In domestic mammals, it is produced by the uterus when stimulated by oxytocin, in the event that there has been no implantation during the follicular phase. It acts on the corpus luteum to cause luteolysis, forming a corpus albicans and stopping the production of progesterone. Action of PGF2α is dependent on the number of receptors on the corpus luteum membrane.
The PGF2α isoform 8-iso-PGF2α was found in significantly increased amounts in patients with endometriosis, thus being a potential causative link in endometriosis-associated oxidative stress.
In 2012 a concise and highly stereoselective total synthesis of PGF2α was described. The synthesis requires only seven steps, a huge improvement on the original 17-steps synthesis of Corey and Cheng, and uses 2,5-dimethoxytetrahydrofuran as a starting reagent, with S-proline as an asymmetric catalyst.
^Sharma, I.; Dhaliwal, L.; Saha, S.; Sangwan, S.; Dhawan, V. (2010). "Role of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha and 25-hydroxycholesterol in the pathophysiology of endometriosis". Fertility and Sterility94 (1): 63–70. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2009.01.141. PMID19324352.edit
^Coulthard, G.; Erb, W.; Aggarwal, V. K. (2012). "Stereocontrolled organocatalytic synthesis of prostaglandin PGF2α in seven steps". Nature489 (7415): 278–281. doi:10.1038/nature11411. PMID22895192.edit
^Corey, E.J.; Cheng, X.M. (1995). The Logic of Chemical Synthesis. Wiley.