Project ROSE (Retrofit Of Strike Element), was a program initiated by the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) for the upgrades of the military avionics and electronics system of its aging Dassault Aviation– built Mirage fighter jets. The program focused on modernization of military avionics and onboard computer system of Mirage IIIC and the Mirage V supplied by French SAGEM and the Italian SELEX consortiums, as part of the program.
Conceived in 1992 by the PAF, the program started in 1995 on main considerations of retiring the A–5 Fantan from its active service. The PAF began its procurement of second-hand Mirage fighters from Australia, Lebanon, Libya, and Belgium at the price range within the MoD's fund. Over 90% of the aircraft were retrofitted at the Aeronautical Complex in Kamra; few were upgraded in France. From 1996–2000, several Mirage IIIC and Mirage 5 were bought from the other countries were upgraded under this program at the Aeronautical Complex. Further considerations for upgrades were recommended but the program was terminated due to increasingly combined costs of the spare parts and the conditions of the second–hand airframes of the Mirage IIIC and Mirage V at the time of their procurement from various countries.
The PAF is expecting for all of its modified Mirage fighter jets to be remain in the combat service beyond 2010, in which all Mirage fighter jets are being replaced by the JF–17 Thunder by 2015.
In 1990s, the United States placed an economics and military embargo on Pakistan due to its highly secretive atomic bomb program being active since 1970s. During this time, the Indian IAF began to modernized its fighter jets program; thus putting stress on the PAF. Furthermore, the United States indefinitely delayed the procurement of F-16 fighter jets of which, Pakistan had already paid the price for. Restrictions on PAF caused a great panic in the military as PAF was operating the American-built infrastructure and the PAF had to come up with innovative solutions to keep all its combat infrastructure operational.
In 1992, the PAF devised the strategy on increasing its ability on self-reliance and immediately launched the ROSE program and Sabre–II program which resulted in the successful development of the F-17 program. It was not until 1995 when Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto released funds to MoD's for both programs. Despite objections from the United States and Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto successfully international lobbying, the PAF ultimately sought its successful procurement of the Mirage fighter plane from various countries including Australia, Belgium, Lebanon, Libya, and Spain from the period 1992 until 2003.
The French SAGEM and Italian SELEX were contracted to provide crucial consultations on military electronics and avionics in 1996. Special overhauling facilities and the designing divisions were established the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) in Kamra. Over 90% aircraft were locally retrofitted at the Aeronautical Complex; and very few aircraft were upgraded in France. Under this first phase of the program, designated as ROSE–I, around 33 Mirage–III fighter jets, designated ROSE I, were upgraded to perform multiple mission types including air superiority and strike missions. The ROSE–I also configured the 34 Mirage 5 fighter jets for conducting night operations.
In 1998, the SAGEM and Italian SELEX left the program as the Margalla Electronics, DESTO, and GIDS, and NIE joined the program. In ROSE–II, around 20 Mirage fighter jets were upgraded; and 14 aircraft were configured in ROSE–III. Newer Mirage–IIIC's bought from Australia and Belgium were extremely good conditions with low flight hours to supplement the PAF's own fleet of 34 Mirage–IIIE and 32 Mirage–5P acquired directly from France between 1967 and 1982. The ROSE project was set up to reclaim as many aircraft as possible and to upgrade them with the latest avionics and other modern systems. In 1998, the PAF bought the entire fleet of grounded Mirage–5 from Lebanon and had it transferred all the fleet by itself at the Aeronautical Complex.
The PAF's project team was formed to manage the program and held review meetings frequently in both Pakistan and France where problems were discussed. The Aeronautical Complex and its technical personnel were involved with parts manufacture and quality control. PAF test pilots validated performance of the new equipment during test-flights. In 2003, the PAF bought a total of ~50 grounded Mirage–III and Mirage 5 fighter jets from Libya along with 150 engines still in sealed packaging and a huge quantity of spare parts. Most of these aircraft were to be broken up for spare parts required by the Mirage fleet already in PAF service. With this purchase, the PAF was to become the largest operator of Dassault Mirage III/Mirage 5 fighters in the world.
Mirage IIIO ROSE I
33 of the ex-Australian Dassault Mirage IIIO/D aircraft of the PAF were modified to ROSE I standard. The cockpit was modernised with a new head-up display (HUD), "hands on throttle and stick" (HOTAS) controls and new multi-function displays (MFD). New navigation systems, including an inertial navigation system and GPS system, were also installed. Defensive systems upgrades consisted of a new radar warning receiver (RWR), electronic countermeasures (ECM) suite and counter-measure dispensing system, dispensing decoy flares and chaff to confuse enemy missiles and radar.
In 1991, the PAF bought 50 Australian Mirage IIIO/D, 45 of which were refurbished and put into PAF service. The FIAR Grifo M3 radar was then to be fitted to 33 of the Mirage IIIEA/DA fighters which were procured from Australia, following on from the earlier ROSE avionics upgrade integrated by Sagem. It was stated that ROSE I fighters could easily be in service beyond 2010. In early 1999 it was stated that problems in "certain parameters - and errors in certain modes" had surfaced during flight trials of the Grifo M radar in the Mirage III, but these were later solved.
45 of the 50 Dassault Mirage III fighters received from Australia were found to be suitable for service with the PAF, 12 of them were overhauled at PAC and made operational. After being inspected, the remaining 33 were selected for upgrade under Project ROSE. In June 1998 the cockpit upgrades for the 33 Mirage III fighters was completed, including installation of multi-function displays (MFD), head-up display (HUD), HOTAS controls, radar altimeter and a Sagem nav/attack system. The Grifo M multi-mode radar was installed later in a second phase of the upgrade project.
The integration of a new Italian fire-control radar, the FIAR (now SELEX Galileo) Grifo M3, gave Mirage III ROSE I fighters the ability to fire advanced beyond visual range (BVR) radar guided air-to-air missiles. PAF's standard short range air-to-air missile at the time, the AIM-9L Sidewinder, was integrated with the Grifo M3 radar.
The Grifo M3 was developed specifically to fit the Mirage III and has been in full operation on the Mirage III since 2001. It has a power consumption of 200 W, operates in the X-band and is compatible with IR guided, semi-active and active radar guided missiles. The circular antenna has a diameter of 47 cm. The radar has over 30 different operational air-to-air/air-to-surface mission and navigation modes. Air to air modes include Single/Dual Target Track and Track While Scan. Air to surface modes include Real Beam Map, Doppler Beam Sharpening, Sea Low/High, Ground Moving Target Indicator, Ground/Sea Moving Target Track. Other optional modes include Raid Assessment, Non Cooperative Target Identification, SAR (synthetic aperture radar) and Precision Velocity Update. Low, medium and high pulse repetition frequencies reduce effects of ground clutter. Digital adaptive pulse compression technology, dual channel receiver, scanning coverage +/-60 degrees in both azimuth and elevation, air cooling, weighs less than 91 kg, MTBF (flight guaranteed) over 220 hours. Extensive ECCM (electronic counter-counter-measures) provisions and built in test equipment (BITE). IFF interrogators can also be integrated.
The PAF is currently installing in-flight refuelling probes of South African origin to the upgraded Mirage III ROSE I aircraft, stating that it is a pilot programme for the induction of aerial refuelling capability into the PAF.
Mirage 5F ROSE II
ROSE II fighters were fitted with a new SAGEM Forward-Looking Infra-Red (FLIR) system, mounted in a pod under the nose. This gave ROSE II fighters the capability to fly safely in the dark at very low level to avoid radar.
The French air force supplied a total of 40 fully overhauled Mirage 5, 34 single and 6 dual seat aircraft. Of the 40, 20 were upgraded to ROSE II standard. Their engines were overhauled for a four year and 300 hour minimum life span. This package included installation of chaff and flare dispenser, radar warning receiver and GPS navigation systems as well as all required ground support, LRU (line replaceable units) and alternate mission equipment.
Systems fitted by SAGEM included parts of the MAESTRO (Modular Avionics Enhancements System Targeted for Retrofit Operations) digital avionics package, including the SAGEM ULISS 92 INS/GPS, TRECOR terrain-matching system, UTR-90 computer, Honeywell radar altimeter. Cockpit upgrades consisted of multi-function displays, wide-angle stroke/raster HUD, HOTAS controls, SAGEM Circe 2001 mission planning system and on-board oxygen generating system (OBOGS). The cockpit was made compatible with night-vision goggles. A ventral fairing under the cockpit section of the fuselage was also fitted, containing a forward-looking infra-red (FLIR) thermal imaging sensor and laser range-finder. An integrated electronic warfare suite and single-point pressure refuelling system were also installed. Delivery of the last aircraft was scheduled for mid-1999.
Mirage 5F ROSE III
In the late 1990s, 33 Dassault Mirage 5F fighters were bought from France, 14 of them upgraded to ROSE III standard with a FLIR and other systems/modifications circa 2004. A follow-up to ROSE II, this upgrade gives an improved night-time precision strike capability to the Mirage with the addition of a new SAGEM navigation/attack avionics suite. A new PAF squadron was raised on 19 April 2007, No.27 Tactical Attack "Zarrar" Squadron, to operate the Mirage 5 ROSE III fighters and specialise in night-time surface strike missions.
Aircraft bought from Lebanon (Mirage IIIEL) were shipped to Karachi in 2002, each having around 600-1000 flying hours on their airframes, stated to be "airworthy and in good shape". These were inducted into PAF service circa 2004. In mid 2004, PAC was in the process of upgrading 14 of 33 Mirage 5F procured from France with FLIR and other modifications, to be known as ROSE III.
Conclusion of program
The ROSE program turned out to be huge success and saved PAF's financial capital to be spend in a huge amount on foreign exchange. Under this program, further upgrades were considered and recommendations were made for the procurement of Mirage–2000 from Qatar. Acquisitions of Mirage–2000 from Qatar were bypassed by the JS HQ when Indian IAF inducted the jets in its fleet. In 2003, the PAF bought 13 more Mirage–IIIEs from Spain for spares cannibalization and, unlike the Australian or Lebanese purchases, that is just what they are being used for. Their condition dictated there was no way that any of them could be returned to service. Problems were encountered for the upgrade of the Mirage–5's role in naval variant for the Navy. However, this was eventually resolved with the procurement of the spare parts. Under the program, the PAF gained a reputation of being the world's experts on the Dassault Mirage.
Despite challenges and problems, the ROSE program provided a platform to PAF's experience on aerial technology and acquired experience as well as gained confidence to undertake any similar project with confidence in future, while the Mirage received new capabilities that improving its performance in battle dramatically. At the international ground, Pakistan's ingenuity and engineering skills have meant the Mirages continue to play a major part in the defence of Pakistan airspace. The program was meant to be continue for some time after 2003 but the PAF had to terminate the program due to a combination of high costs and ageing Mirage III/5 airframes.
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