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Project SHAD, an acronym for Shipboard Hazard and Defense, was part of a larger effort called Project 112, which was conducted during the 1960s. Project SHAD encompassed tests designed to identify U.S. warships' vulnerabilities to attacks with chemical agents or biological warfare agents and to develop procedures to respond to such attacks while maintaining a war-fighting capability.
Project SHAD was part of a larger effort by the Department of Defense called Project 112. Project 112 was a biological and chemical experimentation project conducted by the United States Department of Defense and CIA handled by the Deseret Test Center and United States Army Chemical Materials Agency from 1962 to 1973. The project started under John F. Kennedy's administration, and was authorized by his Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, as part of a total review of the US military. The name of the project refers to its number in the 150 review process.
Project SHAD's purpose was "...to identify U.S. war ships vulnerabilities to attacks with biological or chemical warfare agents and to develop procedures to respond to such attacks while maintaining a warfighting capability." 134 tests were planned initially, but reportedly, only 46 tests were actually completed.
Approximately 6,000 U.S. Servicemembers were involved in conducting the tests. In 2000, the Department of Defense began the process of declassifying records about the project.
Ships and air units involved
- USS Carbonero (SS-337)
- USS Berkeley (DDG-15)
- USS Carpenter (DD-825)
- USS Fechteler (DD-870)
- USS Fort Snelling (LSD-30)
- USS George Eastman (YAG-39)
- USS Granville S. Hall (YAG-40)
- USS Herbert J. Thomas (DD-833)
- USS Hoel (DDG-13)
- USS Navarro (APA-215)
- USS Okanogan (APA-220)
- USS Power (DD-839)
- USNS Samuel Phillips Lee (T-AGS 31)
- USNS Silas Bent (T-AGS 26)
- USS Tioga County (LST-1158)
- USS Wexford County (LST-1168)
- US Navy Lighter Barge (YF-N-811)
- US Navy Tug, ATF 105
- US Army Light Tug LT-2080
- US Army Light Tug LT-2081
- US Army Light Tug LT-2085
- US Army Light Tug LT-2086
- US Army Light Tug LT-2087
- US Army Light Tug LT-2088
- Meteorological Research Service (contractor) C-47
- US Navy Airborne Early Warning Barrier Squadron Pacific (AEWBarRonpac) Lockheed WV-2 / EC-121 Warning Star
- US Navy Patrol Squadron Four (VP-4) (PATRON Four), Fleet Air Wing Four (Lockheed P-2 Neptune)
- US Navy Patrol Squadron Six (VP-6) (PATRON SIX), Fleet Air Wing Two (Lockheed P-2 Neptune)
- US Navy VU-1 Utility Squadron One, re-designated VC-1 Composite Squadron One on July 1, 1965. (Douglas A-4 Skyhawk)
- USMC Marine Aircraft Group 13, 1st Marine Aircraft Wing, 1st Marine Expeditionary Brigade. (McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II, A-4 (Skyhawk), Sikorsky H-34 Seahorse
- USMC Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 161 (HMM 161), Marine Aircraft Group 16 (MAG-16), 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing (3rd MAW) Sikorsky H-34 Seahorse
- US Air Force 4533rd Tactical Test Squadron, US Air Force 33rd Tactical Fighter Wing (F-4E Phantom II)
- Human experimentation in the United States
- Operation Dew
- Operation LAC
- Operation Whitecoat
- Project 112
- San Jose Project
- United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Armed Services. Subcommittee on Personnel, "The Department of Defense's inquiry into Project 112/Shipboard Hazard and Defense (SHAD) tests: hearing before the Subcommittee on Personnel of the Committee on Armed Services, United States Senate, One Hundred Seventh Congress, second session, October 10, 2002," United States Congress, S. hrg. 107–810 (2003), 1–39.
- United States. Congress. House. Report, “Health care for veterans of Project 112/Project SHAD Act of 2003: report (to accompany H.R. 2433),” United States Congress, Report/108th Congress, 1st session, House of Representatives, 108–213, 1–19.
- United States. Congress. House. Committee on Veterans' Affairs. Subcommittee on Health, “Military operations aspects of SHAD and Project 112: hearing before the Subcommittee on Health of the Committee on Veterans' Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, second session, October 9, 2002”, 107th Congress, 2nd session, 107–43, 1–19.
- "Project Shipboard Hazard and Defense (SHAD)" from Blum, William (2006). Rogue state: a guide to the world's only superpower. Zed Books. pp. 152–154. ISBN 978-1-84277-827-2.
- Columbia Journalism Review, Laurels November/December 2000
- Vietnam Veteran's of America - The Veteran December2000/January 2001
- Project SHAD at the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, includes pocket guides and Q&A
- Vietnam Veterans of America
- The Chemical-Biological Warfare Exposures Site, Official Web site of Force Health Protection & Readiness Policy & Programs
- Project 112/SHAD - Shipboard Hazard and Defense, Official Web site of Force Health Protection & Readiness Policy & Programs
OSD & Joint Staff FOIA Requester Service Center
- PROJECT SHAD -- AUTUMN GOLD, May 1964
- PROJECT SHAD -- BIG JACK
- PROJECT SHAD -- NIGHT TRAIN, December 1964