List of Quranic prophets

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The following are named as prophets in the Quran. There are a total of 25 people named as prophets and messengers,[1] in the Quran, and several of them also appear in Judaism and Christianity. They are listed by their common English name.

Adam[edit]

Adam[2] (Adem, آدم) is the first prophet of Islam and, according to Islamic tradition, the first human being. He is an important figure in Judaism and Christianity as well and is best known for the story of Adam and Eve. Muslims believe that Adam received the Scrolls of Adam from God.[3]

Idris[edit]

Idris[4] (إدريس) is, at times, identified with Enoch[5] found in the Old Testament. In the Quran, it says that God exalted Idris to a lofty station and Muslims believe that he lived at a time when pure monotheism was, for the most part, forgotten. He is known to be the first prophet to wage a jihad war.[citation needed]

Tomb believed to be of Noah in the Nakhchivan area of Azerbaijan. The name Nakhchivan derives from Noah, meaning the place where the ark landed after the floods. The current grave structure under the tomb dates to 5-6th century.

Noah[edit]

Although best known for the deluge, Noah[6] (Nuh, نوح) was a primary preacher of monotheism at his time. According to Islamic tradition, it was this faithfulness to God that led to him being selected to build the Ark, which enabled him and his family to survive the Great Flood. His name is given to the 71st sura of the Quran, Nuh.

Hud[edit]

According to Islam, Hud,[7] (هود) for whom the eleventh chapter of the Quran is named, was sent by God some time after the deluge to remind the people of his nation about God. He was sent to the people of ʿĀd, and is one of the five Arab prophets. He is sometimes associated with Eber.

Saleh[edit]

According to the Quran, Saleh[8] (صالح) was ordered by God to leave behind his people after they disobeyed God's orders. They were the nation of Thamud and they were known to have carved buildings and homes out of cliffs and mountains.

Abraham[edit]

In the mosque at the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron, this grate allows visitors to look down into the 40 ft (12 m) shaft leading to the ground level of the cave where Abraham and Sarah are buried

Abraham[9] (Ibrahim, ابراهيم) is regarded by Muslims today as one of the significant prophets as he is credited with building the Kaaba in Mecca. He is also said to have written down the revelations he received from God, known as the Scrolls of Abraham He is believed to be the first of the Hanif or those that continued to follow the laws of God during the Days of Ignorance.[10] His family included his sons Ishmael and Isaac as well as his grandson Jacob, all three are seen as prophets, and the women considered as holy in Islam, Sarah and Hagar. The 14th sura, Ibrahim, is named for him. According to Islamic tradition, Muhammad is a descendant of Abraham through his son Ishmael.[11][12]

Lot[edit]

Lot[13] (Lut, لوط) is known in Islam for preaching against homosexuality in Sodom and Gomorrah, only to be mocked and ignored by the people who lived there. This nation was destroyed By God's command.

Ishmael[edit]

According to Islamic tradition Ishmael[14] (Ismail, اسماعيل) and his mother Hagar's (Hajra) search for water in the region around Mecca led God to reveal the Zamzam Well.

Isaac[edit]

According to Islamic tradition, Isaac[15] (Ishaq, اسحاق), second-born son of Abraham with Sarah, became a prophet in Canaan. He, along with his brother Ishmael, carried on the legacy of Abraham as prophets of Islam.

Jacob[edit]


Jacob[15] (Yaqub, يعقوب), according to the Quran, was "of the company of the Elect and the Good"[16] and he continued the legacy of both his father, Isaac, and his grandfather, Abraham. Like his ancestors, he was committed to worshipping and bowing to God.

Joseph[edit]

Joseph[17] (Yusuf, يوسف), son of Jacob and great-grandson of Abraham, became a prominent advisor to the pharaoh of Egypt since he was believed to have been able to predict the future through dream interpretation. He spent a large part of his life away from his eleven brothers, who, jealous of Joseph's success, told their father, Jacob, that his son had died. But indeed they had thrown him in Jubb Yussef (Joseph's Well) and took off his shirt and smeared it with that of a killed ram's blood. Joseph was afraid in the well but knew that God was with him. The 12th sura of the Quran, Yusuf, is named for him.

Job[edit]

According to Islamic tradition, Job[18] (Ayyub, أيوب) was rewarded by a Fountain of Youth, which removed all illnesses except death, for his service to God in his hometown outside Al Majdal.

Shuaib[edit]

Shuaib[19] (شعيب) was a direct descendant of Abraham. According to Islam, he was appointed by God to guide the people of Midian and Aykah, who lived near Mount Sinai. When the people of the region failed to listen to his warnings, their villages were destroyed by God. He is associated with Jethro in the Bible

Moses[edit]

Moses[20] (Musa, موسى), is referred to in the Quran more than any other prophet, is significant for revealing the Tawrat (Torah) one of the Islamic holy books as well as compiling the other revelations in the Scrolls of Moses. The Quran says Moses realized his connection with God after receiving commands from him during a stop at Mount Sinai. He later went on to free the enslaved Israelites after failing to convince the Egyptian pharaoh of God's power. Moses subsequently led the Israelites for forty years through the desert on a long attempt to capture Canaan, the Promised Land. During this long journey, Moses received the Tawrat and the Ten Commandments during another trip to Mount Sinai. At the end of his life, according to Islamic tradition, Moses chose to die to be closer to God instead of taking an offer that would have extended his life.

Aaron[edit]

A 14th-century shrine built on top of the supposed tomb of Aaron on Jabal Hārūn (Mount Aaron) in Petra, Jordan

Aaron[21] (Harun/Haroon, هارون) served as an assistant to his elder brother Moses. In Islam, he, like Moses, was given the task of saving the Israelites from the Egyptian pharaoh. He would often speak for Moses when his speech impediment prevented him from doing so himself.

Dhul-Kifl[edit]

Dhul-Kifl[22] (ذو الكفل) is mentioned twice in the Quran (sura Al-Anbiya ayah 85[23] and sura Sad ayah 48[24]). Both references describe that Dhul-Kifl was amongst the most patient and righteous of men. He is most often identified with the Old Testament prophet Ezekiel because Ezekiel in his journey to Nineveh went to a little town called Al Kifl and his shrine is there. So, people believe Ezekiel as Dhul-Kifl.

David[edit]

In Islam, the Zabur (equated by some with the Psalms) were revealed to David[25] (Daud, داود) by God. He is also significant as the one who conquered Goliath.

Solomon[edit]

Mausoleum of Solomon, Al-Aqsa Mosque compound, Jerusalem

Solomon[26] (Sulayman, سليمان) learned a significant amount from his father David before being made a prophet by God. According to Islamic tradition, Solomon was given power over all things, including the jinns. Known for his honesty and fairness, he also led a kingdom that extended into southern Arabia. He was the youngest among his nineteen brothers, he was thirteen years old when he became a prophet. He inherited his fathers throne because he made fair decisions. He had the ability to control winds and speak to animals.

Elijah[edit]

Elijah[27] (Ilyas, إلياس), a descendant of Aaron, took over control of the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula after Solomon's kingdom collapsed. Islamic tradition says he attempted to convince the people of the Peninsula of the existence of only one god, but when the people refused to listen they were smitten with a drought and famine.

Elisha[edit]

Elisha[28] (Al-Yasa,اليسع ) took over the job of leading the Israelites after the death of Eliajh. He attempted to show the king and queen of the Kingdom of Israel the powers of God, but was dismissed as a magician. Subsequently, the Assyrians were able to conquer the Israelites and inflict significant damage on them.

Jonah[edit]

Jonah[2] (Yunus, يونس) was commanded by God to help the people of Nineveh towards righteousness. However, after Nineveh's people refused to listen to him, he became disgruntled and started to ignore him. After an incident where Jonah was spared death, he decided to re-commit himself to striving for God, attempting to lead the people of Nineveh to righteousness. But after returning to evil, illicit ways, the Scythians conquered them.[29] The 10th sura, Yunus, is named for him.

Zechariah[edit]

The tomb of Zechariah within the Great Mosque of Aleppo in Syria

A descendant of Solomon, Zechariah[30] (Zakariya, زكريا) was a patron of Mary, the mother of Jesus. According to Islamic tradition, he prayed to God asking for a son, since his sterile wife Elizabeth (al-Yashbi) could not provide one. God granted his wishes, temporarily lifting his wife's sterility and allowing her to give birth to John the Baptist. His death was considered tragic as several Israelites severed his body in half.[31]

John the Baptist[edit]

Islam says that, like his father Zechariah, John the Baptist[30] (Yahya, يحيى) prayed to God to bless him with a son who could continue his legacy of guiding people towards Islam. Throughout his lifetime, John the Baptist captivated audiences with his powerful sermons that preached monotheism.

Jesus[edit]

One of the highest ranked prophets in Islaam, Jesus[32] (`Isa, عيسى) was sent to guide the Children of Isra'el. The Quran makes it very clear that Jesus is not the son of God as Christianity teaches, but rather a prophet, and messenger of God. He was able to perform many miracles but only by the will of God. It also states that he received the Gospel (Injil) that form part of the New Testament, although the version seen today is different from the one revealed at the time.[33] The Islamic view of Jesus' death is that Jesus was not crucified on the cross but instead is in heaven, waiting to return to defeat the Masih ad-Dajjal (false messiah). In sura Maryam the Quran states,

They say: "(Allah) Most Gracious has begotten a son!"
Indeed ye have put forth a thing most monstrous!
At it the skies are ready to burst, the earth to split asunder, and the mountains to fall down in utter ruin,
That they should invoke a son for (Allah) Most Gracious.
For it is not consonant with the majesty of (Allah) Most Gracious that He should beget a son.
Not one of the beings in the heavens and the earth but must come to (Allah) Most Gracious as a servant.

—Quran, sura 19 (Maryam), ayat 88-93[34]
A hilya describing the appearance of Muhammad by Hâfiz Osman

Nevertheless, it is to Jesus, alone of all the prophets, that the Quran gives the title Masih - Messiah meaning "annointed one".[35]

Muhammad[edit]

Muhammad[28] (Muhammed ibn Abdullah, محمد) is the last prophet. According to Islamic tradition Muhammad never claimed that Islam was a new religion but in fact preached the unity of the religion since Adam, the first person and prophet of God. The strongest Islamic belief is that Islam is the only religion which all prophets preached. Also the Quran refers to all prophets as Muslims. Muhammad was born in Mecca where he spent the first part of his life as a well-travelled merchant. He would often spend his time in the mountains surrounding the city in prayer, contemplating the situation with Mecca. According to Islamic beliefs, at the age of forty, during one of those trips to the Cave of Hira in the Jabal al-Nour (Mountain of Light), Muhammad began to, despite his illiteracy, receive and recite verses from God which today make up the Quran. He quickly began to spread the message he was receiving, convincing a few others in the city, including his wife, to convert to a form of Islam similar to one practiced today. He became the leader of those who had submitted to God (Muslims), moving to another city (present-day Medina) away from the oppressors in Mecca. Muhammad served not just as a prophet, but as a leader who helped defeat the non believers during the Battle of Badr in 624. He was a lawgiver, trust worthy, humble, and merciful. He continued to lead the Muslims, spreading Islam across the Arabian Peninsula. He performed the first hajj in 629 and established the form of Islam, with its five pillars still practiced by Muslims today. Others continued Muhammad's legacy after his death in 633 proclaiming themselves as caliphs (or successors) to him. The 47th sura, Muhammad, is named for him.

Tables about Messengers and Prophets in the Qur'aan[edit]

The following table lists the prophets mentioned in the Quran. Biblical versions of names also appear where applicable:

Name (Arabic & Arabic Translit.) Name (Biblical) Main Article(s) Number of times mentioned by name
آدم
Adem
Adam 25
Adam, the first human being, ranks as the first prophet of Islam. Adam and his wife, Eve, fell from the Garden of Eden after they ate from the forbidden tree. On earth, Adam received his first revelations and lived many generations.
إدريس
Īdrīs
Enoch 2
Idris is believed to have been an early prophet sent to mankind. The traditions that have built around Idris' figure have given him the scope of a prophet, philosopher, writer, mystic and scientist.
نوح
Nūḥ
Noah 43
Although best known for his role in the story of the Deluge, Nuh became a primary preacher of monotheism in his day. Muslims believe his faith in God led to him being selected to build the Ark.
هود
Hūd
Eber 7
Muslims believe that only Hud, for whom the eleventh chapter of the Quran takes its name, and a few other people survived a great storm, similar to the Deluge five generations earlier. God inflicted the storm to punish the people of ʿĀd who had forgotten God.
صالح
Ṣāliḥ
Saleh 26
According to the Quran, God ordered Saleh to leave behind his people, the tribe of Thamud, after they disbelieved and disobeyed God's order to care for a special camel and instead killed it. When Saleh and the believers fled from Thamud, God punished the people with a loud noise from the skies that killed his people instantly. Note that Saleh does not equate to the Shelah mentioned in the Hebrew Bible.
إبراهيم
Ibrāhīm
Abraham 73
Muslims regard Ibrahim as one of the most significant prophets, because they credit him with rebuilding the Kaaba in Mecca. His family included such great figures as his sons, Ishmael and Isaac, as well as his prophetic grandson Jacob. Holy women from his household included Sarah and Hagar. Because of his significance as a patriarch, Abraham is often titled Father of the Prophets.
لوط
Lūṭ
Lot 27
Muslims know Lut best for attempting to preach against homosexuality in Sodom and Gomorrah, in addition to encouraging his people to believe in the Oneness of God, although his community mocked and ignored him. Islam denies the acts which the Hebrew Bible attributes to Lot, like drinking and becoming drunk, and having intercourse with and impregnating his two daughters.
إسماعيل
Ismā‘īl
Ishmael 12
As a child, Ishmael - with his mother, Hagar - searched for water in the region around Mecca, leading God to reveal the Zamzam Well, which still flows as of 2013. He is also credited with the construction of the Kaaba along with Ibrahim.
إسحاق
Isḥāq
Isaac 17
According to Islamic tradition, Ishaq, the second-born son of Ibrahim, became a prophet in Canaan. He and his brother Ismaïl carried on the legacy of Ibrahim as prophets in Islam.
يعقوب
Ya‘qūb
Jacob 16
The Quran portrays Jacob as "of the company of the Elect and the Good".[36] He continued the legacy of both his father, Isaac, and his grandfather, Abraham. Like his ancestors, he deliberately worshipped God exclusively.
يوسف
Yūsuf
Joseph 27
Joseph, son of Jacob and great-grandson of Abraham became a prominent adviser to the pharaoh of Egypt after he interpreted the King's dream which predicted the economic future of Egypt. According to Islam, Joseph received the gift of half of the beauty granted to mankind.
أيوب
Ayyūb
Job 4
According to Islamic tradition, Job received the reward of a Fountain of Youth, which removed all illnesses, except death, for his service to God in his hometown. It is mentioned that Job lost his wealth, family, and health for many years as test of patience carried out by God.
شعيب
Shu‘aib
Jethro 11
According to Islam, God appointed Shu'ayb, a direct descendant of Abraham, to guide the people of Midian and Aykah, who lived near Mount Sinai. When the people of the region failed to listen to his warnings, God destroyed the disbelievers' villages.
موسى
Mūsá
Moses 136
Moses, whom the Quran refers to more than to any other prophet, had the distinction of revealing the Tawrat (Torah) to the Israelites. The Quran says Moses realized his connection with God after receiving commands from him during a stop at Mount Sinai. He later went on to free the enslaved Hebrews after the Egyptian pharaoh denied God's power. Moses subsequently led the Hebrews for forty years through the desert after they refused to obey God's command and enter the Holy Land. On another trip to Mount Sinai during this long journey, Moses received the Torah and the Ten Commandments.
هارون
Hārūn
Aaron 20
Aaron served as an assistant to his brother Moses. In Islam, he, like Moses, received the task of saving the Israelites from the Egyptian pharaoh. He would often speak for Moses when Moses’ speech-impediment prevented him from doing so himself.
ذو الكفل
Dhul-kifl
most likely Ezekiel 2
The status of Dhul-Kifl as a prophet remains debatable within Islam, although all parties to the debate can agree in seeing him as a righteous man who strived in the way of God. Some studies identify Dhul-Kifl with Ezekiel, mentioned in the Hebrew Bible's Book of Ezekiel.
داود
Dāwud
David 16
In Islam, God revealed the Psalms to David. Dawud also has significance as the slayer of Goliath and defeater of the Philistines. Note that Islamic tradition and the Bible differ in their accounts of the story of King David and Uriah.
سليمان
Sulaimān
Solomon 17
Solomon learned a significant amount of knowledge from his father David before God made him a prophet. According to Islamic tradition, Sulayman received power to manipulate nature (including the jinn) and the power to communicate with and control animals. Known for his honesty and fairness, he also headed a kingdom that extended into southern Arabia.
إلياس
Ilyās
Elijah 2
Ilyaseen or Ilyas took over control of the Kingdom of Samaria after the kingdom of Solomon collapsed. Islamic tradition says he attempted to convince the people of Israel of the existence of only one God, but the people remained persistent in their disbelief.
اليسع
Alyasa‘
Elisha 2

Elisha took over the task of leading the Israelites after the death of Elijah. He attempted to show the king and queen of Israel the power of God, but they dismissed him as a magician.

يونس
Yūnus
Jonah 4
Islamic tradition states that God commanded Jonah to help the people of Nineveh towards righteousness. However, Nineveh's people refused to listen to his message, so Jonah decided to abandon trying to help them and left. After being swallowed by a whale, Jonah repented in the stomach of the whale until it spewed the prophet out on dry land.
زكريا
Zakariyyā
Zechariah 7
Zachariah became the guardian of Mary the mother of Jesus. According to the Quran, he prayed to God asking for a son, since his sterile wife Elizabeth could not provide one. God granted his wishes, lifting his wife's sterility and allowing her to give birth to John the Baptist[37]
يحيى
Yaḥyá
John the Baptist 5
Of John, Islam states that, throughout his lifetime, he captivated audiences with his powerful sermons which preached Abrahamic monotheism.
عيسى
‘Īsá
Jesus 25
God sent one of the highest-ranked prophets in Islam, Jesus, to the Children of Israel. The Quran makes it clear that Jesus was not divine nor did he have a share in God's divinity and rather spoke only of the worship of God. Jesus is called the Masih in Muslim belief. In Christianity, they believe that Jesus was crucified. Islam confirms that the Children of Israel wanted to kill Jesus by crucifying him on a cross, but God did not let this happen. Muslims believe that God raised Jesus to heaven (as in flying higher and higher, elevating) and saved Jesus from the Children of Israel, and then they crucified a man that was made to appear as Jesus. This is considered by Muslims as a miracle. Jesus will return to Earth near the Day of Resurrection or the Day of Judgment to restore peace and rid the world of its evil, according to the sayings of Muhammad. The Quran also refers to this in Sura Maryam, when Jesus spoke out of his cradle "...peace be upon me the day I was born, the day I'll die, and the day I'll be raised back to life (again)!"
محمد
Muhammad
N/A 4 (as Muhammad) + 1 (as Ahmad) = 5
Muhammad is important for sealing prophecy in Muslim belief and reinforcing the same faith that started with Adam. Muslims do not view Muhammad as the beginner of a new religion, but the Quran states that Muhammad simply preached the same religion as Adem (Adam), Ibrahim (Abraham), Nuh (Noah), Musa (Moses), Isa (Jesus) and all the other prophets, and continued the holy religion. Both Sunni Muslims and Shia Muslims follow Muhammad by following his sayings, what he had told them what to do and not to do, and emulating Muhammad is referred to as Sunnah. Shia Muslims in addition to following Muhammad's sayings, also give importance to his family (Ahl al-Bayt). Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, Ali is seen as his successor, the first of The Twelve Imams by Shi'ites. Sunni Muslims and Shia Muslims agree on the personality of an eschatological figure; Muhammad al-Mahdi from the lineage of the Prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah, the Mahdi will return before the Day of Resurrection or the Day of Judgment along with Jesus to rid the world of injustice.
Prophets mentioned in the Quran
Name Prophet Messenger Leader or Patriarch Book/Scriptures People
Adem (Adam) Yes check.svg
Prophet[2]
Yes check.svg
Messenger[1][38][39]
Yes check.svg
Leader and Patriarch
Scrolls of Adam[40] Children of Adam
Idris (Enoch[a]) Yes check.svg
Prophet[41][42]
Yes check.svg
Messenger[1][38][43]
Nuh (Noah) Yes check.svg
Prophet[44][45]
Yes check.svg
Messenger[1][38][46]
Yes check.svg
Patriarch
People of Noah[47]
Hud (Eber[a]) Yes check.svg
Prophet[45][48]
Yes check.svg
Messenger[49][1][38]
People of ʿĀd[50]
Saleh Yes check.svg
Prophet[45][51]
Yes check.svg
Messenger[49][1][38]
People of Thamud[52]
Ibrahim (Abraham) Yes check.svg
Prophet[53][54]
Yes check.svg
Messenger[1][38][55]
Yes check.svg
Leader[56]
Scrolls of Abraham[57] People of Abraham[58]
Lut (Lot) Yes check.svg
Prophet[45][59]
Yes check.svg
Messenger[49][1][38]
Yes check.svg
Patriarch
People of Sodom and Gomorrah[60]
Isma'il (Ishmael) Yes check.svg
Prophet[61][62]
Yes check.svg
Messenger[1][38][63]
Yes check.svg
Leader and Patriarch
People of Arabia
Is-haq (Isaac) Yes check.svg
Prophet[64][65]
Yes check.svg
Messenger[1][38]
Yes check.svg
Leader and Patriarch[66]
People of Canaan
Ya'qub (Jacob) Yes check.svg
Prophet[64]
Yes check.svg
Messenger[1][38]
Yes check.svg
Leader and Patriarch[66]
Fathered the Twelve Tribes of Israel
Yusuf (Joseph) Yes check.svg
Prophet[45][67]
Yes check.svg
Messenger[1][38][68][69]
Yes check.svg
Leader
Copts
Ayyub (Job) Yes check.svg
Prophet[45][70]
Yes check.svg
Messenger[1][38][71]
Yes check.svg
Patriarch
People of Job
Shu'aib (Jethro[a]) Yes check.svg
Prophet[45][72]
Yes check.svg
Messenger[49][1][38]
Midianites[73]
Harun (Aaron) Yes check.svg
Prophet[74][75]
Yes check.svg
Messenger[1][38][76]
Yes check.svg
Patriarch
Israelites and Copts[77]

Musa (Moses)

Yes check.svg
Prophet[78][79]
Yes check.svg
Messenger[1][38]
Yes check.svg
Leader
Tawrat (Torah)[80] Israelites and Copts[77]
Dawud (David) Yes check.svg
Prophet[45][81]
Yes check.svg
Messenger[1][38]
Yes check.svg
Leader (King of Israel)
Zabur (Psalms)[82] Israel
Sulayman (Solomon) Yes check.svg
Prophet[45][83]
Yes check.svg
Messenger[1][38]
Yes check.svg
Leader (King of Israel)
Israel/Sheba
Ilyas (Elijah / Elias) Yes check.svg
Prophet[45][84]
Yes check.svg
Messenger[1][38][85]
People of Elijah[86]
Al-Yasa' (Elisha) Yes check.svg
Prophet[45][87]
Yes check.svg
Messenger[1][38]
Israelites
Yunus (Jonah / Jonas) Yes check.svg
Prophet[2][45]
Yes check.svg
Messenger[88][1][38]
People of Jonah (Nineveh)[89]
Dhul-Kifl (Ezekiel[a]) (Possessor of a Fold) Yes check.svg
Prophet[45][90]
Yes check.svg
Messenger[88][1][38]
Zakariyya (Zechariah / Zecharias) Yes check.svg
Prophet[45][30]
Yes check.svg
Messenger[1][38]
Israelites
Yahya (John the Baptist) Yes check.svg
Prophet[30][91]
Yes check.svg
Messenger[1][38]
Israelites
*Isa (Jesus) Yes check.svg
Prophet[92][93]
Yes check.svg
Messenger[1][38]
Yes check.svg
Leader
Injil (Gospel) Israelites[94]
Muhammad (Praiseworthy) Yes check.svg
Prophet[95][96]
Yes check.svg
Messenger[1][38]
Yes check.svg
Leader [56]
Quran All Mankind[97]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Identification with Biblical prophet uncertain; for Ahl al-Kitab (followers of the Holy Books), see People of the Book.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z <Shaatri, A. I. (2007). Nayl al Rajaa' bisharh' Safinat an'najaa'. Dar Al Minhaj.
  2. ^ a b c d Wheeler, 2002, page 15
  3. ^ Ibn Kathir, Stories of the Prophets, Story of Adam
  4. ^ Wheeler, 2002, page 45
  5. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam, Juan Eduardo Campo, Infobase Publishing, 2009, pg. 559
  6. ^ Wheeler, 2002, page 49
  7. ^ Wheeler, 2002, page 63
  8. ^ Wheeler, 2002, page 74
  9. ^ Wheeler, 2002, page 83
  10. ^ Köchler, Hans, ed. (1982). Concept of Monotheism in Islam & Christianity. International Progress Organization. p. 29. ISBN 3-7003-0339-4. 
  11. ^ Jacobs, Louis (1995). The Jewish Religion: A Companion. Oxford University Press. p. 272. ISBN 0-19-826463-1. 
  12. ^ Turner, Colin (2005). Islam: The Basics. Routledge. p. 16. ISBN 0-415-34106-X. 
  13. ^ Wheeler, 2002, page 118
  14. ^ Wheeler, 2002, page 109
  15. ^ a b Wheeler, 2002, page 112
  16. ^ Quran 38:47
  17. ^ Wheeler, 2002, page 127
  18. ^ Wheeler, 2002, page 157
  19. ^ Wheeler, 2002, page 146
  20. ^ Wheeler, 2002, page 173
  21. ^ Wheeler, 2002, page 238
  22. ^ Wheeler, 2002, page 250
  23. ^ Quran 21:85
  24. ^ Quran 38:48
  25. ^ Wheeler, 2002, page 259
  26. ^ Wheeler, 2002, page 266
  27. ^ Wheeler, 2002, page 243
  28. ^ a b Wheeler, 2002, page 248
  29. ^ The Prophet Yunus
  30. ^ a b c d Wheeler, 2002, page 291
  31. ^ Prophet Zakariya
  32. ^ Wheeler, 2002, page 297
  33. ^ The Bible is changed - Really?
  34. ^ Quran 19:88–93
  35. ^ Quran 3:45, 4:171, 5:17, 5:72, 5:75, 9:30
  36. ^ Quran 38:47 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
  37. ^ "Prophet Zakariyah". The Prophets. Islam101.com. Retrieved 2006-05-06. 
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Keller, N. H. (1994). Reliance of the Traveller. amana publications.
  39. ^ http://www.islamweb.net/fatwa/index.php?page=showfatwa&Option=FatwaId&Id=62359
  40. ^ Ibn Kathir, Stories of the Prophets, Story of Adem
  41. ^ Brannon M. Wheeler (2002). Prophets in the Quran:an introduction to the Quran and Muslim exegesis. New York: Continuum. p. 45. ISBN 0-8264-4956-5. 
  42. ^ Quran 19:56
  43. ^ Stories of the Prophets [2] Idris & Noah (pbut) [Sh. Shady Al-Suleiman]
  44. ^ Brannon M. Wheeler (2002). Prophets in the Quran:an introduction to the Quran and Muslim exegesis. New York: Continuum. p. 49. ISBN 0-8264-4956-5. 
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Quran 6:89
  46. ^ Quran 26:107
  47. ^ Quran 26:105
  48. ^ Brannon M. Wheeler (2002). Prophets in the Quran:an introduction to the Quran and Muslim exegesis. New York: Continuum. p. 63. ISBN 0-8264-4956-5. 
  49. ^ a b c d Quran 26:162
  50. ^ Quran 7:65
  51. ^ Brannon M. Wheeler (2002). Prophets in the Quran:an introduction to the Quran and Muslim exegesis. New York: Continuum. p. 74. ISBN 0-8264-4956-5. 
  52. ^ Quran 7:73
  53. ^ Brannon M. Wheeler (2002). Prophets in the Quran:an introduction to the Quran and Muslim exegesis. New York: Continuum. p. 83. ISBN 0-8264-4956-5. 
  54. ^ Quran 19:41
  55. ^ http://quran.com/29/16
  56. ^ a b Quran 2:124
  57. ^ Quran 87:19
  58. ^ Quran 22:43
  59. ^ Brannon M. Wheeler (2002). Prophets in the Quran:an introduction to the Quran and Muslim exegesis. New York: Continuum. p. 118. ISBN 0-8264-4956-5. 
  60. ^ Quran 26:160
  61. ^ Brannon M. Wheeler (2002). Prophets in the Quran:an introduction to the Quran and Muslim exegesis. New York: Continuum. p. 109. ISBN 0-8264-4956-5. 
  62. ^ Quran 19:54
  63. ^ http://quran.com/19/54
  64. ^ a b Brannon M. Wheeler (2002). Prophets in the Quran:an introduction to the Quran and Muslim exegesis. New York: Continuum. p. 112. ISBN 0-8264-4956-5. 
  65. ^ Quran 19:49
  66. ^ a b Quran 21:73
  67. ^ Brannon M. Wheeler (2002). Prophets in the Quran:an introduction to the Quran and Muslim exegesis. New York: Continuum. p. 127. ISBN 0-8264-4956-5. 
  68. ^ http://ar.islamway.net/fatwa/12698
  69. ^ http://quran.com/40/34
  70. ^ Brannon M. Wheeler (2002). Prophets in the Quran:an introduction to the Quran and Muslim exegesis. New York: Continuum. p. 157. ISBN 0-8264-4956-5. 
  71. ^ http://www.islamweb.net/media/index.php?page=article&lang=A&id=170335
  72. ^ Brannon M. Wheeler (2002). Prophets in the Quran:an introduction to the Quran and Muslim exegesis. New York: Continuum. p. 146. ISBN 0-8264-4956-5. 
  73. ^ Quran 7:85
  74. ^ Brannon M. Wheeler (2002). Prophets in the Quran:an introduction to the Quran and Muslim exegesis. New York: Continuum. p. 238. ISBN 0-8264-4956-5. 
  75. ^ Quran 19:53
  76. ^ http://www.islamweb.net/fatwa/index.php?page=showfatwa&Option=FatwaId&Id=73295
  77. ^ a b Quran 43:46
  78. ^ Brannon M. Wheeler (2002). Prophets in the Quran:an introduction to the Quran and Muslim exegesis. New York: Continuum. p. 173. ISBN 0-8264-4956-5. 
  79. ^ Quran 19:51
  80. ^ Quran 53:36
  81. ^ Brannon M. Wheeler (2002). Prophets in the Quran:an introduction to the Quran and Muslim exegesis. New York: Continuum. p. 259. ISBN 0-8264-4956-5. 
  82. ^ Quran 17:55
  83. ^ Brannon M. Wheeler (2002). Prophets in the Quran:an introduction to the Quran and Muslim exegesis. New York: Continuum. p. 266. ISBN 0-8264-4956-5. 
  84. ^ Brannon M. Wheeler (2002). Prophets in the Quran:an introduction to the Quran and Muslim exegesis. New York: Continuum. p. 243. ISBN 0-8264-4956-5. 
  85. ^ Quran 37:123
  86. ^ Quran 37:124
  87. ^ Brannon M. Wheeler (2002). Prophets in the Quran:an introduction to the Quran and Muslim exegesis. New York: Continuum. p. 248. ISBN 0-8264-4956-5. 
  88. ^ a b Quran 37:139
  89. ^ Quran 10:98
  90. ^ Brannon M. Wheeler (2002). Prophets in the Quran:an introduction to the Quran and Muslim exegesis. New York: Continuum. p. 250. ISBN 0-8264-4956-5. 
  91. ^ Quran 3:39
  92. ^ Brannon M. Wheeler (2002). Prophets in the Quran:an introduction to the Quran and Muslim exegesis. New York: Continuum. p. 297. ISBN 0-8264-4956-5. 
  93. ^ Quran 19:30
  94. ^ Quran 61:6
  95. ^ Brannon M. Wheeler (2002). Prophets in the Quran:an introduction to the Quran and Muslim exegesis. New York: Continuum. p. 321. ISBN 0-8264-4956-5. 
  96. ^ Quran 33:40
  97. ^ Quran 34:28 and Quran 2:185

Brannon M. Wheeler (2002). Prophets in the Quran:an introduction to the Quran and Muslim exegesis. New York: Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-4956-5.