Project NEXUS

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Project NEXUS is a National Science Foundation (NSF) grant funded project based at the University of Maryland, College Park and headed by Principal Investigator Dr. J. Randy McGinnis. Its purpose is to investigate an innovative model of teacher preparation.

Originally a collaboration among University of Maryland, College Park (UM), (a large, primarily majority population university); Bowie State University (BSU), Maryland (a smaller, historically black university); and Hands On Science Outreach, Inc. (a national organization developing and administering informal science education classes for children), it has evolved into a collaborative with Coppin State University (CSU), (Maryland) and available informal science education internships. The award was made in 2005 and ran until 2012.

The key assumption was that science educational practices require systemic reform within the undergraduate science subject matter and education classes, prospective teachers’ field-based experiences, and professional development during new teachers induction years (NSF, 1993;[1] NRC, 1997;[2] Sunal, Wright, & Day, 2004.)[3]

Project NEXUS was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0455752.[4]

Introduction[edit]

The full title of the project is: Project NEXUS: The Maryland Upper Elementary/Middle School Science Teacher Professional Continuum Model. It was designed as a research project to investigate the question:

To what extent of success (and for what reasons) undergraduate elementary teacher education majors, particularly those from currently underrepresented groups, with demonstrated interest and performance in science, can be recruited and prepared to teach upper elementary/middle science in a manner consistent with Standards-based recommendations?

NSF application abstract[edit]

The proposed project will promote quality science education by developing and testing an exemplary model that will prepare, support and sustain upper elementary and middle level specialist science teachers. Project NEXUS teachers will benefit from a baccalaureate program that features connecting undergraduate science content with pedagogy seminars and method courses, supported internship experiences with adolescent students in Informal education contexts, field placements in urban professional development schools (PDS) and ongoing innovative educational experiences addressing the needs of minority and urban students, participation in an induction LISTSERV, and continuous university, public school district, and Informal education support during their induction years. Participants in the 5-year project include 150 new specialist science teachers and 40 practicing mentor teachers (formal and informal science education domains).

Goals and outcomes[edit]

NEXUS intern works helps with hands-on materials in HOSO placement
  1. To build a new teacher preparation continuum model for upper elementary/middle school science teachers with an undergraduate academic minor in science content who can pass standardized exams in their content field.
  2. To implement this model at the University of Maryland, College Park and Bowie State University.
  3. To increase the number of elementary teacher education majors who concentrate in science, particularly those typically underrepresented.
  4. To increase the number of qualified upper elementary/middle school science teachers, particularly those typically underrepresented.
  5. To evaluate the model’s effectiveness.
  6. To conduct research on the model.
  7. To disseminate the model locally and nationally.

The four components of Project NEXUS[edit]

Component A consists of undergraduate academic advisors who use recruitment strategies that target academic majors and minors in content, particularly those from currently unrepresented groups, to enroll in a specialist upper elementary/middle level science teacher preparation program.

Component B consists of the use of transformative undergraduate science content courses that exemplify the use of an inquiry perspective.

Component C consists of an extensive-in-duration junior level field-based teaching placement in an after school Informal education setting with adolescent learners.

Component D consists of an instructional theme of data management and statistical analysis used in their transformative science methods course and in their PDS senior year urban field placements.

Research plans by year[edit]

A primary measure of success for this study consists of documenting in Project NEXUS how many interns are recruited, prepared, and then teach Standards-based science to upper level students. The total impact of the innovation in Project NEXUS will be obtained by comparing with current baseline data to what extent the elementary education teacher programs at UM and its partner university, now Coppin State, are able to recruit and prepare new teachers who take upper elementary/middle level science teaching positions and teach in a Standards-based manner, particularly those from currently underrepresented groups. The small studies in Project NEXUS are essential to add to our understanding of the reasons for the outcomes of Project NEXUS.

Year one (Y1)[edit]

A study of recruitment to the Project NEXUS science teacher education program: A focus on the undergraduate advisors.

Central research question: Y1[edit]

To what level of success and for what reasons is it possible for undergraduate academic advisors to recruit undergraduate college students with academic majors and minors in content, particularly those who are members of underrepresented groups, to be science specialist upper elementary/middle school teachers?

Methodology and data collected: Y1[edit]

A case study was conducted during Y1 of Project NEXUS. The focus was on documenting and interpreting the recruitment efforts made in Project NEXUS. Participants included the education and science content advisors at UM and BSU (n=12) as well as the Project NEXUS leadership and representatives from the UM College of Education Minority Institute and Minority Achievement and Urban Education (n=5). Data consisted of individual and focus group interviews with the advisors, and observation data of advisor/advisee interactions. In addition, all minority candidates who were successfully recruited by the advisors were invited to complete an open ended survey that asked them to share the reason(s) for their decision to teach science to upper elementary/middle level students. Based on a review of the survey responses by the Project NEXUS leadership, a purposive selection of new minority recruits that represent the range of reasons for choosing to study elementary teacher preparation (approximately n= 10) was invited to participate in a focus group conversation. The focus group conversation was audiotaped and later transcribed. The question explored in the focus group conversation was why currently underrepresented groups in science are drawn to (or possibly not) to teach science to upper elementary/middle level students.

In addition, during fall of Y1 of Project NEXUS, baseline data on graduates from the UM and BSU elementary education teacher preparation programs were obtained by use of a survey sent out in the mail. This baseline data was used in Y5 of Project NEXUS to compare the results of Project NEXUS. The baseline data was collected by use of a 51-item survey instrument developed and field-tested by the Project Director of Project NEXUS (McGinnis) in earlier NSF-funded research, “MCTP New Teachers Beliefs and Practices of Mathematics and Science.” The instrument was revised by elimination of the items related to mathematics (23 items). The new instrument (“New Teachers Beliefs and Practices of Science”) was administered mid-year to all the UM and BSU new teachers during their first year of teaching.

Year two (Y2)[edit]

A study of recruitment and the preparation of standards-informed upper elementary/middle level science teachers: A focus on transformative science courses.

Central research question: Y2[edit]

Teacher interns in the transformative biology class use technology in contrast to the traditional lecture/wet lab format

To what level of success and for what reasons does participation in undergraduate science content courses that exemplify the use of an inquiry perspective affect the recruitment and preparation of teacher interns, particularly those who are members of underrepresented groups, to be science specialist upper elementary/middle school teachers?

Methodology and data collected: Y2[edit]

A pre-test, post-test study design was used to assess the impact of the transformed courses on the sophomore teacher interns’ learning (attitudes and beliefs dimensions). The instrument used was a revised version of a valid and reliable data collection tool, “Attitudes and Beliefs of the Nature of and the teaching of Mathematics and Science” (McGinnis, et al., 2002). The revised instrument used for both the pre-test (administered the first day of the courses) and the post-test (administered the last day of the courses) consists of 19 science items taken verbatim from the original survey. The pre-test, open-ended items were 1) Are you enrolled in an elementary education teacher preparation program?, 2) Assuming you did have to teach, what grade levels would you teach science?, and 3) How would you teach science?

The post-test open ended items would ask interns to respond to: 1) To what degree and for what reason(s) their science course encouraged them to seriously consider teaching upper level/middle level science; and 2) to what degree and for what reason(s) their science course encouraged them to teach science in an inquiry-based manner. The sample includes all the teacher education interns who expressed interest in teaching upper elementary/middle level science and who are enrolled in the designated transformative science content course at both UM and BSU during Project Year 2 (28). The Likert item data has been quantitatively analyzed to report means by item and to look for statistically significant changes between the pre-and post-administrations of the survey. The open-ended items were analyzed using the qualitative technique of open coding to look for trends and patterns. Data was disaggregated to highlight minority students’ responses.

The transformative microbiology course meets outside of the laboratory to consider the relationship of science content material to their teaching

Year three (Y3)[edit]

A study of the use of informal science urban field placements in the Project NEXUS science teacher preparation program.

Central research question: Y3[edit]

To what level of success and for what reasons do field-based placements in after school informal science education programs that serve adolescent students affect the recruitment (and preparation) of college students, particularly those who are members of underrepresented groups, to be science specialist upper elementary/middle level teachers?

Methodology and data collected: Y3[edit]

During Y2, in the fall, 2006 Project NEXUS piloted the training of undergraduate teacher interns placed in Hands on Science Outreach (HOSO) afterschool courses. The pilot group consisted of 4 interns, 1 male and 3 females (all African American). HOSO’s training for Adult Learners was adapted to two 3-hour training sessions for teacher interns.

In spring 2007, training of undergraduate teacher interns placed in HOSO was scaled up to a group that consisted of 1 male and 24 females (a mixture of Black/ African American, Asian, Hispanic, and White backgrounds). Training was further refined to consist of a 1-hour orientation session and a follow-up 2-hour training session. This version of the HOSO training was evaluated to fit into the academic programs of undergraduate teacher interns.

NEXUS intern uses classroom microscopes to explore the children’s handmade slides of soil as they investigate in their HOSO placement

Both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies have been used to investigate this question. Quantitatively, data collection consists of participant responses to a pre-and post-test survey Likert survey that examine the intern’s attitudes and beliefs regarding teaching science to upper elementary/middle level students. The instrument used is a revised version of a valid and reliable data collection tool, “Attitudes and Beliefs of the Nature of and the teaching of Mathematics and Science” (McGinnis, et al., 2002). The revised instrument used for both the pre-test (administered the week before interns begin the HOSO apprenticeship) and the post-test (administered the week following completion of the HOSO internship) consisted of 19 science items taken verbatim from the original survey. Qualitatively, data collection consisted of pre-test open-ended items that included: 1) What grade levels do you want to teach science? 2) How do you intend to teach science?, and 3) For what reason(s) are you participating as an Adult Leader’s apprentice in the HOSO after school informal science program? Post-test open ended items includd: 1) To what degree and for what reason(s) did the HOSO after school science course encourage you to seriously consider teaching upper level/middle level science?; and 2) to what degree and for what reason(s) did the HOSO after school internship encourage you to teach science in an inquiry-based manner?

A comparison study was also conducted that examines the responses of the Project NEXUS participants and a sample of matched elementary major teacher candidates (selected to include subjects from UM and BSU) who did not participate in the informal science internship (n=30). The sample that did not participate in the HOSO after school informal science program responded to the same Likert items taken from the revised McGinnis instrument “Attitudes and Beliefs of the Nature of and the Teaching of Mathematics and Science.” The instrument was administered the same week that the Project NEXUS HOSO participants responded to their instruments. Pre-test open-ended items for the non-HOSO participating sample included: 1) What grade levels do you want to teach science? 2) How do you intend to teach science?, and 3) For what reason(s) are you not participating as an Adult Leader’s apprentice in the HOSO after school informal science program? Post-test open-ended items for the non-HOSO participating sample included: At this time, 1) What grade levels do you want to teach science? 2) How do you intend to teach science?

In addition, a selection of Project NEXUS interns participated in a small number of case studies (n=6) that included documentation and interpretation of their experiences during their HOSO informal science education placements. At least four of the case studies feature minority teacher candidates who represented, respectively, UM and BSU (two from each institution). Data consisted of ongoing audiotaped and transcribed interviews with the interns, weekly intern email journal reflections on their experiences, Adult Leaders’ observations and reflections on the interns’ participation as HOSO apprentices, and researcher field notes. Open coding, analytic induction and constant comparison were used to analyze the data.

Year four (Y4)[edit]

Drawing by new or preservice teacher illustrating beliefs about teaching and learning science.

A study of an instructional theme in the Project NEXUS science teacher preparation program: A focus on their senior year science methods course and their PDS urban placement.

Central research question: Y4[edit]

To what level of success and for what reasons participation in a transformative science methods course and a senior year PDS placement in an urban environment that includes an organizing theme of data collection and statistical analysis affects the recruitment (and preparation) of college students, particularly those who are members of underrepresented groups, to be science specialist upper elementary/middle level teachers?

Methodology and data collected: Y4[edit]

A pre-test, post-test mixed methodology study of the Project NEXUS cohort’s beliefs and teaching practices was conducted, disaggregating data to highlight the responses of the minority interns. The existing valid and reliable instrument developed earlier by McGinnis et al. was used (“Attitudes and Beliefs About the Nature of and the Teaching of Mathematics and Science”) to measure the variables. In addition, add the following open-ended items were added to the pre-test: 1) What grade levels do you want to teach science? 2) How do you intend to teach science? The following open-ended items were added to the post-test: 1) What grade levels do you want to teach science? 2) How do you intend to teach science?, and 3) and 2) to what degree and for what reason(s) did their science methods course and their field based PDS placement encourage them to teach science in an inquiry-based manner that included a focus on data management and statistical analysis? The Likert item data was quantitatively analyzed to report means by item and to look for statistically significant changes between the pre-and post-administrations of the survey. The open-ended items were analyzed using the qualitative technique of open coding to look for trends and patterns. Data were disaggregated to highlight minority students’ responses. In addition, a number of qualitative case studies (n= 10) were conducted of UM and BSU interns as they experienced in their senior year the semester long transformative science methods course and their yearlong PDS urban field placements. At least 6 of the participants were minority teacher candidates, representing both BSU and UM (3 from each institution). Data consisted of ongoing audiotaped and transcribed interviews with the participating interns, weekly intern email journal reflections on their experiences, the science instructors’ observations and reflections on the interns’ participation in the science methods course, and researcher field notes. Open coding, analytic induction and constant comparison were used to analyze the data. Also, during their science methods course, a field- tested HOSO calendar product was used as a research data collection instrument regarding the interns’ understanding of data management and statistical analysis as well as the role of informal science in promoting Standards-based science teaching and learning.

Year five (Y5)[edit]

Drawing by new or preservice teacher illustrating beliefs about science in the classroom.

A study of the induction year in the Project NEXUS science teacher preparation program.

Central research question: Y5[edit]

To what extent of success (and for what reasons) undergraduate elementary teacher education majors, particularly those from currently underrepresented groups, with demonstrated interest and performance in science can be recruited and prepared to teach upper elementary/middle science in a manner consistent with Standards-based recommendations?

Methodology and data collected: Y5[edit]

This overarching research question in Project NEXUS was answered in Y5 of Project NEXUS by comparing the performance of the UM and the BSU Project NEXUS elementary teacher preparation program in producing new teachers who take upper elementary/middle level science teaching positions, particularly those from currently underrepresented groups, with current performances of the two teacher preparation programs (baseline data collected fall 2005). A t-test was used to examine for significance in differences. Baseline performance data collected by use of survey methodology in Y1 of Project NEXUS consisted of post graduation UM and BSU new teacher information on the grade level teaching positions they have taken and on their reported beliefs of science as a discipline and teaching practices, disaggregated by the interns’ demographic background. Evidence of success was measured by whether there was a significant increase of the number of Project NEXUS new teachers who took upper elementary/middle level teaching positions and who expressed beliefs of science as a discipline and teaching practices in alignment with Standards-based recommendations (baseline data, Year 1). The data described above were collected by use of a revised 51-item survey instrument developed and field-tested by the Project Director of Project NEXUS (McGinnis) in earlier NSF-funded research, “MCTP New Teachers Beliefs and Practices of Mathematics and Science.” The instrument was revised by elimination of the items related to mathematics (23 items). The new instrument (“New Teachers Beliefs and Practices of Science”) was administered mid-year to all the UM and BSU new teachers during their first year of teaching.

In addition, a small number of qualitative case studies (n=8) were conducted in the spring of their first year of teaching of the BSU and UM new teachers who reported that they were teaching in upper elementary/middle level schools and in a manner in alignment with Standards-based recommendations. The case study participants included graduates from both UM and BSU, including the majority (n>5) representing currently underrepresented groups. Data collection included interviews (individual and focus group), artifact analysis of their lesson plans, and reflective email journal responses. A central area of investigation was their perspective on what level of impact (if any) the various aspects of Project NEXUS had on their job decision-making and on their instructional decision-making.

Project personnel[edit]

Graduate Assistants

  • University of Maryland
    • Emily Hestness
    • Rebecca Pease
    • Kelly Riedinger
    • Kelly Schalk
  • Florida A&M University
    • Isiah Brown

Undergraduate Assistants

  • Kayode Lewis
  • Taiese Robinson

Former Graduate Assistants and Undergraduate Student Helpers

  • Amy Dai
  • Megean Garvin
  • Cara Moore
  • Wilkinson Unugboji

Consultants

  • Dr. Phyllis Katz
    • Project Nexus Informal Science Education Consultant
    • Originator, Executive Director (1980–2002), and Director of Research and Special Projects (2002–2005) of Hands On Science Outreach (HOSO)
  • Dr. Mark Guy
    • Project Nexus Internal Evaluator
    • Associate Professor, University of North Dakota

Senior Personnel

  • Dr. Gili Marbach-Ad
    • Project Nexus Senior Research Associate
    • Director, Teaching and Learning Center, UMD, College Park

Investigators

  • Mr. José Luis Barata
    • Co-Principal Investigator, Project Nexus (end, summer 2007), Hands On Science Outreach (HOSO)
    • Executive Director (end, summer, 2007), Hands On Science Outreach (HOS
  • Dr. Scott Jackson Dantley
    • Co-Principal Investigator, Project Nexus
    • Associate Provost, Coppin State University
  • Dr. Spencer Benson
    • Co-Principal Investigator, Project Nexus
    • Director Center for Teaching Excellence
    • Associate Professor, Dept. of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetic, UMD, College Park
  • Dr. J. Randy McGinnis
    • Principal Investigator, Project Nexus
    • Editor-in-chief, Journal of Research in Science Teaching
    • Professor, Department of Education and Instruction, UMD, College Park

External Advisory Board

  • Dr. Elsa Bailey
  • Ms. Susan Denvir, University of Maryland
  • Dr. Pamela Fraser-Abder, New York University
  • Dr. Philip Sokolove, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
  • Ms. Deborah Roberts-Harris, Fifth Grade Teacher, Arizona

Program Officers, National Science Foundation

  • Dr. Carol Stearns (end, fall 2005), TPC
  • Dr. Angelique Blackmon-Tucker (end, 2006), TPC
  • Dr. Sharon Locke, DRK-12 (end, 2008)
  • Dr. Sharon Lynch, DRK-12 (end, 2010)
  • Dr. Robert Gibbs, DRK-12 (end, 2012)

Publications[edit]

Peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters[edit]

Schalk, K. A. (2012). A Socioscientific Curriculum Facilitating the Development of Distal and Proximal NOS Conceptualizations. International Journal of Science Education, 34(1), 1-24.

McGinnis, J. R., Hestness, E., Riedinger, K., Katz, P., Marbach-Ad, G. & Dai, A. (in press). Informal science education in formal science teacher education. In K. Tobin, B. Frasier, & C. McRobbie (Eds.), Second international handbook of science education. The Netherlands: Kluwer.

Hestness, E. McGinnis, J. R., Riedinger, K., & Marbach-Ad, G. (in press, 2011). A study of teacher candidates’ experiences investigating global climate change education within an elementary science methods course. Journal of Science Teacher Education.

McGinnis, J. R., Hestness, E., Riedinger, K. (in press, 2011). Changing science teacher education in a changing global climate: Telling a new story. In J. Lin and R. Oxford (Eds.), Transformative Eco-Education for Human Survival in the 21st century. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

McGinnis, J. R., Hestness, E., Riedinger, K, Katz, P., Marbach-Ad, G., & Dai, A. (in press, 2011). Including informal science education in formal teacher education. In B. Frasier, K. Tobin, & C. McRobbie (Eds.), Second International Handbook of Science Education. Netherlands: Springer.

Riedinger, K., Marbach-Ad, G., McGinnis, J. R., & Hestness, E. (2011). Transforming elementary science teacher education by bridging formal and informal science education in an innovative science methods course. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 20(1), 51-64.

Katz, P., McGinnis, J. R., Hestness, E., Riedinger, K., Marbach-Ad, G., Dai, A., et al. (2011). Professional Identity Development of Teacher Candidates Participating in an Informal Science Education Internship: A focus on drawings as evidence. International Journal of Science Education, 33(9), 1169-1197.

Marbach-Ad, G., McGinnis, J.R., Pease, R., Dai, A., Benson, S., Dantley, S.J. (2010). Transformative undergraduate science courses for non-majors at a historically black institution and at a primarily white institution. Science Education International, 21(4), 252-271.

Marbach-Ad, G., McGinnis, J. R., Pease, R., Dai, A., Schalk, K., & Benson, S. (2010). Clarity in Teaching and active learning in undergraduate microbiology course for non-majors. Bioscene, 36,2, 3-9.

Marbach-Ad, G., McGinnis, Pease, R., Dai, A., J. R., Benson, S. & Schalk, K. (2009). Promoting science for all by way of student interest in an undergraduate microbiology course for non-majors. Journal of Microbiology Education, 10, 58-67.

Marbach-Ad, G., & McGinnis, J. R. (2009). A measurement of beginning mathematics teachers’ beliefs of subject matter and instructional actions over time. School Science and Mathematics, 109 (6), 338-351.

Marbach-Ad, G., McGinnis, J. R., & Dantley, S. (2008). Beliefs and reported science teaching practices of recently graduated elementary and middle school teacher education majors from a historically black college/university and a predominately white college/university. Electronic Journal of Science Education, 12(2), 171-198.

Marbach-Ad, & McGinnis, J. R. (2008). A measurement of beginning science teachers’ beliefs of subject matter and instructional actions over time. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 18(2), 13-30.

McGinnis, J.R., & Marbach-Ad, G. (2007). What beliefs and intended actions do reform-prepared mathematics and science teachers convey to the workplace? The Journal of Mathematics and Science: Collaborative Exploration, 9, 81-117.

McGinnis, J. R., Roth McDuffie, A., & Graeber, A. (2006). Perceptions of making connections between science and mathematics in a science methods course. Journal of Elementary Science Education, 18(2), 13-29

Conference proceedings[edit]

Katz, P., McGinnis, J. R., Riedinger, K., Dai, A., & Pease, R. (2011). Professional Identity Development of beginning Elementary Teachers of Science: A Comparative Case Study. In the 2011 CD Proceedings of National Association For Research In Science Teaching (63 pages).

Marbach-Ad, G., McGinnis, J. R., Dantley, S.J., Spencer Benson, Amy Dai, & Rebecca Pease (2010). Promoting Science for All by Way of Student Interest in Transformative Undergraduate Science Non-Majors Courses in a Historically Black Institution and a Primarily White Institution. In the 2010 CD Proceedings of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (37 pages).

McGinnis, J. R., Marbach-Ad, G., Dantley, S. J, Pease, R & Dai, A (2010) The Beliefs and Reported Science Teaching Practices of Newly Graduated Elementary and Middle School Education Majors. In the 2010 CD Proceedings of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (32 pages).

Riedinger, K., Hestness, McGinnis, J. R., Hestness, E., Marbach-Ad, Pease, R., & Katz, P. (2010). Transforming Elementary Science Teacher Education By Bridging Formal And Informal Science Education In An Innovative Science Methods Course. In the 2010 CD Proceedings of National Association For Research In Science Teaching (47 pages).

Katz, P., Hestness, E., Riedinger, K., McGinnis, J. R., Dai, A., and Pease, R. (2010). Identity development of teacher candidates participating in an informal science education internship: A focus on drawings as evidence. In the 2010 Proceedings of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching Annual Meeting (39 pages).

Katz, P., McGinnis, J. R., Hestness, E., Riedinger, K., Marbach-Ad, G., & Dantley, S. J. (2009). Transforming Science Teacher Preparation by Bridging Formal and Informal Science Education: A Focus on Drawings as Evidence. In the proceedings of the 2009 Proceedings of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (78 pages).

McGinnis, J.R., Marbach-Ad, Pease, R., Dai, A, & Dantley, S. (2008). Landscape Baseline Data in a Large Scale Science Teacher Preparation Model : (Project NEXUS). In the proceedings of the 2008 Proceedings of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (27 pages).

Marbach-Ad, G., McGinnis, J. R., Pease, R., Dai, A., Schalk, K, & Benson, S. (2008). Connecting learners’ area of interest in a microbiology course for non-majors and teacher interns: Project Nexus (Y2). In the 2008 Proceedings of the Association for Science Teacher Education (31 pages).

McGinnis, J.R., Marbach-Ad, Pease, R., Dai, A, & Dantley, S. (2008). Landscape Baseline Data in a Large Scale Science Teacher Preparation Model : (Project NEXUS). In the 2008 Proceedings of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (27 pages).

Marbach-Ad, G., McGinnis, & J. R., Dantley, S (2007). Beliefs and teaching practices reported by newly graduated elementary and middle school science teachers: Project Nexus (Year 1). In the proceedings of the 2007 Proceedings of the Association for Science Teacher Education (32 pages).

References[edit]

  1. ^ National Science Foundation, "Proceedings of the National Science Foundation workshop on the role of faculty from the scientific disciplines in the undergraduate education of future science and mathematics teachers." (Author, Washington, DC 1993)
  2. ^ National Research Council, "Improving teacher preparation and credentialling consistent with the National Science Education Standards." (National Academy Press, Washington, DC 1997)
  3. ^ D. Sunal, E. Wright, and J. Day, Eds., "Reform in undergraduate science teaching for the 21st century" (Information Age Publishing, Greenwich, CT 2004)
  4. ^ "Award Abstract #0455752". Retrieved 2012-04-24. 

External links[edit]