. 
  23. ^ Alan Ware, The American direct primary: party institutionalization and transformation (2002)
  24. ^ Christopher Hoebeke, The road to mass democracy: original intent and the Seventeenth Amendment (1995) p 18
  25. ^ Kenneth Finegold, "Traditional Reform, Municipal Populism, and Progressivism," Urban Affairs Review, (1995) 31#1 pp 20-42
  26. ^ Arthur E. DeMatteo, "The Progressive As Elitist: 'Golden Rule' Jones And The Toledo Charter Reform Campaign of 1901," Northwest Ohio Quarterly, 1997, Vol. 69 Issue 1, p 8-30
  27. ^ Eugene M. Tobin, "The Progressive as Single Taxer: Mark Fagan and the Jersey City Experience, 1900–1917," American Journal of Economics & Sociology, July 1974, Vol. 33 Issue 3, pp 287–298
  28. ^ Martin J. Schiesl, "Progressive Reform in Los Angeles under Mayor Alexander, 1909–1913," California Historical Quarterly, 1975, Vol. 54 Issue 1, p 37-56
  29. ^ G. Wayne Dowdy, "'A Business Government by a Business Man': E. H. Crump as a Progressive Mayor, 1910–1915," Tennessee Historical Quarterly, Sep 2001, Vol. 60 Issue 3, pp 162–175
  30. ^ William E. Ellis, "Robert Worth Bingham and Louisville Progressivism, 1905–1910," Filson Club History Quarterly, 1980, Vol. 54 Issue 2, pp 169–195
  31. ^ William Thomas Hutchinson, Lowden of Illinois: the life of Frank O. Lowden (1957) vol 2
  32. ^ "Progressivism and the Wisconsin Idea". Wisconsin Historical Society. 6 February 2008. 
  33. ^ Gwendoline Alphonso, "Hearth and Soul: Economics and Culture in Partisan Conceptions of the Family in the Progressive Era, 1900–1920," Studies in American Political Development, Oct 2010, Vol. 24 Issue 2, pp 206–232
  34. ^ D'Ann Campbell, "Judge Ben Lindsey and the Juvenile Court Movement, 1901–1904," Arizona and the West, 1976, Vol. 18 Issue 1, pp 5–20
  35. ^ Marc T. Law, "The Origins of State Pure Food Regulation," Journal of Economic History, Dec 2003, Vol. 63 Issue 4, pp 1103–1131
  36. ^ Black, Gregory D. Hollywood Censored: Morality Codes, Catholics, and the Movies. Cambridge University Press 1994
  37. ^ Leonard, Thomas C. (2005) Retrospectives: Eugenics and Economics in the Progressive Era Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(4): 207–224
  38. ^ Nancy Cohen, The reconstruction of American liberalism, 1865–1914 (2002) p 243
  39. ^ Celeste Michelle Condit, The meanings of the gene: public debates about human heredity (1999) p. 51
  40. ^ David E. Kyvig, Explicit and authentic acts: amending the U.S. Constitution, 1776–1995 (1996)
  41. ^ K. Austin Kerr, Organized for Prohibition: A New History of the Anti-Saloon League (1985).
  42. ^ James Timberlake, Prohibition and the Progressive Movement, 1900–1920 (Harvard UP, 1963)
  43. ^ Jack S. Blocker, American Temperance Movements: Cycles of Reform (1989)
  44. ^ Jed Dannenbaum, Drink and Disorder: Temperance Reform in Cincinnati from the Washingtonian Revival to the WCTU (1984)
  45. ^ Kerr, Organized for Prohibition: A New History of the Anti-Saloon League (1985)
  46. ^ S.J. Mennell, "Prohibition: A Sociological View," Journal of American Studies 3, no. 2 (1969): 159–175.
  47. ^ a b David E. Kyvig,Repealing National Prohibition (2000)
  48. ^ David B. Tyack, The One Best System: A History of American Urban Education (Harvard University Press, 1974)
  49. ^ "State Compulsory School Attendance Laws —". Infoplease.com. 1999-10-01. Retrieved 2012-07-01. 
  50. ^ Engs, Ruth C. (2003). The progressive era's health reform movement: a historical dictionary. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. pp. 20–22. ISBN 0-275-97932-6. 
  51. ^ Abraham Flexner, Flexner Report on Medical Education in the United States and Canada 1910 (new edition 1960)
  52. ^ Lawrence Friedman and Mark McGarvie, Charity, philanthropy, and civility in American history (2003) p. 231
  53. ^ W. Bruce Fye, "The Origins and Evolution of the Mayo Clinic from 1864 to 1939: A Minnesota Family Practice Becomes an International 'Medical Mecca'", Bulletin of the History of Medicine Volume 84, Number 3, Fall 2010 pp. 323–357 in Project MUSE
  54. ^ Steven J. Diner, A Very Different Age: Americans of the Progressive Era (1998) p. 186
  55. ^ Ballard Campbell, "Economic Causes of Progressivism," Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era, Jan 2005, Vol. 4 Issue 1, pp 7–22
  56. ^ a b c Harold U. Faulkner, The Decline of Laissez Faire, 1897–1917 (1951)
  57. ^ Vincent W. Howard, "Woodrow Wilson, The Press, and Presidential Leadership: Another Look at the Passage of the Underwood Tariff, 1913," CR: The Centennial Review, 1980, Vol. 24 Issue 2, pp 167–184
  58. ^ Arthur S. Link, Woodrow Wilson and the progressive Era, 1910-1917 (1954) pp 25–80
  59. ^ Faith Jaycox (2005). The Progressive Era: Eyewitness History. Infobase. p. 403. ISBN 9780816051595. 
  60. ^ Julie Greene, Pure and Simple Politics: The American Federation of Labor and Political Activism, 1881–1917 (1998)
  61. ^ Robert D. Parmet, Labor and immigration in industrial America (1987) p. 146
  62. ^ Gwendolyn Mink, Old Labor and New Immigrants in American Political Development: Union, Party and State, 1875–1920 (1990)
  63. ^ Daniel J. Tichenor, Dividing lines: the politics of immigration control in America (2002) p. 71
  64. ^ Claudia Golden, "The Political Economy of Immigration Restriction in the United States, 1890 to 1921," in Goldin, The regulated economy (1994) ch 7
  65. ^ Thomas C. Leonard, "Retrospectives: Eugenics and Economics in the Progressive Era" Journal of Economic Perspectives, (2005) 19(4): 207–224
  66. ^ James R. Barrett, "Americanization from the Bottom, Up: Immigration and the Remaking of the American Working Class, 1880–1930," Journal of American History 79 (December 1992): 996–1020. in JSTOR
  67. ^ Christina A. Ziegler-McPherson, Americanization in the States: Immigrant Social Welfare Policy, Citizenship, and National Identity in the United States, 1908–1929 (2009)
  68. ^ Eric Goldman, Rendezvous with Destiny: A History of Modern American Reform (1952)
  69. ^ Melvin G. Holli, Reform in Detroit: Hazen S. Pingree and Urban Politics (1969)
  70. ^ David P. Thelen, The New Citizenship: Origins of Progressivism in Wisconsin, 1885–1900 (1972)
  71. ^ Paul L. Murphy, World War I and the Origin of Civil Liberties in the United States (1979)
  72. ^ John Milton Cooper, Breaking the Heart of the World: Woodrow Wilson and the Fight for the League of Nations (2010)
  73. ^ Richard Hofstadter, The Age of Reform (1955) p. 287
  74. ^ Arthur S. Link, “What Happened to the Progressive Movement in the 1920s?," American Historical Review Vol. 64, No. 4 (Jul., 1959), pp. 833–851 in JSTOR
  75. ^ Niall A. Palmer, The twenties in America: politics and history (2006) p 176
  76. ^ Patrick Gerster and Nicholas Cords, Myth in American history (1977) p 203
  77. ^ Stanley Coben, "Ordinary white Protestants: The KKK of the 1920s," Journal of Social History, Fall 1994, Vol. 28 Issue 1, pp 155–65
  78. ^ Rodney P. Carlisle, Hearst and the New Deal: The Progressive as Reactionary (1979)
  79. ^ Joan Hoff Wilson, Herbert Hoover: Forgotten Progressive (1975)
  80. ^ Reynold M. Wik, "Henry Ford's Science and Technology for Rural America," Technology & Culture, July 1962, Vol. 3 Issue 3, pp 247–257
  81. ^ George B. Tindall, "Business Progressivism: Southern Politics in the Twenties," South Atlantic Quarterly 62 (Winter 1963): 92–106.
  82. ^ George B. Tindall, The Emergence of the New South, 1913–1945 (1970)
  83. ^ William A. Link, The Paradox of Southern Progressivism, 1880–1930 (1997) p 294
  84. ^ Judith Sealander, Grand Plans: Business Progressivism and Social Change in Ohio's Miami Valley, 1890–1929 (1991)
  85. ^ Maureen A. Flanagan, America Reformed: Progressives and Progressivisms, 1890s–1920s (2006)
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Further reading[edit]

Overviews[edit]

  • Buenker, John D., John C. Burnham, and Robert M. Crunden. Progressivism (1986)
  • Buenker, John D. and Joseph Buenker, Eds. Encyclopedia of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era. Sharpe Reference, 2005. xxxii + 1256 pp. in three volumes. ISBN 0-7656-8051-3. 900 articles by 200 scholars
  • Buenker, John D., ed. Dictionary of the Progressive Era (1980)
  • Cocks, Catherine, Peter C. Holloran and Alan Lessoff. Historical Dictionary of the Progressive Era (2009)
  • Diner, Steven J. A Very Different Age: Americans of the Progressive Era (1998)
  • Glad, Paul W. "Progressives and the Business Culture of the 1920s," Journal of American History, Vol. 53, No. 1. (June 1966), pp. 75–89. in JSTOR
  • Gould, Lewis L. America in the Progressive Era, 1890–1914" (2000)
  • Gould Lewis L. ed., The Progressive Era (1974)
  • Hays, Samuel D. The Response to Industrialization, 1885–1914 (1957),
  • Hofstadter, Richard, The Age of Reform (1954), Pulitzer Prize
  • Jensen, Richard. "Democracy, Republicanism and Efficiency: The Values of American Politics, 1885–1930," in Byron Shafer and Anthony Badger, eds, Contesting Democracy: Substance and Structure in American Political History, 1775–2000 (U of Kansas Press, 2001) pp 149–180; online version
  • Kennedy, David M. ed., Progressivism: The Critical Issues (1971), readings
  • Lasch, Christopher. The True and Only Heaven: Progress and its Critics (1991)
  • Leuchtenburg, William E. "Progressivism and Imperialism: The Progressive Movement and American Foreign Policy, 1898–1916," The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 39, No. 3. (Dec., 1952), pp. 483–504. JSTOR
  • Mann, Arthur. ed., The Progressive Era (1975)
  • McGerr, Michael. A Fierce Discontent: The Rise and Fall of the Progressive Movement in America, 1870–1920 (2003)
  • Mowry, George. The Era of Theodore Roosevelt and the Birth of Modern America, 1900–1912. (1954) general survey of era
  • Burl Noggle, "The Twenties: A New Historiographical Frontier," The Journal of American History, Vol. 53, No. 2. (Sep., 1966), pp. 299–314. in JSTOR
  • Pease, Otis, ed. The Progressive Years: The Spirit and Achievement of American Reform (1962), primary documents
  • Rodgers, Daniel T. Atlantic Crossings: Social Politics in a Progressive Age (2000). stresses links with Europe online edition
  • Thelen, David P. "Social Tensions and the Origins of Progressivism," Journal of American History 56 (1969), 323–341 online at JSTOR
  • Wiebe, Robert. The Search For Order, 1877–1920 (1967).

Presidents and politics[edit]

  • Beale Howard K. Theodore Roosevelt and the Rise of America to World Power. (1956).
  • Blum, John Morton. The Republican Roosevelt. (1954). Series of essays that examine how TR did politics
  • Brands, H.W. Theodore Roosevelt (2001).
  • Clements, Kendrick A. The Presidency of Woodrow Wilson (1992).
  • Coletta, Paolo. The Presidency of William Howard Taft (1990).
  • Cooper, John Milton The Warrior and the Priest: Woodrow Wilson and Theodore Roosevelt. (1983).
  • Cooper, John Milton Woodrow Wilson: A Biography (2009)
  • Gould, Lewis L. The Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt (1991).
  • Harbaugh, William Henry. The Life and Times of Theodore Roosevelt. (1963).
  • Harrison, Robert. Congress, Progressive Reform, and the New American State (2004).
  • Hofstadter, Richard. The American Political Tradition (1948), ch. 8–9–10.
  • Kolko, Gabriel. The Triumph of Conservatism (1963).  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  • Link, Arthur Stanley. Woodrow Wilson and the Progressive Era, 1910–1917 (1954).
  • Morris, Edmund Theodore Rex. (2001), biography of T. Roosevelt covers 1901–1909
  • Mowry, George E. Theodore Roosevelt and the Progressive Movement. (2001).
  • Pestritto, R.J. "Woodrow Wilson and the Roots of Modern Liberalism." (2005).
  • Sanders, Elizabeth. Roots of Reform: Farmers, Workers and the American State, 1877–1917 (1999).
  • Wilson, Joan Hoff. Herbert Hoover, Forgotten Progressive (1965).

State, local, ethnic, gender, business, labor, religion[edit]

  • Abell, Aaron I. American Catholicism and Social Action: A Search for Social Justice, 1865–1950 (1960).
  • Bruce, Kyle and Chris Nyland. "Scientific Management, Institutionalism, and Business Stabilization: 1903–1923" Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 35, 2001. in JSTOR
  • Buenker, John D. Urban Liberalism and Progressive Reform (1973).
  • Buenker, John D. The History of Wisconsin, Vol. 4: The Progressive Era, 1893–1914 (1998).
  • Feffer, Andrew. The Chicago Pragmatists and American Progressivism (1993).
  • Frankel, Noralee and Nancy S. Dye, eds. Gender, Class, Race, and Reform in the Progressive Era (1991).
  • Hahn, Steven. A Nation under Our Feet: Black Political Struggles in the Rural South from Slavery to the Great Migration (2003).
  • Huthmacher, J. Joseph. "Urban Liberalism and the Age of Reform" Mississippi Valley Historical Review 49 (1962): 231–241, in JSTOR; emphasized urban, ethnic, working class support for reform
  • Link, William A. The Paradox of Southern Progressivism, 1880–1930 (1992).
  • Montgomery, David. The Fall of the House of Labor: The workplace, the state, and American labor activism, 1865–1925 (1987).
  • Muncy, Robyn. Creating A Feminine Dominion in American Reform, 1890–1935 (1991).
  • Lubove, Roy. The Progressives and the Slums: Tenement House Reform in New York City, 1890–1917 Greenwood Press: 1974.
  • Recchiuti, John Louis. Civic Engagement: Social Science and Progressive-Era Reform in New York City (2007).
  • Stromquist, Shelton. Reinventing 'The People': The Progressive Movement, the Class Problem, and the Origins of Modern Liberalism, (U. of Illinois Press, 2006). ISBN 0-252-07269-3.
  • Thelen, David. The New Citizenship, Origins of Progressivism in Wisconsin, 1885–1900 (1972).
  • Wesser, Robert F. Charles Evans Hughes: politics and reform in New York, 1905–1910 (1967).
  • Wiebe, Robert. "Business Disunity and the Progressive Movement, 1901–1914," The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 44, No. 4. (Mar., 1958), pp. 664–685. in JSTOR