Prosopis

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Prosopis
Prosopis caldenia.jpg
Prosopis caldenia, a species of central Argentina.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Mimosoideae
Tribe: Mimoseae
Genus: Prosopis
L.[1]
Type species
Prosopis spicigera
L.[2]
Species

See text.

Prosopis is a genus of flowering plants in the pea family, Fabaceae. It contains around 45 species of spiny trees and shrubs found in subtropical and tropical regions of the Americas, Africa, Western Asia, and South Asia. They often thrive in arid soil and are resistant to drought, on occasion developing extremely deep root systems. Their wood is usually hard, dense and durable. Their fruits are pods and may contain large amounts of sugar. The generic name means "burdock" in late Latin and originated in the Greek language.[3]

Prosopis Old tree in Kukherd city

Selected species[edit]

Formerly placed here[edit]

Phytochemistry[edit]

Prosopis species have been found to contain 5-hydroxytryptamine, apigenin, isorhamnetin-3-diglucoside, l-arabinose, quercetin, tannin and tryptamine.[6]

Prosopis Species Known to Contain Alkaloids
Prosopis alba Beta-phenethylamine and tryptamine[7]
Prosopis alpataco "Aerial parts" contain tryptamine. Phenethylamine derivatives.[8]
Prosopis argentina "Aerial parts" contain tryptamine. Phenethylamine derivatives.[8]
Prosopis chilensis[verification needed] "Aerial parts" contain beta-phenethylamine and derivatives plus tryptamine[8][9]
Prosopis argentina Exudate contains tryptamine. Phenethylamine derivatives.[8]
Prosopis glandulosa Alkaloids in bark and roots,[6] tyramine and N-methyltyramine (a stimulant) in leaves[10]
Prosopis juliflora 5-HTP (plant) and tryptamine (plant).[11]
Prosopis nigra Harman, eleagnine and N-acetyltryptamine[12]
Prosopis pugionata "Aerial parts" contain tryptamine. Phenethylamine derivatives.[8]
Prosopis tamarugo Phenethylamine[9]

The tannins present in Prosopis species are of the pyrogallotannins and pyrocatecollic types.[13] The tannins are mainly found in the bark and wood while their concentration in the pods is low.[14]

Some species, like P. africana or P. velutina, produce a gum (mesquite gum).[15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Prosopis L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 1999-03-05. Retrieved 2009-12-31. 
  2. ^ "Prosopis L.". TROPICOS. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2009-12-31. 
  3. ^ Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names. 4 M-Q. CRC Press. p. 2171. ISBN 978-0-8493-2677-6. 
  4. ^ "Prosopis". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 13 August 2010. 
  5. ^ "Subordinate Taxa of Prosopis L.". TROPICOS. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2010-01-03. 
  6. ^ a b Medicinal Plants of the Southwest
  7. ^ Graziano MN, Ferraro GE, Coussio JD (December 1971). "Alkaloids of Argentine medicinal plants. II. Isolation of tyramine, beta-phenethylamine and tryptamine from Prosopis alba". Lloydia 34 (4): 453–4. PMID 5173440. 
  8. ^ a b c d e Tapia A, Egly Feresin G, Bustos D, Astudillo L, Theoduloz C, Schmeda-Hirschmann G (July 2000). "Biologically active alkaloids and a free radical scavenger from Prosopis species". J Ethnopharmacol 71 (1–2): 241–6. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00171-9. PMID 10904169. 
  9. ^ a b Luis Astudillo, Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann, Juan P Herrera, Manuel Cortés (April 2000). "Proximate composition and biological activity of Chilean Prosopis species". J Sci Food Agric 80 (5): 567–573. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(200004)80:5<567::AID-JSFA563>3.0.CO;2-Y. 
  10. ^ "Prosopis glandulosa". www.hort.purdue.edu. Retrieved 2008-05-01. 
  11. ^ Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases
  12. ^ Constantino Manuel Torres; David B. Repke (15 March 2006). Anadenanthera: visionary plant of ancient South America. Psychology Press. pp. 134–. ISBN 978-0-7890-2642-2. 
  13. ^ P. juliflora as a source of food and medicine for rural inhabitants in Rio Grande do Norte. ROCHA, R. G. A. In: The Current State of Knowledge on Prosopis juliflora. (Eds.) M. A. Habit and J. C. Saavedra. FAO,, 1990 Rome, Italy, pages 397-403
  14. ^ Pasiecznik, N.M.; Felker, P.; Harris, P.J.C.; Harsh, L.N.; Cruz, G.; Tewari, J.C.; Cadoret, K.; Maldonado, L.J. (2001). The Prosopis julifloraProsopis pallida Complex: A Monograph (PDF). ISBN 0-905343-30-1. 
  15. ^ Adikwu, MU; Ezeabasili, SI; Esimone, CO (2001). "Evaluation of the physico-chemical properties of a new polysaccharide gum from Prosopis africana". Bollettino chimico farmaceutico 140 (1): 40–5. PMID 11338777. 

General references[edit]

External links[edit]