Prostaglandin D2 synthase

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Prostaglandin D2 synthase 21kDa (brain)
Protein PTGDS PDB 2WWP.png
Rendering based on PDB 2WWP.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
External IDs OMIM176803 MGI99261 HomoloGene737 GeneCards: PTGDS Gene
EC number
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE PTGDS 212187 x at tn.png
PBB GE PTGDS 211663 x at tn.png
PBB GE PTGDS 211748 x at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 5730 19215
Ensembl ENSG00000107317 ENSMUSG00000015090
UniProt P41222 O09114
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000954 NM_008963
RefSeq (protein) NP_000945 NP_032989
Location (UCSC) Chr 9:
136.98 – 136.99 Mb
Chr 2:
25.47 – 25.47 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase (PTGDS) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTGDS gene.[1][2]

The protein encoded by this gene is a glutathione-independent prostaglandin D synthase that catalyzes the conversion of prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) to prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). PGD2 functions as a neuromodulator as well as a trophic factor in the central nervous system. PGD2 is also involved in smooth muscle contraction/relaxation and is a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation. This gene is preferentially expressed in brain. Studies with transgenic mice over-expressing this gene suggest that this gene may be also involved in the regulation of non-rapid eye movement sleep.[2] Furthermore, PTGDS and its product PGD2 are elevated in the bald-scalp areas of men with male pattern baldness (androgenetic alopecia).[3]

Clinical use[edit]

Prostaglandin D2 synthase is used clinically as a diagnostic marker for liquorrhea, that is, to check whether fluid leaking from the nose or ear contains cerebrospinal fluid.[4] This is important in the assessment of head trauma severity. In a medical context, the older term "β-trace protein" is frequently used to refer to PTGDS.

See also[edit]

Hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase


  1. ^ Nagata A, Suzuki Y, Igarashi M, Eguchi N, Toh H, Urade Y, Hayaishi O (May 1991). "Human brain prostaglandin D synthase has been evolutionarily differentiated from lipophilic-ligand carrier proteins". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88 (9): 4020–4. doi:10.1073/pnas.88.9.4020. PMC 51585. PMID 1902577. 
  2. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: PTGDS prostaglandin D2 synthase 21kDa (brain)". 
  3. ^ Garza, Luis A. et al., (2012-03-21). "Prostaglandin D2 Inhibits Hair Growth and Is Elevated in Bald Scalp of Men with Androgenetic Alopecia". Science Translational Medicine 4 (126): 126ra34–126ra34. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3003122. ISSN 1946-6234. PMC 3319975. PMID 22440736. Retrieved 2012-03-22. 
  4. ^ Bachmann, G.; Petereit, H.; Djenabi, U.; Michel, O. (2002). "Predictive values of beta-trace protein (prostaglandin D synthase) by use of laser-nephelometry assay for the identification of cerebrospinal fluid". Neurosurgery 50 (3): 571–576; discussion 576–7. doi:10.1227/00006123-200203000-00027. PMID 11841726.  edit

Further reading[edit]

  • White DM, Mikol DD, Espinosa R et al. (1992). "Structure and chromosomal localization of the human gene for a brain form of prostaglandin D2 synthase". J. Biol. Chem. 267 (32): 23202–8. PMID 1385416. 
  • Kuruvilla AP, Hochwald GM, Ghiso J et al. (1993). "Isolation and amino terminal sequence of beta-trace, a novel protein from human cerebrospinal fluid". Brain Res. 565 (2): 337–40. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(91)91666-O. PMID 1726844. 
  • Zahn M, Mäder M, Schmidt B et al. (1993). "Purification and N-terminal sequence of beta-trace, a protein abundant in human cerebrospinal fluid". Neurosci. Lett. 154 (1–2): 93–5. doi:10.1016/0304-3940(93)90179-O. PMID 7689714. 
  • Harrington MG, Aebersold R, Martin BM et al. (1993). "Identification of a brain-specific human cerebrospinal fluid glycoprotein, beta-trace protein". Appl. Theor. Electrophor. 3 (5): 229–34. PMID 7692978. 
  • Bastien L, Sawyer N, Grygorczyk R et al. (1994). "Cloning, functional expression, and characterization of the human prostaglandin E2 receptor EP2 subtype". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (16): 11873–7. PMID 8163486. 
  • Funk CD, Furci L, FitzGerald GA et al. (1994). "Cloning and expression of a cDNA for the human prostaglandin E receptor EP1 subtype". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (35): 26767–72. PMID 8253813. 
  • Abramovitz M, Boie Y, Nguyen T et al. (1994). "Cloning and expression of a cDNA for the human prostanoid FP receptor". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (4): 2632–6. PMID 8300593. 
  • Hoffmann A, Conradt HS, Gross G et al. (1993). "Purification and chemical characterization of beta-trace protein from human cerebrospinal fluid: its identification as prostaglandin D synthase". J. Neurochem. 61 (2): 451–6. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1993.tb02145.x. PMID 8336134. 
  • Leone MG, Saso L, Del Vecchio A et al. (1993). "Micropurification of two human cerebrospinal fluid proteins by high performance electrophoresis chromatography". J. Neurochem. 61 (2): 533–40. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1993.tb02156.x. PMID 8336140. 
  • Giacomelli S, Leone MG, Grima J et al. (1996). "Astrocytes synthesize and secrete prostaglandin D synthetase in vitro". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1310 (3): 269–76. doi:10.1016/0167-4889(95)00182-4. PMID 8599604. 
  • Blödorn B, Mäder M, Urade Y et al. (1996). "Choroid plexus: the major site of mRNA expression for the beta-trace protein (prostaglandin D synthase) in human brain". Neurosci. Lett. 209 (2): 117–20. doi:10.1016/0304-3940(96)12614-8. PMID 8761996. 
  • Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (1997). "Normalization and subtraction: two approaches to facilitate gene discovery". Genome Res. 6 (9): 791–806. doi:10.1101/gr.6.9.791. PMID 8889548. 
  • Yamashima T, Sakuda K, Tohma Y et al. (1999). "Prostaglandin D synthase (beta-trace) in human arachnoid and meningioma cells: roles as a cell marker or in cerebrospinal fluid absorption, tumorigenesis, and calcification process". J. Neurosci. 17 (7): 2376–82. PMID 9065498. 
  • White DM, Takeda T, DeGroot LJ et al. (1997). "Beta-trace gene expression is regulated by a core promoter and a distal thyroid hormone response element". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (22): 14387–93. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.22.14387. PMID 9162076. 
  • Eguchi Y, Eguchi N, Oda H et al. (1998). "Expression of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (β-trace) in human heart and its accumulation in the coronary circulation of angina patients". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 (26): 14689–94. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.26.14689. PMC 25094. PMID 9405674. 
  • Tokugawa Y, Kunishige I, Kubota Y et al. (1998). "Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase in human male reproductive organs and seminal plasma". Biol. Reprod. 58 (2): 600–7. doi:10.1095/biolreprod58.2.600. PMID 9475419. 
  • Saso L, Leone MG, Sorrentino C et al. (1999). "Quantification of prostaglandin D synthetase in cerebrospinal fluid: a potential marker for brain tumor". Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. 46 (4): 643–56. doi:10.1080/15216549800204172. PMID 9844724. 
  • Blödorn B, Brück W, Tumani H et al. (1999). "Expression of the beta-trace protein in human pachymeninx as revealed by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry". J. Neurosci. Res. 57 (5): 730–4. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4547(19990901)57:5<730::AID-JNR14>3.0.CO;2-7. PMID 10462696. 
  • Pinzar E, Kanaoka Y, Inui T et al. (2000). "Prostaglandin D synthase gene is involved in the regulation of non-rapid eye movement sleep". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (9): 4903–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.090093997. PMC 18330. PMID 10781097.