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A promotional recording, or promo, is an audio or video recording distributed for free, usually in order to promote a recording that is or soon will be commercially available. Promos are normally sent directly to broadcasters, such as music radio and television stations, and to tastemakers, such as DJs and music journalists, in advance of the release of commercial editions, in the hope that airplay, reviews, and other forms of exposure will result and stimulate the public's interest in the commercial release.
Promos are often distributed in plain packaging, without the text or artwork that appears on the commercial version. Typically a promo is marked with some variation of the following text: "Licensed for promotional use only. Sale is prohibited." It may also state that the promo is still the property of the distributor and is to be returned upon demand." However, it is not illegal to sell promotional recordings, and recalls of promos are extremely rare and unenforced.
Because promos are produced in smaller quantity than releases made available to the general public, they are sometimes considered valuable collectors' items. They are never intended for sale in record stores.
Promo single 
A promo single (short for promotional single) is a single that is made available to radio stations, nightclubs, music publications, and other media outlets by a record label for the express purpose of promoting a forthcoming commercial single or an entirely new album. A song may be released as a promotional single even if no commercial version of the single is available to buy, usually if this is the case it is for the purposes of promoting an entire album. While intended specifically for use by professional disc jockeys and not for resale, they are frequently sought out by music collectors nonetheless.
The promo single is usually recognized by its limited liner notes and cover artwork as well as its unique catalog number (or the occasional lack thereof). Quite often, vinyl records will be issued in a generic cardboard jacket or white paper sleeve while CDs will be issued in a slimline jewel case or cardboard sleeve. CD Packaging companies are now even offering "promotional CD packaging" designed specifically for the purpose.
There may also be promotion-specific terms stamped on the disc or its cover, most notably "For Promotional Use Only."
The advance promo single is furnished to DJs sometimes weeks or months in advance of a domestic release to give record labels an opportunity to build interest in the single and gauge response to the single. Unlike a finished promo single, these are commonly test pressings or white labels and thus are manufactured in limited runs. Traditionally, these promotional copies were supplied to DJs through music pools. Despite the good intention, there has been some dispute within the industry as to if advanced promotion is a good thing or not. Building interest is naturally a good thing, but it may turn out to have the exact reverse effect when interested persons are unable to find a new song in the record stores for quite some time.
Buzz singles and advance singles 
In music, a buzz single or advance single is a track or promotional song, released by the label (typically) preceding the album's release. The song(s) are released in order to bring attention to an album's release. Buzz singles are not typically issued to radio as promotional singles, however this will not prevent radio stations from playing the songs. Buzz singles are not considered "official" singles, there have been cases where a buzz single has later been released as an album's "official" single. Buzz singles are not always included on an album.
The term "buzz single" is sometimes used by the artists or the record label whose single(s) have performed below expectations. Referring to such singles retroactively as "buzz singles" or "advance singles", regardless of the accuracy of the statement, has the effect of downplaying the commercial failure of the single and preventing damage to the artist's reputation and the label.
Acetates and test pressings 
Before the advent of formats other than vinyl records, a type of promo surfaced known as an "acetate". These records were made of a cheaper and lower quality acetate vinyl. They were generally made in very low quantity and often had hand-written labels. Frequently they were only a test pressing, and thus were called "promo acetate test pressings".
Countdown to album release programs 
iTunes and other markets distribute songs for a price on a pre-set schedule; such as one a week in a 'Countdown' to the parent album's release. These pre-sales of album tracks are often called 'promotional singles' by many.
Radio outlets 
Promotional recordings are distributed to commercial AM and FM radio stations for airplay. These singles typically feature just the radio edit of the song, but may also include alternate remix edits, the original album version, or even call-out hooks.
Nightclub outlets 
When it comes to electronic dance music, 12-inch records and CDs still remain the more popular media by which promotional recordings may be distributed to DJs in the nightclub industry. These singles typically feature one or more extended remixes (sometimes dubbed a "club mix") of the title track that are not generally available to the public as well as the original extended version, which in many cases is itself club-friendly. In some cases, the disc may have anonymous track labeling or lack labels altogether. Often the corresponding CD may also carry radio edits and other alternate cuts that did not make it onto the 12-inch record itself, in which case the CD is referred to as a maxi-single CD. Promotional recordings may also include digital recordings in mp3, mp4, or wma formats to discourage illegal copying and enable effective recall when the promotional period has expired.
It is not unusual for a promo single to have no commercially available counterpart particularly in those genres that are predominantly oriented to nightclub applications.
Promotional compilations 
Many companies currently offer promotional compilations to DJs, radio use and nightclubs alike. The format is growingly on the CD-format, but some companies still offer promotional compilations in vinyl also. Most of the compilations are genre-specific (like most of CD Pools' compilations) but there are also compilations that offer a combination of different genres (like compilations from DMC and Music Factory). Such compilations are normally released monthly. In addition to companies that work internationally, there are also many companies that offer national promotions material in the form of compilations.
Versions in the compilation are usually either radio edits or extended / 12" remixes of the song, depending a bit on the targeted audience. Club scene music is usually in the longer and easier to play format of extended remix, whereas more street targeted music is usually released as radio edits. It normally takes a couple of weeks after the release of the original promo single to be available on promotional compilations. This has the added benefit of having the songs when they're already had some airtime and are thus not the bleeding edge no-one has heard from, but still have usually not been released to the mass markets yet.
Online promotional distribution 
Since the advent of broad-bandwidth Internet access and professional tools such as iPool or Haulix, the online promotional distribution of music has been established. Record companies make their music available as audio files and use the Internet as a distribution channel. In contrast to the conventional way of distributing promotional recordings, this kind of promotional distribution is faster and cheaper.
See also 
- ...at least not in the U.S., where the UMG v. Augusto case clarified in 2011 that promos are gifts, not the property of the distributor, and that the first-sale doctrine entitles the recipient to dispose of the recording as they wish.
- That is, at least in the U.S., the recipient of a promo has no obligation to comply with a recall, unless a separate contract is in effect.
- Lamb, Bill (11-17-2010). "Black Eyed Peas Release "Do It Like This" - Announce Single a Week Until The Beginning". About.com. Retrieved 2-4-2011.
- AOL Music Staff (11-30-2010). "Black Eyed Peas, 'The Beginning' -- New Album". AOL Music. AOL inc. Retrieved 2-4-2011.