Proprioception (// PRO-pree-o-SEP-shən), from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own", "individual" and perception, is the sense of the relative position of neighbouring parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement. It is provided by proprioceptors in skeletal striated muscles and in joints. It is distinguished from exteroception, by which one perceives the outside world, and interoception, by which one perceives pain, hunger, etc., and the movement of internal organs. The brain integrates information from proprioception and from the vestibular system into its overall sense of body position, movement, and acceleration. The word kinesthesia or kinæsthesia (kinesthetic sense) has been used inconsistently to refer either to proprioception alone or to the brain's integration of proprioceptive and vestibular inputs.
History of study
The position-movement sensation was originally described in 1557 by Julius Caesar Scaliger as a "sense of locomotion". Much later, in 1826, Charles Bell expounded the idea of a "muscle sense" and this is credited with being one of the first described physiologic feedback mechanisms. Bell's idea was that commands are carried from the brain to the muscles, and that reports on the muscle's condition would be sent in the reverse direction. Later, in 1880, Henry Charlton Bastian suggested "kinaesthesia" instead of "muscle sense" on the basis that some of the afferent information (back to the brain) was coming from other structures including tendons, joints, and skin. In 1889, Alfred Goldscheider suggested a classification of kinaesthesia into three types: muscle, tendon, and articular sensitivity.
In 1906, Charles Scott Sherrington published a landmark work which introduced the terms "proprioception", "interoception", and "exteroception". The "exteroceptors" are the organs responsible for information from outside the body such as the eyes, ears, mouth, and skin. The interoceptors then give information about the internal organs, while "proprioception" is awareness of movement derived from muscular, tendon, and articular sources. Such a system of classification has kept physiologists and anatomists searching for specialised nerve endings that transmit data on joint capsule and muscle tension (such as muscle spindles and Pacinian corpuscles). Muscle spindles are widely believed to play a large role in proprioception. Primary endings of muscle spindles "respond to the size of a muscle length change and its speed" and "contribute both to the sense of limb position and movement". Secondary endings of muscle spindles detect changes in muscle length, and thus supply information regarding only the sense of position. Essentially, muscle spindles are stretch receptors. It has been accepted that cutaneous receptors also contribute directly to proprioception by providing "accurate perceptual information about joint position and movement," and this knowledge is combined with information from the muscle spindles.
A major component of proprioception is joint position sense (JPS), which is determined by measuring the accuracy of joint–angle replication. Clinical aspects of joint position sense are measured in joint position matching tests that measure a subject's ability to detect an externally imposed passive movement, or the ability to reposition a joint to a predetermined position. These involve an individuals ability to perceive the position of a joint without the aid of vision. Often it is assumed that the ability of one of these aspects will be related to another; however, experimental evidence suggests there is no strong relation between these two aspects. This suggests that while these components may well be related in a cognitive manner, they may in fact be physiologically separate.
More recent work into the mechanism of ankle sprains suggests that the role of reflexes may be more limited due to their long latencies (even at the spinal cord level), as ankle sprain events occur in perhaps 100 ms or less. In accordance, a model has been proposed to include a 'feedforward' component of proprioception, whereby the subject will also have central information about the body's position before attaining it.
Kinesthesia is a key component in muscle memory and hand-eye coordination, and training can improve this sense (see blind contour drawing). The ability to swing a golf club or to catch a ball requires a finely tuned sense of the position of the joints. This sense needs to become automatic through training to enable a person to concentrate on other aspects of performance, such as maintaining motivation or seeing where other people are.
Basis of proprioceptive sense
The initiation of proprioception is the activation of a proprioreceptor in the periphery. The proprioceptive sense is believed to be composed of information from sensory neurons located in the inner ear (motion and orientation) and in the stretch receptors located in the muscles and the joint-supporting ligaments (stance). There are specific nerve receptors for this form of perception termed "proprioreceptors," just as there are specific receptors for pressure, light, temperature, sound, and other sensory experiences. Proprioreceptors are sometimes known as adequate stimuli receptors. TRPN, a member of the transient receptor potential family of ion channels, has been found to be responsible for proprioception in fruit flies, nematode worms, African clawed frogs, and zebrafish. The human proprioceptor has yet to be discovered.
Proprioception of the head stems from the muscles innervated by the trigeminal nerve, where the GSA fibers pass without synapsing in the Gasserian ganglion (first-order sensory neuron), reaching the mesencephalic tract and the mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve.
Although it was known that finger kinesthesia relies on skin sensation, recent research has found that kinesthesia-based haptic perception relies strongly on the forces experienced during touch. This research allows the creation of "virtual", illusory haptic shapes with different perceived qualities.
Conscious and unconscious proprioception
In humans, a distinction is made between conscious proprioception and unconscious proprioception:
- Conscious proprioception is communicated by the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway to the cerebrum.
- Unconscious proprioception is communicated primarily via the dorsal spinocerebellar tract and ventral spinocerebellar tract, to the cerebellum.
- An unconscious reaction is seen in the human proprioceptive reflex, or righting reflex – in the event that the body tilts in any direction, the person will cock their head back to level the eyes against the horizon. This is seen even in infants as soon as they gain control of their neck muscles. This control comes from the cerebellum, the part of the brain affecting balance.
Field sobriety test
Proprioception is tested by American police officers using the field sobriety test to check for alcohol intoxication. The subject is required to touch his or her nose with eyes closed; people with normal proprioception may make an error of no more than 20 millimeters, while people suffering from impaired proprioception (a symptom of moderate to severe alcohol intoxication) fail this test due to difficulty locating their limbs in space relative to their noses.
There are several relatively specific tests of the subject's ability to proprioceive. These tests are used in the diagnosis of neurological disorders. They include the visual and tactile placing reflexes.
Learning new skills
Proprioception is what allows someone to learn to walk in complete darkness without losing balance. During the learning of any new skill, sport, or art, it is usually necessary to become familiar with some proprioceptive tasks specific to that activity. Without the appropriate integration of proprioceptive input, an artist would not be able to brush paint onto a canvas without looking at the hand as it moved the brush over the canvas; it would be impossible to drive an automobile because a motorist would not be able to steer or use the pedals while looking at the road ahead; a person could not touch type or perform ballet; and people would not even be able to walk without watching where they put their feet.
Oliver Sacks has reported the case of a young woman who lost her proprioception due to a viral infection of her spinal cord. At first she could not move properly at all or even control her tone of voice (as voice modulation is primarily proprioceptive). Later she relearned by using her sight (watching her feet) and inner ear only for movement while using hearing to judge voice modulation. She eventually acquired a stiff and slow movement and nearly normal speech, which is believed to be the best possible in the absence of this sense. She could not judge effort involved in picking up objects and would grip them painfully to be sure she did not drop them.
The proprioceptive sense can be sharpened through study of many disciplines. Examples are the Feldenkrais method and the Alexander Technique. Juggling trains reaction time, spatial location, and efficient movement. Standing on a wobble board or balance board is often used to retrain or increase proprioception abilities, particularly as physical therapy for ankle or knee injuries. Slacklining is another method to increase proprioception. Standing on one leg (stork standing) and various other body-position challenges are also used in such disciplines as Yoga, Wing Chun and T'ai chi. Several studies have shown that the efficacy of these types of training is increased by closing the eyes, because the eyes give invaluable feedback to establishing the moment-to-moment information of balance. There are even specific devices designed for proprioception training, such as the exercise ball, which works on balancing the abdominal and back muscles.
Joint position matching
Joint position matching (JPM) is an established protocol for measuring proprioception, and joint position sense specifically, without the aid of visual or vestibular information. During such tasks, individuals are blindfolded while a joint is moved to a specific angle for a given period of time, returned to neutral, and the subjects are asked to replicate the specified angle. Measured by constant and absolute errors, ability to accurately identify joint angles over a series of conditions is the most accurate means of determining proprioceptive acuity in isolation to date. Recent investigations have shown that hand dominance, participant age, active versus passive matching, and presentation time of the angle can all affect performance on joint position matching tasks. Joint position matching has been used in clinical settings in both the upper and lower extremities.
It has been seen that temporary loss or impairment of proprioception may happen periodically during growth, mostly during adolescence. Growth that might also influence this would be large increases or drops in bodyweight/size due to fluctuations of fat (liposuction, rapid fat loss or gain) and/or muscle content (bodybuilding, anabolic steroids, catabolisis/starvation). It can also occur in those that gain new levels of flexibility, stretching, and contortion. A limb's being in a new range of motion never experienced (or at least, not for a long time since youth perhaps) can disrupt one's sense of location of that limb. Possible experiences include suddenly feeling that feet or legs are missing from one's mental self-image; needing to look down at one's limbs to be sure they are still there; and falling down while walking, especially when attention is focused upon something other than the act of walking.
Proprioception is occasionally impaired spontaneously, especially when one is tired. One's body may appear too large or too small, or parts of the body may appear distorted in size. Similar effects can sometimes occur during epilepsy or migraine auras. These effects are presumed to arise from abnormal stimulation of the part of the parietal cortex of the brain involved with integrating information from different parts of the body.
Proprioceptive illusions can also be induced, such as the Pinocchio illusion.
The proprioceptive sense is often unnoticed because humans will adapt to a continuously present stimulus; this is called habituation, desensitization, or adaptation. The effect is that proprioceptive sensory impressions disappear, just as a scent can disappear over time. One practical advantage of this is that unnoticed actions or sensation continue in the background while an individual's attention can move to another concern. The Alexander Technique addresses these issues.
People that have a limb amputated may still have a confused sense of that limb's existence on their body, known as phantom limb syndrome. Phantom sensations can occur as passive proprioceptive sensations of the limb's presence, or more active sensations such as perceived movement, pressure, pain, itching, or temperature. There are a variety of theories concerning the etiology of phantom limb sensations and experience. Jack Tsao, MD. at Walter Reed Hospital has advanced a theory based on the concept of "proprioceptive memory." This theory argues that the brain retains a memory of specific limb positions and that after amputation there is a conflict between the visual system, which literally sees that the limb is missing, and the memory system which remembers the limb as a functioning part of the body. Phantom sensations and phantom pain may also occur after the removal of body parts other than the limbs, such as after amputation of the breast, extraction of a tooth (phantom tooth pain), or removal of an eye (phantom eye syndrome).
Temporary impairment of proprioception has also been known to occur from an overdose of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine and pyridoxamine). Most of the impaired function returns to normal shortly after the intake of vitamins returns to normal. Impairment can also be caused by cytotoxic factors such as chemotherapy.
It has been proposed that even common tinnitus and the attendant hearing frequency-gaps masked by the perceived sounds may cause erroneous proprioceptive information to the balance and comprehension centers of the brain, precipitating mild confusion.
Proprioception is permanently impaired in patients that suffer from joint hypermobility or Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (a genetic condition that results in weak connective tissue throughout the body). It can also be permanently impaired from viral infections as reported by Sacks. The catastrophic effect of major proprioceptive loss is reviewed by Robles-De-La-Torre (2006). There is also some evidence that proprioception is impaired in autism spectrum disorders such as Asperger Syndrome.
Proprioception is also permanently impaired in physiological aging (presbypropria).
- Balance disorder
- Body image
- Body schema
- Broken escalator phenomenon
- Deep receptor
- Ideomotor phenomenon
- Illusions of self-motion
- Instinctive aiming
- Kinesthetic learning
- Motion sickness
- Multisensory integration
- Spatial disorientation
- Theory of multiple intelligences
- Mosby's Medical, Nursing and Allied Health Dictionary, Fourth Edition, Mosby-Year Book 1994, p. 1285
- Jerosch, Jörg; Heisel, Jürgen (May 2010). Management der Arthrose: Innovative Therapiekonzepte (in German). Deutscher Ärzteverlag. p. 107. ISBN 978-3-7691-0599-5. Retrieved 8 April 2011.
- Singh, Arun Kumar (September 1991). The Comprehensive History of Psychology. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 66. ISBN 978-81-208-0804-1. Retrieved 8 April 2011.
- Dickinson, John (1976). Proprioceptive control of human movement. Princeton Book Co. p. 4. Retrieved 8 April 2011.
- Foster, Susan Leigh (15 December 2010). Choreographing Empathy: Kinesthesia in Performance. Taylor & Francis. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-415-59655-8. Retrieved 8 April 2011.
- Brookhart, John M.; Mountcastle, Vernon B. (Vernon Benjamin); Geiger, Stephen R. (1984). The Nervous system: Sensory processes ; volume editor: Ian Darian-Smith. American Physiological Society. p. 784. ISBN 978-0-683-01108-1. Retrieved 8 April 2011.
- Proske, U; Gandevia, SC (2009). "The kinaesthetic senses". The Journal of Physiology 587 (Pt 17): 4139–4146. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2009.175372. PMC 2754351. PMID 19581378.
- Winter, JA; Allen, TJ; Proske, U (2005). "Muscle spindle signals combine with the sense of effort to indicate limb position". The Journal of physiology 568 (Pt 3): 1035–46. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2005.092619. PMC 1464181. PMID 16109730.
- Collins, DF; Refshauge, KM; Todd, G; Gandevia, SC (2005). "Cutaneous receptors contribute to kinesthesia at the index finger, elbow, and knee". Journal of neurophysiology 94 (3): 1699–706. doi:10.1152/jn.00191.2005. PMID 15917323.
- Dover, G; Powers, ME (2003). "Reliability of Joint Position Sense and Force-Reproduction Measures During Internal and External Rotation of the Shoulder". Journal of Athletic Training 38 (4): 304–310. PMC 314388. PMID 14737211.
- Feuerbach, JW; Grabiner, MD; Koh, TJ; Weiker, GG (1994). "Effect of an ankle orthosis and ankle ligament anesthesia on ankle joint proprioception". The American journal of sports medicine 22 (2): 223–9. doi:10.1177/036354659402200212. PMID 8198191.
- Sherrington CS (1907). "On the proprioceptive system, especially in its reflex aspect". Brain 29 (4): 467–85. doi:10.1093/brain/29.4.467.
- Walker, R. G.; Willingham, A. T.; Zuker, C. S. (2000). "A Drosophila mechanosensory transduction channel". Science 287 (5461): 2229–2234. doi:10.1126/science.287.5461.2229. PMID 10744543.
- Li, W.; Feng, Z.; Sternberg, P. W.; Shawn Xu, X. Z. (2006). "A C. Elegans stretch receptor neuron revealed by a mechanosensitive TRP channel homologue". Nature 440 (7084): 684–687. doi:10.1038/nature04538. PMC 2865900. PMID 16572173.
- Shin, J. -B.; Adams, D.; Paukert, M.; Siba, M.; Sidi, S.; Levin, M.; Gillespie, P. G.; Gründer, S. (2005). "Xenopus TRPN1 (NOMPC) localizes to microtubule-based cilia in epithelial cells, including inner-ear hair cells". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102 (35): 12572–12577. doi:10.1073/pnas.0502403102. PMC 1194908. PMID 16116094.
- Sidi, S.; Friedrich, R. W.; Nicolson, T. (2003). "NompC TRP Channel Required for Vertebrate Sensory Hair Cell Mechanotransduction". Science 301 (5629): 96–99. doi:10.1126/science.1084370. PMID 12805553.
- Robles-De-La-Torre G, Hayward V (2001). "Force can overcome object geometry in the perception of shape through active touch". Nature 412 (6845): 445–8. doi:10.1038/35086588. PMID 11473320.
- the MIT Technology Review article "The Cutting Edge of Haptics"
- Fix, James D. (2002). Neuroanatomy. Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 127. ISBN 0-7817-2829-0.
- Swenson RS. "Review of Clinical and Functional Neuroscience, Chapter 7A: Somatosensory Systems". (online version Dartmouth college). Retrieved 2008-04-10.
- Siegel, Allan (2010). Essential Neuroscience. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 263.
- "TMJ, Forward Head Posture and Neck Pain". Freedom From Pain Institute. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- Introduction to Neurology, 2nd Edition 1976, A.C.Palmer, Blackwell Scientific, Oxford
- Sacks, O.. "The Disembodied Lady", in The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat and his autobiographical case study A Leg to Stand On.
- Connors, Karol A.; Galea, Mary P.; Said, Catherine M. (2011). "Feldenkrais Method Balance Classes Improve Balance in Older Adults: A Controlled Trial". Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011: 1. doi:10.1093/ecam/nep055.
- cheng man ch'ing. T'ai Chi Ch'uan. Blue Snake Books usa. pp. 86, 88. ISBN 978-0-913028-85-8.
- Goble, DJ; Noble, BC; Brown, SH (2010). "Where was my arm again? Memory-based matching of proprioceptive targets is enhanced by increased target presentation time" (PDF). Neuroscience letters 481 (1): 54–8. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2010.06.053. PMID 20600603.
- Goble, DJ (2010). "Proprioceptive acuity assessment via joint position matching: From basic science to general practice". Physical therapy 90 (8): 1176–84. doi:10.2522/ptj.20090399. PMID 20522675.
- Ehrsson H, Kito T, Sadato N, Passingham R, Naito E (2005). "Neural substrate of body size: illusory feeling of shrinking of the waist". PLoS Biol. 3 (12): e412. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030412. PMC 1287503. PMID 16336049.
- Weeks, S.R., Anderson-Barnes, V.C., Tsao, J. (2010). "Phantom limb pain: Theories and therapies". The Neurologist 16 (5): 277–286.
- Castori M (2012). "Ehlers-danlos syndrome, hypermobility type: an underdiagnosed hereditary connective tissue disorder with mucocutaneous, articular, and systemic manifestations". ISRN Dermatol 2012: 751768. doi:10.5402/2012/751768. PMC 3512326. PMID 23227356.
- Robles-De-La-Torre G (2006). "The Importance of the Sense of Touch in Virtual and Real Environments". IEEE Multimedia 13 (3): 24–30. doi:10.1109/MMUL.2006.69.
- Weimer, AK; Schatz, AM; Lincoln, A; Ballantyne, AO; Trauner, DA (2001). ""Motor" impairment in Asperger syndrome: Evidence for a deficit in proprioception". Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics : JDBP 22 (2): 92–101. doi:10.1097/00004703-200104000-00002. PMID 11332785.
- Boisgontier, MP; Olivier, I; Chenu, O; Nougier, V (2012). "Presbypropria: The effects of physiological ageing on proprioceptive control". Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands) 34 (5): 1179–94. doi:10.1007/s11357-011-9300-y. PMC 3448996. PMID 21850402.
- Neuroscience Tutorial See "Basic somatosensory pathway", Eastern International College.
- Joint & Bone – Ehlers-Danlos/Joint Hypermobility Syndrome – Proprioception
- Humans have six senses, why does everyone think we only have five? at Everything2
- Proprioception this essay by Charles Wolfe takes its cue from such thinkers & artists as Charles Olson, Merleau-Ponty, James J. Gibson, and Andy Clark to illustrate the view of the "priority of dynamic embodied activity over isolated 'mental' and 'physical' regions" to define this concept
- WNYC – Radio Lab: Where Am I? (May 05, 2006) radio program looks at the relationship between the brain and the body
- The Dancers Mind ABC (Aust) podcast on the nature of proprioception.
- Proprioception at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)