The medieval Latin manuscript Propositiones ad Acuendos Juvenes (English: Problems to Sharpen the Young) is one of the earliest known collections of recreational mathematics problems.[1] The oldest known copy of the manuscript dates from the late 9th century. The text is attributed to Alcuin of York (died 804.) Some editions of the text contain 53 problems, others 56. It has been translated into English by John Hadley, with annotations by John Hadley and David Singmaster.[2]

The manuscript contains the first known occurrences of several types of problem, including three river-crossing problems:

• Problem 17: The jealous husbands problem. In Alcuin's version of this problem, three men, each with a sister, must cross a boat which can carry only two people, so that a woman whose brother is not present is never left in the company of another man,[2], p. 111.
• Problem 18: The problem of the wolf, goat, and cabbage[2], p. 112., and
• Problem 19: Propositio de viro et muliere ponderantibus plaustrum. In this problem, a man and a woman of equal weight, together with two children, each of half their weight, wish to cross a river using a boat which can only carry the weight of one adult;[2], p. 112.

a so-called "barrel-sharing" problem:

• Problem 12: A certain father died and left as an inheritance to his three sons 30 glass flasks, of which 10 were full of oil, another 10 were half full, while another 10 were empty. Divide the oil and flasks so that an equal share of the commodities should equally come down to the three sons, both of oil and glass;[2], p. 109. The number of solutions to this problem for n of each type of flask are terms of Alcuin's sequence.

and a variant of the jeep problem:

• Problem 52: A certain head of household ordered that 90 modia of grain be taken from one of his houses to another 30 leagues away. Given that this load of grain can be carried by a camel in three trips and that the camel eats one modius per league, how many modia were left over at the end of the journey?[2], pp. 124–125.

Some further problems are:

• Problem 5: A merchant wanted to buy 100 pigs for 100 pence. For a boar, he would pay 10 pence; for a sow, 5 pence; while he would pay 1 penny for a couple of piglets. How many boars, sows, and piglets must there have been for him to have paid exactly 100 pence for the 100 animals?
This problem dates back at least as far as 5th century China, and occurs in Indian and Arabic texts of the time.[2], p. 106.
• Problem 26: There is a field that is 150 feet long. At one end stood a dog; at the other, a hare. The dog chased the hare. Whereas the dog went 9 feet per stride, the hare went only 7. How many feet and how many leaps did the dog take in pursuing the fleeing hare until it was caught?
Overtaking problems of this type date back to 150 BC, but this is the first known European example.[2], p. 115.
• Problem 42: There is a staircase that has 100 steps. One pigeon sat on the first step, two pigeons on the second, three on the third, four on the fourth, five on the fifth, and so on up to the hundredth step. How many pigeons were there in all?
Alcuin's solution is to note that there are 100 pigeons on the first and 99th steps, 100 more on the second and 98th, and so on for all the pairs of steps, except the 50th and 100th. Note that Carl Friedrich Gauss as a pupil is presumed to have solved the equivalent problem of adding all numbers from 1 up to 100 by pairing 1 and 100, 2 and 99, ..., 50 and 51, thus yielding 50 times 101 = 5050, a solution which is more elegant than Alcuin's solution 1000 years before.[2], p. 121.
• Problem 43: A certain man has 300 pigs. He ordered all of them slaughtered in 3 days, but with an uneven number killed each day. What number were to be killed each day?
This problem seems to be composed for rebuking troublesome students, and no solution is given. (Three odd numbers cannot add up to 300.)[2], p. 121.

## References

1. ^ Alcuin (735-804), David Darling, The Internet Encyclopedia of Science. Accessed on line February 7, 2008.
2. Problems to Sharpen the Young, John Hadley and David Singmaster, The Mathematical Gazette, 76, #475 (March 1992), pp. 102–126.